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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
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For all the people who think... How can "Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular biology courses" be the answer for the first question.....

Here is my explanation.

In the very beginning of the passage it is clearly mentioned "A century ago..."


1. The passage is most probably directed at which kind of audience?

(A) State legislators deciding about funding levels for a state-funded biological laboratory ---> Out of Scope

(B) Scientists specializing in molecular genetics ----> We don't really teach a hundred year old concept and observation to Scientists who Specialise in this very same field. Since this is an old and fundamental concept, the scientists must already have known about these issues and discoveries much better than anyone else and so they don't need to be explained about these concepts..Hence they are not the target audience

(C) Readers of an alumni newsletter published by the college that Paul Gross attended -----> The passage is not about Paul alone but about cell determination in molecular genetics as a whole

(D) Marine biologists studying the processes that give rise to new species ----> This passage is not just directed towards Marine organisms. Also 'new species' is OFS

(E) Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular biology course ---> Yes, it is very logical to essay that we really teach hundred year old scientific discoveries to students in that field. SO they can be the target audience....
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This is my first post so pardon me if I am not up to the general standards of the club.

Following is how I went about solving question #9

9. Which of the following circumstances is most comparable to the impasse biologists encountered in trying to resolve the debate about cell determination (lines 12-18)?

Prethinking: As the passage quotes , the debate was “.....But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued productively......”
Above quote means that scientists were basically not knowing what they had to pursue / analyze / prove or determine.

(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language
------ Incorrect. The choice does not match with our prethinking. Foreign language could be learnt and translated.

(B) The situation of a mathematician who in preparing a proof of a theorem for publication detects a reasoning error in the proof
------ Incorrect. The choice does not match with our prethinking. Here, the mathematician knows about the reasoning error and also knows what has to be proved.

(C) The difficulties of a space engineer who has to design equipment to function in an environment in which it cannot first be tested
------ Incorrect. The choice does not match with our prethinking. From this choice we can’t infer that the space engineer does not know what has to be designed. The choice states that in space, the equipment can’t be first tested. It may so happen that we may think a bit more than required and assume that testing is necessary for designing.

(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best
---- CORRECT. This choice matches our prethinking. If the structure of the language itself is rudimentary (meaning: fundamental; basic ; being in the early stages of development) , there is no point in developing a theory of language acquisition as the developing language may acquire many things that would render the theory incredible.

(E) The dilemma confronting a foundation when the funds available to it are sufficient to support one of two equally deserving scientific projects but not both
------ Incorrect. The choice does not match with our prethinking. The foundation knows that the fund allocation has to be made to one of the 2 deserving scientific projects. Moreover, it’s the foundation which will decide to whom the fund is allotted.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Can anyone explain question 1?.
Where is it mentioned remotely about the quantity of morphogenetic determinants?
Is the logic this :- an embryo can be separated to form two separate individual embryos and so morpho-determinants are subsequently used for tow embryos instead of one?
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
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Quote:
It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are
(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual

kkrrsshh wrote:
Can anyone explain question 1?.
Where is it mentioned remotely about the quantity of morphogenetic determinants?
Is the logic this :- an embryo can be separated to form two separate individual embryos and so morpho-determinants are subsequently used for tow embryos instead of one?

Yes, that's the correct logic! Although the "substances that function as morphogenetic determinants" are not evenly distributed, when the fertilized egg splits, at least some of the substances will go to each of the two new embryos if both are to "survive and develop as two normal embryos". If an early embryo only contained the exact quantity necessary for development, it would be impossible for the embryo to split and develop as two normal embryos.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Can somebody please explain the answer for Question no. 9. I was able to eliminate B, C and E, but was confused between A and E.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
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Adi88 wrote:
Can somebody please explain the answer for Question no. 9. I was able to eliminate B, C and E, but was confused between A and E.

Assuming you were confused between A and D (not A and E) on question 9, let’s take a look at the debate described in the passage:

Quote:
A debate arose over what exactly was happening. Which embryo cells are determined, just when do they become irreversibly committed to their fates, and what are the “morphogenetic determinants” that tell a cell what to become? But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued productively.

Biologists reach an impasse in their debate over the origins of the embryo phenomenon because “no one was able to ask crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued.” In other words, they were unable to formulate questions in a way that could be answered.

