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Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet

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Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Nov 2018, 19:47
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Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whether dinosaurs were warm- or cold-blooded. Those who suspect they were warm-blooded point out that dinosaur bone is generally fibro-lamellar in nature; because fibro-lamellar bone is formed quickly, the bone fibrils, or filaments, are laid down haphazardly. Consistent with their rapid growth rate, warm-blooded animals, such as birds and mammals, tend to produce fibro-lamellar bone, whereas reptiles, which are slow-growing and cold-blooded, generally produce bone in which fibrils are laid down parallel to each other. Moreover, like the bone of birds and mammals, dinosaur bone tends to be highly vascularized, or filled with blood vessels. These characteristics, first recognized in the 1930’s, were documented in the 1960’s by de Ricqlès, who found highly vascularized, fibro-lamellar bone in several groups of dinosaurs. In the 1970’s, Bakker cited these characteristics as evidence for the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs. Although de Ricqlès urged caution, arguing for an intermediate type of dinosaur physiology, a generation of paleontologists has come to believe that dinosaur bone is mammalianlike.

In the 1980’s, however, Bakker’s contention began to be questioned, as a number of scientists found growth rings in the bones of various dinosaurs that are much like those in modern reptiles. Bone growth in reptiles is periodic in nature, producing a series of concentric rings in the bone, not unlike the growth rings of a tree. Recently, Chinsamy investigated the bones of two dinosaurs from the early Jurassic period (208-187 million years ago), and found that these bones also had growth rings; however, they were also partially fibro-lamellar in nature. Chinsamy’s work raises a question central to the debate over dinosaur physiology: did dinosaurs form fibro-lamellar bone because of an innately high metabolic rate associated with warm-bloodedness or because of periods of unusually fast growth that occurred under favorable environmental conditions? (Although modern reptiles generally do not form fibro-lamellar bone, juvenile crocodiles raised under optimal environmental conditions do.) This question remains unanswered; indeed, taking all the evidence into account, one cannot make a definitive statement about dinosaur physiology on the basis of dinosaur bone. It may be that dinosaurs had an intermediate pattern of bone structure because their physiology was neither typically reptilian, mammalian, nor avian.
The author of the passage would be most likely to agree that the "caution" (line 29) urged by de Ricqlès regarding claims about dinosaur physiology was

(A) unjustified by the evidence available to de Ricqlès
(B) unnecessary, given the work done by Bakker and his followers
(C) indicative of the prevailing scientific opinion at the time
(D) warranted, given certain subsequent findings of other scientists
(E) influential in the recent work of Chinsamy



The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) discuss the influence on other scientists of Bakker's argument concerning the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs
(B) provide evidence that supports the claim that dinosaurs were cold-blooded
(C) challenge the contention that dinosaur bone tissue is innately fibro-lamellar
(D) evaluate the claim that dinosaur bone tissue provides evidence for the warmbloodedness of dinosaurs
(E) resolve the disagreement between de Ricqlès and Bakker over the nature of dinosaur physiology



According to the passage, the discovery of growth rings in the bones of certain dinosaurs served to undermine which of the following claims?

(A) That modern reptiles are related to dinosaurs
(B) That bone growth in dinosaurs was periodic in nature
(C) That dinosaurs were warm-blooded
(D) That dinosaurs had an intermediate type of physiology
(E) That fibro-lamellar bone is the product of a rapid growth rate



The author of the passage mentions bone growth patterns in juvenile crocodiles most likely in order to

(A) provide support for the argument that reptiles are not related to dinosaurs
(B) undermine the claim that most reptiles are slow-growing
(C) offer an explanation as to why juvenile crocodiles differ from most modern reptiles
(D) suggest the juvenile crocodiles have a type of physiology intermediate between-f mammals and that of reptiles
(E) suggest that the presence of fibro-lamellar bone does not resolve the debate over dinosaur physiology



Originally posted by roopika2990 on 30 Jan 2013, 22:38.
Last edited by gmat1393 on 05 Nov 2018, 19:47, edited 3 times in total.
Edited question 4
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2013, 01:12
Q1. (D) is correct. The caution was warranted, given the contradictory findings of other scientists later

Q2. This is a tough one. (A) is out, because evaluating Bakker's argument is not the main purpose. (B) is not supported so that is out too. (C) is incorrect, because the structure of the tissue came about to support the main argument. It was not the main argument itself. (D) encapsulates the overall passage well and is correct. (E) The disagreement between them came about later. It does not encapsulate the paragraph.

