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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet

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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.


(A) has long appeared that it was immune from

(B) has long appeared to have been immune from

(C) has long appeared as being immune to

(D) had long appeared immune to

(E) had long appeared that it was immune to

Originally posted by arorag on 31 Aug 2008, 09:54.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Nov 2018, 01:03, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2014, 13:09
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TooLong150 wrote:
Very good question. ACE were awkward. I then had to use the "immune to" idiom to pick D over B. I did not understand how to split the answers using the tenses. Can someone explain how the past perfect is used correctly here?


There is some interesting conversations about the perfect tenses in this post :). You are starting off correctly with your question by looking at the split of tenses. The GMAT is providing you with a choice between the present and past perfect tenses. Generally speaking, the present perfect tense is used for actions that started in the past but they, or their effects, are still ongoing. The past perfect is used for actions that started in the past but have a definite end. The setup in this problem makes it very clear that the ozone "appearing to be immune" is something that is no longer happening, so you would eliminate the present perfect options.

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2008, 13:58
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And what I say is -- Snaps and Tarek, you are both correct.

Whenever I and others say that the perfect tense describes an action that happened in the past and "continues up to the present", we are actually oversimplifying somewhat. The perfect tense usually means this, but it can also mean that the action occurred in the past and CREATED A CONDITION which continues to the present AND is relevant. That is what the perfect means in this case: We realized in the past that emissions deplete the ozone layer -- we are NOT still in the process of realizing -- but now we are in a state of KNOWING this, and it matters.

So the event of realizing is a past event. The appearance that the ozone layer was immune to human interference existed BEFORE that past event. For events or conditions that happened before another past event, we use the pluperfect, "had appeared". This reduces the choice to D and E, and E is unnecessarily wordy.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2008, 23:34
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arorag wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.
A) has long appeared that it was immune from
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to
D) had long appeared immune to
E) had long appeared that it was immune to


Not an esay one. First selection is based upon "immune to or from". Immunie TO is right for this case so choices narrowed down to C, D, or E. Out of 3, D is best. Past perfrect tense means any action stopped at past.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2008, 14:12
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OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2008, 03:10
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snaps wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks


Went with B for exactly the same reason. Would appreciate any input on the subject.


I think I have figured it out. First of all, the second independent clause after the semicolon starts with "we have now realized." We have to realize that "have realized" is a present perfect, meaning that an action started in the past and that this action is still occurring today. So this action started in the past, and the clause before it refers to an event that occured before the last independent clause. I think this should make sense. What do you think?
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2009, 06:06
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study wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

can someone explain the verb tense mood in the sentence - "had vs. has"


I'll go with D

To answer your question at the last - 'had' is to be used when there are 2 past actions in a sentence. 'Had' is to be placed before the action that is performed earlier than the other one. For ex:- The show "had" started by the time we "arrived".

"HAS" is the present perfect form, which means that the action is still going on...

Coming back to the question : The realization( we realized) says that it is the later action hence the earlier action(" appeared") takes "had". Also, I think, immune to is better than immune from.

So we are left with D & E. D is better than E because it is concise and deletion of "that it was" is not causing any loss in clarity

Correct me if I'm wrong....What is OA?

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2009, 07:14
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study wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

can someone explain the verb tense mood in the sentence - "had vs. has"


immune from --> free, exempt (immune from arrest, immune from further taxation)
Immune to --> not susceptible or not responsive ( immune to cancer, immune to all pleas)

here "immune to" correct idiom
A, B are out.


we have now realized --> means they just realized .. this is past tense.
so first setence must be in the past tense. --> "had long appeared" makes sense.

C - out

between D and E

E -- "that it was" --> wordy/redundant.

D is the best.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2010, 11:48
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A quick note on the idiom:

"Appear to" is an important idiom here!

Ex. He appears to be a good student.

(There is no structure, "appears as".)

"AS BEING" IS ALWAYS INCORRECT!

Now, if the past is involved in the sentence, then use the perfect infinitive: to + have + V3

Ex. Einstein appears to have been a bad student. (Einstein, now dead, is no longer a student.)

Other idioms like "appear to":
seem to, believed to, estimated to, thought to...


(Idioms are taught in the Small Details lesson at gmaxonline!)
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2010, 12:04
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Come on guys :) check the Oxford Dictionary for idiom usage:

immune /{speaker}Imju:n/ adjective [notusuallybeforenoun]
1 ~ (to sth) that cannot catch or be affected by a particular disease or illness:
Adults are often immune to German measles.
2 ~ (to sth) not affected by sth:
You'll eventually become immune to criticism. * Few men are immune to her charms. * Our business is far from immune to economic conditions.
3 ~ (from sth) protected from sth and therefore able to avoid it
SYNEXEMPT: No one should be immune from prosecution.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2010, 00:11
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IMO, - immune from - is as acceptable as - immune to.-

E. g: Having suffered typhoid a couple of times, Tom is now immune to that disease.

You are immune from contracting sexually transmitted diseases, when you employ safe sex practices (meaning that you are protected from the ill effects of something, when you are immune from them.)

So what decides the use of - to or from - is the context. I would in the given context choose -immune from - rather than - immune to -because the meaning implies that ozone is far placed and hence protected from human influence.

What however baffles me is how we can afford a past perfect here, when the thumb rules state that

1. A past perfect can not remain alone without a simple past.

2. By custom, a past perfect can not be joined with a present tense or a present perfect, without a past tense intervening.

