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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of wa [#permalink]
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Hi!
The correct idiom is: regard as.
Example: The level of ash is at higher density than aircraft manufacturers regard as safe for engines.

1. Using the idiom regards as - one can eliminate answer choices D & E.
2. Now the sentence structure: Some people regard the (the early hominids' manner) as less efficient than that (that is used to compare ''manner'') of modern human beings.

Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as less efficient than that of modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in (wrong comparison)
(B) as less efficient than it is in (wrong comparison)
(C) as less efficient than that of --> correct. the manner of X is compared to the manner of Y.
(D) to be less efficient than that of (eliminated--> idiom is: regard as.)
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in (eliminated--> idiom is: regard as.)
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of wa [#permalink]
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in Manner of walking in modern Human beings is nonsensical
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in

Regard X as Y. X (the early hominids' manner of walking) is Noun, thus, Y should be Noun.
Thus, A, D, E are out
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
Hi experts,

Why is D incorrect?
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.


(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of


regard X as Y is correct idiom
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
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kanigmat011 wrote:
Hi experts,

Why is D incorrect?



The idiom is “Regard as / Regarded as” and based on this D and E are out.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
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Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in -- Parallelism issue , usage of being
(B) as less efficient than it is in - 'it' is troublesome, because it seems to refer back to the early hominids' manner of walking (something that clearly can't be seen in modern human beings) ;bad parallelism: the first part uses a possessive construction, not the preposition 'in', so the second must use a similar construction
(C) as less efficient than that of -- Correct
(D) to be less efficient than that of -- regard to be is unidiomatic
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in -- same as D

Answer C

'that of' (singular) and 'those of' (plural) are possessive constructions that allow us to write parallel comparisons without the bothersome repetition of specific nouns.

for instance:
Beethoven's symphonies were more revolutionary than Bach <-- wrong, because music is being compared to a person
Beethoven's symphonies were more revolutionary than Bach's symphonies <-- correct, but with bothersome repetition
Beethoven's symphonies were more revolutionary than Bach's <-- ok according to most sources, but i've never seen the gmat use the apostrophe+s for a plural
Beethoven's symphonies were more revolutionary than those of Bach <-- the best way to write this sentence.
in the last of these, 'those of bach' = 'bach's symphonies'.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
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Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
- Incorrect. "being" = wrong. also, illogical comparison -- here, compares the hominids' manner of walking to modern human beings.

(B) as less efficient than it is in
- Incorrect. Doesn't make sense.

(C) as less efficient than that of
- Correct. "That of" makes the [manner of walking] a clear comparison.

(D) to be less efficient than that of
- Incorrect. "regard to be" = wrong idiom. Should be "regard as".

(E) to have been less efficient than it is in
- Incorrect. Same as "D". "regard to be" = wrong idiom. Should be "regard as".

Kudos please if you find this helpful :)
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
fozzzy wrote:
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in


Can someone explain C and D, what is "that" referring to is it "manner of walking"?


Here's my POE. Please correct me if something is incorrect.

First split: Use "AS" because we have to compare clauses. D and E out.

Second split: To maintain parallelism, and because it is idiomatically correct, "THAT OF" is better than "than it is" or "than in" . A and B out.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
It should be D as in C it means that Morden man also has efficient but it is better than hominids

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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
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fozzzy wrote:
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in


Can someone explain C and D, what is "that" referring to is it "manner of walking"?


look at choice A
being is not idiomatic. we do not have "regard something as doing...". we have "regard something as+adjective/noun".
A suffer meaning error.
A mean
hominid's manner of walking is less efficient than hominid's manner of walking in modern human beings. this is no sense.

when the different things are compared , we have to use "that,those". when the same thing is compared , we used "it/they" or use Zero. choice A use "ZEro", and choice B use "it". both of them suffer the same meaning errors.

following comed from og books.

Most of the country’s biggest daily newspapers had lower circulation in the six months from October 1995 through March 1996 than a similar period a year earlier.


(A) a similar period

(B) a similar period’s

(C) in a similar period

(D) that in a similar period

(E) that of a similar period

choice C, not D is OA here. I have difuculty realizing that "that" is not needed. do not thing that we have a different circulation to use 'that". in face , it is the same circulation in different periods
this is to say that it is not easy to know different or the same things compared.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
thangvietnam wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in


Can someone explain C and D, what is "that" referring to is it "manner of walking"?


look at choice A
being is not idiomatic. we do not have "regard something as doing...". we have "regard something as+adjective/noun".
A suffer meaning error.
A mean
hominid's manner of walking is less efficient than hominid's manner of walking in modern human beings. this is no sense.

when the different things are compared , we have to use "that,those". when the same thing is compared , we used "it/they" or use Zero. choice A use "ZEro", and choice B use "it". both of them suffer the same meaning errors.

following comed from og books.

Most of the country’s biggest daily newspapers had lower circulation in the six months from October 1995 through March 1996 than a similar period a year earlier.


(A) a similar period

(B) a similar period’s

(C) in a similar period

(D) that in a similar period

(E) that of a similar period

choice C, not D is OA here. I have difuculty realizing that "that" is not needed. do not thing that we have a different circulation to use 'that". in face , it is the same circulation in different periods
this is to say that it is not easy to know different or the same things compared.