With that in mind, we can consider which answer choice presents circumstances most similar to those faced by the biologists:

Quote:
(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language

Although such a literary scholar may struggle to understand original source materials in an unfamiliar language, there are presumably others that understand the language and could assist the literary scholar. Unlike the biologists in the passage, the literary scholar would have much needed aid from other experts. Furthermore, the literary scholar would almost certainly be capable of formulating his questions about the source material in a way that could be answered. Eliminate (A).

And here’s (D):

Quote:
(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best

Much like the biologists who knew little about the fundamentals of embryos, the linguist in (D) knows little about the fundamentals of the language he/she is studying. For that reason, the linguist is unlikely to be able to formulate questions about language acquisition that can be answered. (D) is the correct answer for question 9.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Can anyone explain me Question 1

I am confused between option B and E.

How to eliminate B?
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
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Question 1


Thelionking1234 wrote:
Can anyone explain me Question 1

I am confused between option B and E.

How to eliminate B?

Question 1 asks about the most probable audience for the passage, and in doing so, it’s testing our ability to pick up on the author’s purpose in writing the passage.

Consider (B):

Quote:
(B) Scientists specializing in molecular genetics

(B) indicates that the passage is intended for molecular geneticists, but many of the details included in the passage suggest otherwise. In particular, the third paragraph explains the details of the recent discovery made by molecular biologists mentioned at the end of the previous paragraph. However, such information would be redundant and unnecessary for a molecular geneticist, who would already be familiar with particulars of morphogenetic determinants. Eliminate (B).

And here’s (E):

Quote:
(E) Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular biology course

The primary purpose of the passage is to provide information on the history and the study of the connection between cell determination and embryonic development. Presumably, this information would be relevant to biology majors in a molecular biology course. So (E) is the best choice for question 1.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Quote:
7. According to the passage, the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are which of the following?

(A) Proteins bound to the nucleus
(B) Histones
(C) Maternal messenger RNA's
(D) Cytoplasm
(E) Nonbeaded intervening DNA


Quote:
He and other biologists studying a wide variety of organisms have found that these particular RNA’s direct, in large part, the synthesis of histones, a class of proteins that bind to DNA.


Could not the answer be B ? I know its not. please check my thinking :

These maternal RNA are carriers that come from maternal genes that interact with histones ( present in cytoplasm ) as morphogenetic determinants . These determinants when interact with carrier RNA bind with DNA and thus move to nucleus for fertilization.

With such thinking, I was able to understand last 2 paragraphs by forming a picture in mind and when I come across these question , I thought that maternal is outside embryo cells and maternal determinants are part of embryo cells . Thus I rejected C.

I rejected A ( protein bound to DNA) and D ( location where it is present)
I rejected C and E because maternal genes and DNA are external carriers

Thus was confident with B but heart broken in the end.

Please suggest AndrewN sir VeritasKarishma GMATNinja . kindly correct my way of thinking ( one side I made complete picture and understood the details to an extend that helped me to crack the questions quickly but other side I was falter in Q7 in which 67% of students have chosen right answer.
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imSKR wrote:
Quote:
7. According to the passage, the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are which of the following?

(A) Proteins bound to the nucleus
(B) Histones
(C) Maternal messenger RNA's
(D) Cytoplasm
(E) Nonbeaded intervening DNA


Quote:
He and other biologists studying a wide variety of organisms have found that these particular RNA’s direct, in large part, the synthesis of histones, a class of proteins that bind to DNA.


Could not the answer be B ? I know its not. please check my thinking :

These maternal RNA are carriers that come from maternal genes that interact with histones ( present in cytoplasm ) as morphogenetic determinants . These determinants when interact with carrier RNA bind with DNA and thus move to nucleus for fertilization.

With such thinking, I was able to understand last 2 paragraphs by forming a picture in mind and when I come across these question , I thought that maternal is outside embryo cells and maternal determinants are part of embryo cells . Thus I rejected C.

I rejected A ( protein bound to DNA) and D ( location where it is present)
I rejected C and E because maternal genes and DNA are external carriers

Thus was confident with B but heart broken in the end.

Please suggest AndrewN sir VeritasKarishma GMATNinja . kindly correct my way of thinking ( one side I made complete picture and understood the details to an extend that helped me to crack the questions quickly but other side I was falter in Q7 in which 67% of students have chosen right answer.

Remember, imSKR, that a question prefaced by According to the passage is a detail question, so this is not something we should have to labor over too much. Just match keywords between the question stem and passage and choose the answer that fits. Here, we need to find morphogenetic determinants, but we also need to keep unfertilized egg cell and, believe it or not, are in mind. That is, we need to know exactly what is synonymous with morphogenetic determinants in the passage.