I can not digest choice D and E, unless somebody makes bold to say that the use of past perfect here is an exception under some blah, blah rule.

B on the other hand uses the present perfect tenses for all descriptions - has long appeared to - and -have been immune from - and it goes parallel with the present perfect in non-underlined part - we have now realized -

B for me therefore on my own reckoning.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2011, 06:35
Very good question. ACE were awkward. I then had to use the "immune to" idiom to pick D over B. I did not understand how to split the answers using the tenses. Can someone explain how the past perfect is used correctly here?
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2014, 22:28
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TooLong150 wrote:
Very good question. ACE were awkward. I then had to use the "immune to" idiom to pick D over B. I did not understand how to split the answers using the tenses. Can someone explain how the past perfect is used correctly here?


Striking out prep. phrases and modifiers, we have..
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it had long appeared immune to human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

Sequencing of the events is as follows.
Ozone appeared immune (1980s)---> scientists conducted some experiments (1990s) (say event X) ---> (1991) as a result of which we realize that cfcs deplete ozone layer.

'had (long) appeared' denotes that the action had happened in the past before an event X (imaginary event that also happened in the past)
'have (now) realized' denotes that the action is the result of event X (hence present perfect)

It is perfectly right to have a past perfect followed by a present prefect in a scenario such as..

Past perfect --> past action --> present perfect denoting the result of the past action)
Here past action is not necessary, because, present perfect is already denoting the result of the past action (implying that a past action had happened)
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 02:44
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Your reflection is correct, totally. However, this is a great example of a gmatprep question in which the rules divert a bit from an accepted standard i.e. past perfect plus simple past.

According to that rule we do not have a correct answer and this is impossible.

As such , the key thing here is to learn how this exam NEEDS a flexible and resilience strategy to approach.

C and D are our answers, no matter what, based on idiom - first strategy we could use.

But C can be eliminated because the use of being (most of the time is wrong on the gmat and it is used correct in an underlined sentece at the beginning of the same) also because the use of being here conveys a sense that the ozone is immune per se and not from CFC.

Sometimes the best answer is NOT the best in an absolute sense in terms of grammar style or construction, though is correct and communicates the best meaning we could have in that moment.

Pick D and move on. That's it

Hope this helps
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2015, 14:10
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I was between C and D.

I chose C, even though it sounds a bit awkward. The reason is that "had long appeared immune to" seems to be missing the verb "to be". So, I would have chosen D, if it was phrased as "had long appeared to be immune to".

One question I have is whether C is gramatically incorrect or not (C: has long appeared as being immune to).
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2015, 19:33
No, "appeared as being" is not correct. Being is frequently used incorrectly (but not always!) so if you are between two options and you don't know how to eliminate, you can guess away from 'being'.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2015, 22:14
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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

Meaning : Everybody thought that ozone was immune from human influence. But we have now realized that ozone is not immune.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from
As per the sentence, the action of appearing has ended as we have now realized that it is not immune. Hence the action of appearing cannot be present perfect. It has a definite end.

b) has long appeared to have been immune from
As per the sentence, the action of appearing has ended as we have now realized that it is not immune. Hence the action of appearing cannot be present perfect. It has a definite end.

c) has long appeared as being immune to
As per the sentence, the action of appearing has ended as we have now realized that it is not immune. Hence the action of appearing cannot be present perfect. It has a definite end.
And
being immune -> Action of immune is still continuing -> Which is absurd


d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to
instead of "That it was immune" , we can use "immune" which means the same thing.

Doubts:
1) if there is a past perfect why not we have a simple past tense anywhere. We actually have.
Definition of present perfect is "The action happened in the past and either the action or its effect is still continuing when the statement is made".
We have now realized -> We started the process of realizing some time back but may be some experiments are still continuing or some investigation so the "effect" of realizing is not yet completed. Hence we have past tense of "action of realizing". A good question to practice indeed !!.
2) Immune to -> X is immune to Y -> X is already immune to something already.
Immune from -> X is immune from contracting Y (for example). So I guess we need another action if we use from.

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 07:32
study wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

can someone explain the verb tense mood in the sentence - "had vs. has"


Can someone explain why option 'E' is incorrect (apart from "that it was" redundant or option D is more concise than E)
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 08:55
sairam595 wrote:
study wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

can someone explain the verb tense mood in the sentence - "had vs. has"


Can someone explain why option 'E' is incorrect (apart from "that it was" redundant or option D is more concise than E)


in option E, we have pronoun ambiguity error. "that it was immune to", here we don't know if "it" is referring to Earth or Ozone.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 09:07
abhimahna wrote:
sairam595 wrote:
study wrote:
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

A) has long appeared that it was immune from

B) has long appeared to have been immune from

C) has long appeared as being immune to

D) had long appeared immune to

E) had long appeared that it was immune to

can someone explain the verb tense mood in the sentence - "had vs. has"


Can someone explain why option 'E' is incorrect (apart from "that it was" redundant or option D is more concise than E)


in option E, we have pronoun ambiguity error. "that it was immune to", here we don't know if "it" is referring to Earth or Ozone.


the first 'it' in "where it has long appeared " refers to ozone, so can we say the second 'it' also refers to ozone
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet &nbs [#permalink] 01 Aug 2016, 09:07

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