I think I need to rewrite

"it,they" refer to noun+noun modifier in the preceding part of comparison. remember that "it/they" refers to the same thing in the preceding phrase. reference of the same thing can make illogic comparison. check the logicness
we use "that/those" to refer to words and just words in the preceding phrase. regarding meaning, "that/those " refer to the different things. when we see "that/those" make sure the comparison is clear and weather "that /those " is redundant. dont focus on wether the reference is to the same thing or different thing.

we use "zero" pronoun when the comparison is already clear. Zero pronoun can refer to the same thing in the preceding clause or to the different things. if the comparison is clear, we use zero pronoun and do not use "that/those" as with the case of example "circulation" above. dont focus on weather the reference is to the same or different thing. instead, focus on weather the comparison is clear.

in the example "circulation" , circulation in this period is different from circulation in that period, but , zero pronoun is used because the comparison is clear.

if I write
walking manner in hominid is less efficient than in human being.

we use zero pronoun here because comparison is clear. I think above sentence is correct and similar to the Official answer of the problem "circulation " above.

in choice A of our problem, we can not use zero pronoun "in human being" because the second element of comparison is not clear.

Anthropologist regard hominid's walking manner as less efficient that that of human being. (choice C).

in choice B of problem "walking manner', "it" refers to "hominid's walking manner", so, comparison is not logic.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
[quote="fozzzy"]Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in

I study comparison in these days. it is hard.
how to make ellipsis correct in comparison. we have only 2 kind of comparison
kind 1.
the two preposition phrases modifying the two nouns compared are different. in this case, we use "that/those".
the book on the table is mine but that on the shelf is yours .
kind 2
the two clauses modifying the two nouns compared are different. in this case , only adverb, normally a preposition phrase, exist in the second clause of comparison
the prices is higher in this area than in your country.

if you see comparison, ask yourself is comparison between two adjectival (kind 1) or between two clauses (kind 2). this will help you realize wrong choice soon.
come back to our problem.

choice a
"than in modern human being". a preposition phrase exists after "than", this indicates that two clauses are compared and the second clause is different from the first one in that the adverb of the second clause is different and parallel to the adverb of the first clause. so, only adverb, preposition phrase, is left in the second clause.
to find the cut off second clause, we use parallelism. "than in modern human being" needs a similar phrase to be parallel with. we do not see any parallel phrase in the preceding clause. so, choice a is wrong.

choice c

"than that of" indicates that two nouns are compared when two nouns are different in that the two preposition phrases as their adjectival are different . as is the case with case 1, we use parallelism to find the phrase cut off.
"that of " should parallel with "manner of worlking of hominid". bingo. the two nouns compared are clear and logical compared. choice c is correct.
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
fozzzy wrote:
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
(B) as less efficient than it is in
(C) as less efficient than that of
(D) to be less efficient than that of
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in


Can someone explain C and D, what is "that" referring to is it "manner of walking"?



(A) as being less efficient than in - Wrong: 1) Comparison
(B) as less efficient than it is in - Wrong: 1) Comparison with "it"
(C) as less efficient than that of - Correct: Idiom: "regard as"
(D) to be less efficient than that of - Wrong: 1) Wrong Idiom: "regard to be"
(E) to have been less efficient than it is in - Wrong: 1) Comparison with "it" 2) Wrong Idiom: "regard to be"
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
GMATNinja Please explain the diff b/w B and C
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
The comparison refers to the manner , so this is why we choose "than that "



Answer: C
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

(A) as being less efficient than in
- the main verb ''regard'' is in the simple present tense, whereas the verb in the underlined portion ''being'' is in the present progressive tense. Therefore, in (A), the verb tenses do not match.
(B) as less efficient than it is in
- 'it' could possibly refer to ''manner'' of walking. So, let us replace the pronoun with the noun itself to see if the sentence makes any sense

Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as less efficient than the manner of walking is in modern human beings. - ....manner of walking in humans???? that wouldn't make any sense. Hence, eliminate (B)


(C) as less efficient than that of - has no error. Moreover, the demonstrative pronoun ''that'' unambiguously refers to the ''manner of walking''. Hence, (C) is the right answer choice.


the idiom structure for ''regard'' is : ....regard [noun] as [rank assigned to noun].

Since both (D) and (E) do not have the ''regard...as'' structure, we can eliminate (D) and (E).
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Re: Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of [#permalink]
Some anthropologists regard the early hominids' manner of walking as being less efficient than in modern human beings.

Meaning Analysis: Some people believe that modern human beings walks in a more efficient manner than early hominids (did)

Sentence structure:
Some anthropologists (Subject)
regard (Verb)
the early hominids' manner of walking (element 1 of comparison)
as being less efficient than (Comparison marker)
in modern human beings. (element 2 of comparison marker)

(A) as being less efficient than in
(1) Usage of being - Being can be used in the following ways
- Noun entity --> being disrespectful(noun) to elders is not acceptable
- Progressive tense --> The tenants are being evacuated from the building
(2) in - the manner of walking of human beings and not in human beings. "Manner of walking" is not inside a human being

(B) as less efficient than it is in
(1) it - the "it" would refer back to the noun along with the modifier used for the noun. In this case "it" refers to hominids' manner of walking. Now if we replace "it" with this noun + modifier the sentence wouldn't make sense
(2) in - As mentioned above

(C) as less efficient than that of. Correct
(1) That - "that" refers back to the noun and drops the modifier used along with the noun. In this case "that" refers to "manner of walking"
(2) Of - correctly replaces "in" check option (A) analysis

(D) to be less efficient than that of - there are cases in which we have seen that "to be" is used correctly. Based on my knowledge "to be" is now often omitted or rather isn't the best way to convey the meaning

(E) to have been less efficient than it is in - Same errors of (B). I do not believe "to have been" is incorrect. It gives a sense of past tense out here. Further I believe that "To have been" is an infinitive and not a verb tense"
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