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# Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar

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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
Can anyone please give explanation to all the questions?

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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
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I got 1 and 3 wrong. Can someone care to explain?

But, I was able to crack 2,4,5.

2. The question in lines 24-27 functions primarily as

Lines 24-27:
What is the minimum prize that would be required to make a gamble involving a 50 percent chance of losing \$100 and a 50 percent chance of winning the prize acceptable?
The passage then further describes how much risk one was willing to take in relation to the reward.

Crossed out A, D, and E since they have no relation to what has been said.

(B) a rhetorical question whose assumed answer is in conflict with the previously accepted view concerning risk-taking behavior
There was nothing that suggested that there was a rhetorical question. Out.

(C) the basis for an illustration of how the previously accepted view concerning risk taking behavior applies accurately to some types of situations
Yes. The passage then uses a situation to illustrate red-hot decision making, suggesting the decisions were not the best.

4. The passage can be most accurately described as

Paragraph 1 introduces the idea of gambling. Paragraph 2 explains research behind risk taking. Paragraph 3 explains how some risk taking is not at all rational using examples.
Only answer choice D fits with this reasoning.

D) an examination of some new psychological considerations regarding risk and their application to another field of inquiry

5. The passage most clearly suggests that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

As noted from question 4, paragraph 3 states that taking a lot of risk for not a lot of reward is irrational. Thus, the author would most likely agree with answer choice C.

(C) It can reasonably be argued that the risk that Britain accepted in its 1982 conflict with Argentina outweighed the potential objectively measurable benefit of that venture.
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
This is definitely not a 700 level passage. gmatclub, I understand that number of attempts to this passage are low, but even then stats support the justification for a 700+ level tagging
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
1
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This is definitely not a 700 level passage. gmatclub, I understand that number of attempts to this passage are low, but even then stats support the justification for a 700+ level tagging

The difficulty level has been updated. Thank you!
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
Hi, could you kindly post answer explanation for Q4? Thank you
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
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Hi, could you kindly post answer explanation for Q4? Thank you

Explanation

4. The passage can be most accurately described as

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Even when the wording may not explicitly evoke the Global category, always keep an eye out for questions that ask for an overall summary. (D) has it all, picking up on both the focus on the recent research findings and the author’s interest in their impact on the “other field of inquiry,” that of governmental decision-making.

(A) is most notable for what it lacks: namely, any reference to new findings or the decision-making of governments. Also, to say that researchers have analyzed psychology is not to say that a report (like this passage) on their findings is itself “a psychological analysis.” (B)’s “political test case” is obviously meant to be the 1982 war, but (B) misrepresents that detail, which is included to illustrate the applicability of the recent findings and not to test whether those findings apply.

(C) implies an advocacy purpose on the part of the author, which is (maybe) hinted at in the last sentence only, and if anything, the author wants political science to take psychology into account, not vice versa. (E), like other wrong choices we’ve seen, seems to think that there is some sort of conflict or dichotomy at the heart of the passage, when in fact both are cited as valid. In any case, the objective and subjective are ways of understanding how governments react to “crises and conflicts”; they’re not a means of understanding the crises and conflicts themselves.

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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
Could someone explain answers to 3rd and 5th question?

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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
can anyone explain the answer for question no 1?
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]

Nidhibatra wrote:
Could someone explain answers to 3rd and 5th question?

Posted from my mobile device

Explanation

3. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

Explanation

­The passage is explicitly dealing only with “rational decision makers” (line 17), but (A) is describing an incomplete and chaotic process at odds with the text.

(B) is the winner, connecting the new findings about individuals’ risk-taking (cf. the “research subjects” and their assessment of gambling risks, lines 32+) with the risk-taking of governments (paragraph 3). The test taker is well advised to examine all five choices, but not with respect or reverence. Once you’ve found a winner, your expectation should be that the others are poor. Check to make sure that they are.

(C) certainly is: This is not a new “method”; there’s nothing about “prediction of conflict”; and the “synthesis of…economics and psychology” is both inaccurate and too grandiose (if anything, it’s a synthesis of the objective and subjective factors that enter into the gambles we take).

(D)’s apocalyptic tone has no support in the text, and since (as noted with regard to (A) above) the scope of the passage is solely rational thinking, (D) is very peculiar in stating that such decision making is “rare.”

Meanwhile, that which (E) describes—the assessment of costs and benefits—is an objective approach rather than a subjective one, and is in line with “previous assumptions,” not “contrary” to them.

­
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]

Nidhibatra wrote:
Could someone explain answers to 3rd and 5th question?