Paragraph two first mentions our morphogenetic determinants, but only in a question. What follows in the paragraph hints at an answer, but we never actually get one.

Paragraph three starts by mentioning substances that function as morphogenetic determinants and adds that they are located in the cytoplasm of the egg cell. I draw attention to located in because where something is found is not the same as the thing itself. Choice (D), cytoplasm, is a decent trap answer, but nothing more. Getting back to the passage, we seem to be getting closer when we reach the keywords unfertilized egg: In the unfertilized egg, the substances are inactive. But what are these inactive substances? Now we are really following a trail of breadcrumbs. The good news is that the rest of the paragraph discusses a fertilized egg, so we will not find our answer there.

Paragraph four delivers the end product right away: The substances that Gross studied are maternal messenger RNA’s—products of certain of the maternal genes.

Putting it all together, we can appreciate that maternal messenger RNA's are the substances that are inactive in an unfertilized egg, that are found in the cytoplasm of the egg cell, and, most importantly, that function as morphogenetic determinants. There is no way to argue against (C). The information about histones in the final paragraph never tells us directly that histones are morphogenetic determinants. You should not have to read too deeply to get detail questions. Stick to the surface and match keywords instead. I guarantee you will perform better on RC questions and save your critical reasoning skills for tougher challenges.

I hope that helps. Thank you for drawing my attention to the question.

- Andrew
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Quote:
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are

(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual


Hi VeritasKarishma AjiteshArun

Please share your opinion . I am confused with D vs E.


Why I choose D
Quote:
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg


Question1:
the substances become active and, presumably, govern the behavior of the genes they interact with.

Change in behavior means morphogenetic determinants are not identical? But physically they may still be identical , is not it?

2. morphogenetic determinants direct the synthesis of histones, . here also it doesn’t mention that morphogenetic determinants were changed/ modified.

Additionally, From the context
And it is the structure of these beaded DNA strings that guide the fate of the cells in which they are located.
Cells were changed not morphogenetic determinants :cry:



Why rejected E:
Quote:
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual


Cells or embryos were more but we don’t know how many morphogenetic determinants were present, whether they quantity changed.
the cells in the early embryo are undetermined in the sense that each cell has the potential to develop in a variety of different ways. Later biologists found that the situation was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo is cut.

Once synthesized, the histones move into the cell nucleus, where section of DNA wrap around them to form a structure that resembles beads, or knots, on a string. The beads are DNA segments wrapped around the histones; the string is the intervening DNA.
Again here the change happened to histones. histones are not morphogenetic determinants :cry:

Please suggest how to reject D . I was confident in choosing D :cry:
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mSKR wrote:
Quote:
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are

(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual


Hi VeritasKarishma AjiteshArun

Please share your opinion . I am confused with D vs E.


Why I choose D
Quote:
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg


Question1:
the substances become active and, presumably, govern the behavior of the genes they interact with.

Change in behavior means morphogenetic determinants are not identical? But physically they may still be identical , is not it?

2. morphogenetic determinants direct the synthesis of histones, . here also it doesn’t mention that morphogenetic determinants were changed/ modified.

Additionally, From the context
And it is the structure of these beaded DNA strings that guide the fate of the cells in which they are located.
Cells were changed not morphogenetic determinants :cry:



Why rejected E:
Quote:
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual


Cells or embryos were more but we don’t know how many morphogenetic determinants were present, whether they quantity changed.
the cells in the early embryo are undetermined in the sense that each cell has the potential to develop in a variety of different ways. Later biologists found that the situation was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo is cut.

Once synthesized, the histones move into the cell nucleus, where section of DNA wrap around them to form a structure that resembles beads, or knots, on a string. The beads are DNA segments wrapped around the histones; the string is the intervening DNA.
Again here the change happened to histones. histones are not morphogenetic determinants :cry:

Please suggest how to reject D . I was confident in choosing D :cry:
VeritasKarishma AjiteshArun



2. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are

(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells
Incorrect. "...They are located in the cytoplasm of the egg cell; i.e., in that part of the cell’s protoplasm that lies outside of the nucleus."

(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally
Incorrect. "Since the substances are unevenly distributed in the egg..."

(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function
Incorrect. "In the unfertilized egg, the substances are inactive and are not distributed homogeneously. When the egg is fertilized, the substances become active"

(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg
Incorrect. We know that in unfertilised egg, they were inactive and they become active upon fertilisation. Hence they are not "identical". Also, do any other changes take place in them upon fertilisation, we don't know.