Q3. (C) it is. The fact that these rings are found in reptile bones contradicts and undermines the finding that dinosaurs were warm blooded.

Q4. This is a relatively easy one - straight from the passage. (E) it is.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2013, 08:23
EDCE
Got first one wrong ...
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2015, 02:38
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Got all right. Took 6 minutes.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2015, 00:05
ADCE.. Got first one wrong. Took 9 Min. :|
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2015, 03:43
Argh, I got the first question wrong. Upon closer reading of the question, I know I was pretty damn careless in the interpretation! Lesson: slow down with these "author would agree" questions. Otherwise did passage in 5 min 20 sec.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 09:47
Ergenekon wrote:
Got all right. Took 6 minutes.


got all right but I took 12 minutes...

What is the technique? just fast reading?

I use to read all the passage and then answer the questions... where am I wrong?
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2017, 01:43
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In my opinion the best strategy is to read the passage very carefully but at a constant pace. Trying to get the overall meaning for general questions. Fo rinferecnce or detailed question you can always look at specific portion of the passage.

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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2017, 01:55
carcass wrote:
In my opinion the best strategy is to read the passage very carefully but at a constant pace. Trying to get the overall meaning for general questions. Fo rinferecnce or detailed question you can always look at specific portion of the passage.

Regards

thank you very much carcass. my approach is the same.. the point is that I take 3 min per question (reading of the passage included). I'll balance with SC.. I hope it is enough :?
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2017, 09:16
all correct..but took 9.15 mins.. did i take too long for such kind of passage? :(
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2017, 03:58
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Total time 7 mins 40 seconds, including 3 mins to read the passage

1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree that the "caution" (line 29) urged by de Ricqlès regarding claims about dinosaur physiology was
(D) warranted, given certain subsequent findings of other scientists - Although de Ricqlès urged caution, arguing for an intermediate type of dinosaur physiology, a generation of paleontologists has come to believe that dinosaur bone is mammalianlike. In the 1980’s, however, Bakker’s contention began to be questioned, as a number of scientists found growth rings in the bones of various dinosaurs that are much like those in modern reptiles.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(D) evaluate the claim that dinosaur bone tissue provides evidence for the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs - This question remains unanswered; indeed, taking all the evidence into account, one cannot make a definitive statement about dinosaur physiology on the basis of dinosaur bone. It may be that dinosaurs had an intermediate pattern of bone structure because their physiology was neither typically reptilian, mammalian, nor avian.

3. According to the passage, the discovery of growth rings in the bones of certain dinosaurs served to undermine which of the following claims?
(C) That dinosaurs were warm-blooded - Bone growth in reptiles is periodic in nature, producing a series of concentric rings in the bone, not unlike the growth rings of a tree.

4. The author of the passage mentions bone growth patterns in juvenile crocodiles most likely in order to
(E) suggest that the presence of fibro-lamellar bone does not resolve the debate over dinosaur physiology - (Although modern reptiles generally do not form fibro-lamellar bone, juvenile crocodiles raised under optimal environmental conditions do.) This question remains unanswered; indeed, taking all the evidence into account, one cannot make a definitive statement about dinosaur physiology on the basis of dinosaur bone.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 01:57
6 mins.
3/4.
Got last one wrong. I guess I could have taken a little more time. What is the level of this passage?
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 05:45
Moderators, please add the following question to the passage

The passage suggests that, unlike Bakker, de Ricqlès believed which of the following about the highly vascularized, fibro-lamellar bone mentioned in the highlighted text?

It was a type of bone found only in a small group of dinosaurs.

It had characteristics that were inconsistent with a growth rate as rapid as that of mammals.

It did not provide sufficiently compelling evidence for warm-bloodedness in dinosaurs.

It was highly vascularized but not truly fibro-lamellar in nature.

It supported the claim that bone growth in dinosaurs was periodic in nature.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 08:35
Took 4 min 25 sec and got all correct. The language of the passage was not that hard and the questions were pretty straightforward if you carefully read the passage.
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Re: Scientists studying the physiology of dinosaurs have long debated whet &nbs [#permalink] 31 Oct 2018, 08:35
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