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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 10:11
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sairam595 wrote:
abhimahna wrote:
sairam595 wrote:

Can someone explain why option 'E' is incorrect (apart from "that it was" redundant or option D is more concise than E)


in option E, we have pronoun ambiguity error. "that it was immune to", here we don't know if "it" is referring to Earth or Ozone.


the first 'it' in "where it has long appeared " refers to ozone, so can we say the second 'it' also refers to ozone


No. The first 'it' is not referring to Ozone. here, 'It' is used to present a fact. I know there are so many 'it's but we need to understand the meaning of the sentence to come to a conclusion.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2016, 05:05
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shonakshi wrote:
I am a little confused here between option D and E, is it not correct that appear is followed by THAT ?This is there in option E :?


Hi shonakshi ,
In option E , "that it was" is redundant . Also if you notice , there is another if in the sentence that is not in underlined part .

"the repetition of "it" in choice (e) is also highly undesirable. technically, this is not 100% wrong; the first "it" is of a special kind that doesn't require an antecedent. however, that construction is usually used only when there is NOT another "it" in the sentence to muddle things up " -Ron

Please refer to below link for further information .

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t3584.html

Hope this helps!! :)
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2017, 10:31
There are two primary issues here:

1) Idioms

"Considered," "Seemed," "appeared" are all words that are often unnecessarily proceeded by a preposition and an adjective. People say, "He seemed to be gigantic," or "She is considered as very industrious," or "they appeared to be insignificant." All of these examples are unnecessarily wordy. In each case the preposition shouldn't be there. "He seemed gigantic," "She is considered very industrious," and "they appeared insignificant" are all preferable to the versions with the prepositions. So when "considered," "seemed," or "appeared" is used to introduce a descriptive word (an adjective), don't use a preposition between the two words.

It's also idiomatic to say "immune to" rather than "immune from")

So D gets the idiom right.

2) Tense

As others have pointed out, D gets the sequence of events clear. The present perfect (which can be thought of as one version of the past tense, despite the name) in "have realized" tells us that the realization happened at some point before the present. We need to make clear that the old perception existed before that more recent realization. Past perfect (had appeared) makes this clear.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2017, 06:23
Hi Experts,

Could you please let me know what is the issue in option B apart from idiom?

has long appeared to have been immune from

here we are using perfect infinitive and it denotes the prior action then what is mentioned in main clause.

Please clarify this.

Thanks
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2017, 15:15
PathFinder007 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please let me know what is the issue in option B apart from idiom?

has long appeared to have been immune from

here we are using perfect infinitive and it denotes the prior action then what is mentioned in main clause.

Please clarify this.

Thanks


The use of perfect infinitive is wrong in this case - the fact that it is immune (or not immune) is an universal truth and use of perfect infinitive wrongly implies that it appeared that it was previously immune, but now it may not be.
Another problem with B is the wrong present perfect tense "has appeared". Since the verb "appeared" occured before the verb "realize", past perfect is better.
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 04:48
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2 issues at play: Idioms and Verb Tense
-----------------------------------
IDIOMS
-----------------------------------
Split 1: Idiom "immune from" vs "immune to"
"X is immune to Y" is correct. A and B can be eliminated.

Split 2: Idiom "appear"
"Appear" has 3 uses that I know of: when followed by a verb, the verb should be in its infinitive form. examples:

(1) His arm appears to be completely healed
(2) She appears to have over $2 million in debt (can you tell how cheerful I am tonight)

The 2nd use of appear: When appear is followed by an adjective, no transition is needed. examples:

(1) Karimi appeared unfazed by the threat of foreclosure. CORRECT
(2) Linda appears weak from the disease ravaging her intestines. CORRECT
(3) Frank appears that he is weak... INCORRECT

A ('Ozone has appeared that it was immune'), C ('Ozone has long appeared as being immune'), and E ('Ozone had long appeared that it was immune') can be eliminated.

-----------------------------------
VERB TENSE
-----------------------------------
First consider what we know to be right

"Ozone...reaches high concentrations..." The present is used because this is a constant through time (ie. 'eagles hunt baby birds')

"we have now realized..." The present perfect is used to express either (1) an action that started in the past but is still ongoing or (2) an action which began in the past but is relevant to the present context (ie. I have been to Paris' is better than 'I went to Paris' if we're talking about places we have visited). The present perfect "have realized" in this sentence indicates that at some point in the past, we realized something and that this realization is still relevant today (it's relevant to the current context because the sentence is talking about how that realization changed what we know about Ozone).

Tense split: Ozone "has appeared"/"had appeared" immune. Because the realization we made at some point in the past ('we have now realized') changed how Ozon appears, this underline verb should take up a tense that shows precedence to a past action. The past perfect "had appeared" is the best choice because it demonstrates that this "appearance" happened and stopped in the past, before another thing (realization) from the past.

A, B and C can be eliminated.

I would pick D
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 05:35
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3 are "has" and 2 are "had"..
had is better suited than has here because, something has already happened in past which is being realized now.
So A B C out, D is short and concise that conveys the meaning , so E out and D is answer
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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 22:57
Here's my opinion, correct me if I am wrong.

Read the whole sentence very clearly then you can actually eliminate ABC, just by "feeling" the verb tense. The second part actually refutes the whole notion “Ozone xxx long appeared to/that…”, so the perception actually belongs to the past, and the perception’s effect is ended before “we have realized…”, so the correct verb tense should be past perfect (or past tense, but the answer choices don't provide us any option here.)

Then we can leave the DE at the hands of the idioms.
“Immune to” is the correct usage in this case, but “immune from” also correct idiom.
Besides, “appear” is a linking verb, “immune to” is an adjective modifier, so the “that it was” is redundant
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2019, 14:29
arorag wrote:
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.


(A) has long appeared that it was immune from

(B) has long appeared to have been immune from

(C) has long appeared as being immune to

(D) had long appeared immune to

(E) had long appeared that it was immune to


"Immune to" is correct, not "Immune from" Cross of A and B
"Being" used in C is wrong: Cross out C
The "it" in E is ambiguous, because earlier in the sentence "where it" that "it" refers back to "Ozone".

D is the correct Answer
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2019, 00:13
The question stem says it is a fact that ozone can be depleted by emissions of CFC --> therefore, usage of present perfect tense "has ... appeared" would be inconsistent with the intended meaning (ozone used to appear to be immune, but CFC emissions have proven that ozone isn't anymore).

Immediately, we can eliminate A, B, and C because of the usage of present perfect tense "has appeared".

Between D & E, D is the more concise one. --> Ans: D
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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet   [#permalink] 01 Jun 2019, 00:13

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