(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual
Correct. "Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an invertebrate animal embryo into two parts at an early stage of its life, it would survive and develop as two normal embryos."
So enough "morphogenetic determinants" are available to make two full individuals.

Answer (E)
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
Hi VeritasKarishma GMATNinja AjiteshArun

Q9. Which of the following circumstances is most comparable to the impasse biologists encountered in trying to resolve the debate about cell determination (as in the highlighted portion)?

(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language
(B) The situation of a mathematician who in preparing a proof of a theorem for publication detects a reasoning error in the proof
(C) The difficulties of a space engineer who has to design equipment to function in an environment in which it cannot first be tested
(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best
(E) The dilemma confronting a foundation when the funds available to it are sufficient to support one of two equally deserving scientific projects but not both


I chose option choice B because of below sentence-
"But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions"

Doesn't this resembles reasoning error ?
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tt147 wrote:
Hi VeritasKarishma GMATNinja AjiteshArun

Q9. Which of the following circumstances is most comparable to the impasse biologists encountered in trying to resolve the debate about cell determination (as in the highlighted portion)?

(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language
(B) The situation of a mathematician who in preparing a proof of a theorem for publication detects a reasoning error in the proof
(C) The difficulties of a space engineer who has to design equipment to function in an environment in which it cannot first be tested
(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best
(E) The dilemma confronting a foundation when the funds available to it are sufficient to support one of two equally deserving scientific projects but not both


I chose option choice B because of below sentence-
"But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions"

Doesn't this resembles reasoning error ?


The point you focussed on is correct but perhaps there is a gap in understanding it.

"But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued productively."

To resolve the debate, one would need to research. So one needs to define what needs to be found out. But if you do not ask the right questions, if you do not understand the various elements at play, the answers you get will not lead to any conclusion. The sentence tells us that no one was able to formulate the right questions so it did not lead to any productive answers.

(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language

Here, the questions are known but you do not understand the language in which the answers are given.

(B) The situation of a mathematician who in preparing a proof of a theorem for publication detects a reasoning error in the proof

This talks about an error, not the inadequacy of asking the right questions.

(C) The difficulties of a space engineer who has to design equipment to function in an environment in which it cannot first be tested

Here, after asking the right questions and finding the answers, testing is a problem.

(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best

So the linguist wants to develop a theory of "how to acquire a language" but does not understand the structure of the language. Hence, the very constructs of what he seeks to explain are not known to him. This is a similar problem. The biologists don't understand the basic makeup of what they are trying to explain.
Seems close enough.

(E) The dilemma confronting a foundation when the funds available to it are sufficient to support one of two equally deserving scientific projects but not both

This talks about picking one option to work on out of two available.

Answer (D)
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Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
gmatexam439 wrote:
1. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are
(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells -It is the opposite of what the passage states. The passage states that these are present in the cytoplasm, which is outside the nucleus.
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally - The are not homogeneous in distribution
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function -No such thing stated
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg -This means to say that a new set of determinents were generated which are identical to those present in the cell earlier. This is completely absurd.
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual -CORRECT. When the cells divide they still are able to develop.


2. The main topic of the passage is
(A) the early development of embryos of lower marine organisms - Wrong due to highlighted part of option. Nowhere its stated.
(B) the main contribution of modern embryology to molecular biology - No such thing stated in the passage.
(C) the role of molecular biology in disproving older theories of embryonic development - The molecular biology doesn't disprove anything.
(D) cell determination as an issue in the study of embryonic development - CORRECT. "Later biologists found that the situation was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo is cut. If it is cut in a plane different from the one used by the early investigators, it will not form two whole embryos. Which embryo cells are determined" - This part states the complete picture of the entire passage
(E) scientific dogma as a factor in the recent debate over the value of molecular biology -Irrelevant


3. According to the passage, when biologists believed that the cells in the early embryo were undetermined, they made which of the following mistakes?
(A) They did not attempt to replicate the original experiment of separating an embryo into two parts. -Irrelevant
(B) They did not realize that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation experiment. -They did realise this
(C) They assumed that the results of experiments on embryos did not depend on the particular animal species used for such experiments. -Irrelevant
(D) They assumed that it was crucial to perform the separation experiment at an early stage in the embryo’s life. They did realise this
(E) They assumed that different ways of separating an embryo into two parts would be equivalent as far as the fate of the two parts was concerned. -CORRECT. They initially did this mistake, because when they came to know that cutting the cell in different ways will lead to different outcomes, they realised there are different ways to cut the cells, and each way won't result in equivalent fate.