Posted from my mobile device

Explanation

­5. The passage most clearly suggests that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

Explanation

(A) puzzlingly brings up an issue in which the author shows no interest, namely the relationship between researchers and their gullibility in terms of their test subjects.

(B) makes a hash of such concepts as “risk-taking” and “certain loss,” and, in any case, the author is out to celebrate these new findings, not to carp on their “inadequacy.” You had to figure that paragraph 3’s concrete example would show up in a question somewhere, and here it is in the last question’s correct choice (C).

How Britain and Argentina felt about the islands in question (i.e. that each had had the islands wrested by the other) is, again, a “feeling,” a subjective judgment, and it’s cited precisely to show how feelings can trump a nation’s objective good judgment; we can safely infer that the author would agree with (C).

You’d at least peek at (D) and (E) to confirm that they’re as bad as they need to be, and indeed they both prove to be 180’s. The new findings help us to understand why governments may choose to take illogical risks, thus rendering their logic more “comprehensible” to us outsiders rather than less so (D), and the reasoning that was recently investigated was clearly in line with observed governmental decision-making, not “divergent from” it (E).

­
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]

AVUDAINAYAGAM wrote:
can anyone explain the answer for question no 1?

Explanation

­1. Suppose that a country seizes a piece of territory with great mineral wealth that is claimed by a neighboring country, with a concomitant risk of failure involving moderate but easily tolerable harm in the long run. Given the information in the passage, the author would most likely say that

Explanation

In any event, the hypothetical situation advanced here almost precisely mirrors the thinking described in lines 19-24. The “great mineral wealth” represents the “high expected measurable value,” and the “compensation for taking the risk” is explicitly cited as “moderate” and “easily tolerable.” Question is clearly choosing a risky venture along the lines of the “previous assumption,” as choice (A) describes.

There’s no information about how the country whose territory is being seized (B) would react, nor do the new findings shed light on it—after all, the actedupon country isn’t the one taking any risks.

(C) has it backward: To the seizing country, the risks are clearly outweighed by the expected objective value (that’s why it seized the territory in the first place).

“motivation” (D) is almost a sure sign of a wrong answer. Here, if the situation is taken on its face, the seizing government seems motivated only by calculation of risks and benefits.

There’s no evidence that the seized territory is perceived in the same way as the Falkland Islands were perceived by both Britain and Argentina (E)—for all we know, the seizing country’s first claim on the territory begins right now.

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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
­3. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

(A) When states try to regain losses through risky conflict, they generally are misled by inadequate or inaccurate information as to the risks that they run in doing so. - "generally are misled by inadequate or inaccurate information " is out of scope.

(B) Government decision makers subjectively evaluate the acceptability of risks involving national assets in much the same way that they would evaluate risks involving personal assets. - "They would evaluate risks involving personal assets" can be implied from the passage. "Researchers
have demonstrated some significant discrepancies between objective measurements of possible decision outcomes and the ways in which people subjectively value such possible results." "Risk-taking is thus a more common strategy for those who believe they will lose what they already possess than it (15) is for those who wish to gain something they do not have." "In international affairs, it is vital that each actor in such a situation understand the other’s subjective view of what is at stake."

(C) A new method for predicting and mediating international conflict has emerged from a synthesis of the fields of economics and psychology. - Distortion.

(D) Truly rational decision making is a rare phenomenon in international crises and can, ironically, lead to severe consequences for those who engage in it. - such prediction is out of scope.

(E) Contrary to previous assumptions, people are more likely to take substantial risks when their subjective assessments of expected benefits match or exceed the objectively measured costs. - Opposite. Its actually the previous assumption. "epitomized by the assumption of many (20) economists that entrepreneurs and consumers will choose a risky venture over a sure thing only when the expected measurable value of the outcome is sufficiently high to compensate the decision maker for taking the risk. "
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Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
­4. The passage can be most accurately described as

(A) a psychological analysis of the motives involved in certain types of collective decision making in the presence of conflict - limited in scope.

(B) a presentation of a psychological hypothesis which is then subjected to a political test case - Yes. But the political test case is just an example.

(C) a suggestion that psychologists should incorporate the findings of political scientists into their research - No such suggestion mentioned.

(D) an examination of some new psychological considerations regarding risk and their application to another field of inquiry - another field is "governmental behaviors in international contexts." ok

(E) a summary of two possible avenues for understanding international crises and conflicts - Out of scope.
Re: Recent investigations into the psychology of decision making have spar [#permalink]
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