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the initial production of histones after an egg is fertilized takes place
(A) in the cytoplasm -CORRECT. The determinants can be found in cytoplasm. RNA, being a determinent, was initially present in cytoplasm. Therefore histones should be in the cytoplasm initially
(B) in the maternal genes -wrong
(C) throughout the protoplasm -wrong
(D) in the beaded portions of the DNA strings -wrong
(E) in certain sections of the cell nucleus -wrong


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is dependent on the fertilization of an egg?
(A) Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger RNA’s -RNA are products of maternal genes.
(B) Synthesis of proteins called histones -CORRECT. When the eggs are unfertilised, the determinents are inactive. When the eggs fertilize the determinents get into action by synthesis of histones
(C) Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm -Wrong
(D) Determination of the egg cell’s potential for division -The cells' seperation potential is not given anywhere
(E) Generation of all of a cell’s morphogenetic determinants -These determinants are already present in the cell


6. According to the passage, the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are which of the following?
(A) Proteins bound to the nucleus -Wrong
(B) Histones -Wrong
(C) Maternal messenger RNA’s -CORRECT
(D) Cytoplasm -Wrong
(E) No beaded intervening DNA -Wrong


Hi gmatexam439 VeritasKarishma GMATNinja DmitryFarber


In Q3 as per this post, biologists realized the thing mentioned in option B( "They did not realize that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation experiment") after the initial separating experiment. So,isn't it a mistake? Could you please tell how is option "B" incorrect?
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Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
Adi88 wrote:
Can somebody please explain the answer for Question no. 9. I was able to eliminate B, C and E, but was confused between A and E.

Assuming you were confused between A and D (not A and E) on question 9, let’s take a look at the debate described in the passage:

Quote:
A debate arose over what exactly was happening. Which embryo cells are determined, just when do they become irreversibly committed to their fates, and what are the “morphogenetic determinants” that tell a cell what to become? But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued productively.

Biologists reach an impasse in their debate over the origins of the embryo phenomenon because “no one was able to ask crucial questions in a form in which they could be pursued.” In other words, they were unable to formulate questions in a way that could be answered.

With that in mind, we can consider which answer choice presents circumstances most similar to those faced by the biologists:

Quote:
(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language

Although such a literary scholar may struggle to understand original source materials in an unfamiliar language, there are presumably others that understand the language and could assist the literary scholar. Unlike the biologists in the passage, the literary scholar would have much needed aid from other experts. Furthermore, the literary scholar would almost certainly be capable of formulating his questions about the source material in a way that could be answered. Eliminate (A).

And here’s (D):

Quote:
(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best

Much like the biologists who knew little about the fundamentals of embryos, the linguist in (D) knows little about the fundamentals of the language he/she is studying. For that reason, the linguist is unlikely to be able to formulate questions about language acquisition that can be answered. (D) is the correct answer for question 9.

I hope that helps!


Hi GMATNinja VeritasKarishma DmitryFarber

Can you please explain why is option "C" incorrect ? In the beginning,space engineers will also face problem in designing equipment as they would not be able to cover all the possible scenarios/test cases.They would only be able to figure out that thing when equipment fails in space For e.g. rockets launched by SpaceX, intially it was unsuccessful.Afterwards,it must has done some R & D on its unsuccessful attempt,to find the root causes for failures.
Isn't it, option "C" makes sense?
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an inver [#permalink]
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AkhilAggarwal wrote:


In Q3 as per this post, biologists realized the thing mentioned in option B( "They did not realize that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation experiment") after the initial separating experiment. So,isn't it a mistake? Could you please tell how is option "B" incorrect?


The question isn't asking which answer choice is mistaken. It's asking us to describe a mistake that biologists made. If something is true and they realized it, then they didn't make a mistake. If something is not true, it isn't possible to "realize." That word doesn't apply to mistaken beliefs. In any case, the actual mistake is a bit more subtle. The biologists were right that the experiment provided some insight into cell determination, but they were too quick to assume that the result they got was the only possible result, so they jumped to incorrect conclusions. So they did realize the connection, but they thought the result was more significant than it really was. B says that they FAILED to realize a connection. If anything, that's the opposite of what happened.
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