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Re: The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
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Hello Shashwatp Skywalker18

Explanation


6. It can most reasonably be inferred that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Use Process of elimination for this question, answer to this question can be found in 3rd paragraph, look at the answer choices.

(A) Nonsense. The transition will happen because books are available digitally and because the technology exists to print them.

(B) The author never said exactly why the new digital model will be accepted. It’s true that low costs will make it affordable (lines 16-20), but the author never explained why people wouldn’t prefer entirely e-books, rather than digitally printed books.

(C) CORRECT. Literary agents are mentioned on lines 38-41. Agents will recognize that the publishing landscape has changed, and ask for higher royalties for their authors. If publishers don’t comply, then they will send their authors to new publishing houses (lines 44-46).

(D) The passage doesn’t mention how books are marketed.

(E) The passage never says how many people will be familiar with new publishing methods.

Answer: C


Hope it helps
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The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
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Para 1 Summary – Author makes reference to internet for how it makes things easer, how would things are likely change in publishing world. He/she s particularly more inclined towards the impact of readily available printable digital files at POS than the digital version itself. Thus people can purchase ‘out of print’ books.

Para 2 Summary – In this para author starts with advantage the digital publishing holds over the printable publishing. Being less expensive and more efficient than traditional, digital might replace or rival traditional publishing but author reasons that it may take time.

Para 3 Summary – Finally author tells us that lesser expenses would result ‘authors’ of the books getting more share from publishing. One road block could be large publishing houses based on traditional infrastructure that might not be in support of digital for obvious reasons. However, competition from newer digital based firms, who would pay ‘authors’ more, would make older publishing houses shed their redundant functions in order to stay in the market – a typical scenario when transition happens in any economic model.

Summary – Author takes internet into consideration and elaborates how it would change the publishing world. In second para he/she gives finer details and finally in the third about how newer players in the market would change market to give rise to a new economic model.

1. Which one of the following statements most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
Marked C which is wrong. Since it is a main idea question an option which covers a broader aspect of passage would be the correct answer. After POE I was left with C and E. Eliminated E believing that economics part is covered in a limited part of passage.

(A) The shift from traditional to digital publishing is typical of the shift from one economic model to a more efficient economic model. – WRONG. Limited scope. Only para 3 says that.
(B) Digital publishing is likely to one day rival traditional publishing, but social and economic factors are currently hindering its acceptance. – WRONG. Irrelevant.
(C) Digital publishing will be convenient for readers and profitable for publishers but will also result in a great deal of movement by authors among different publishing houses. – WRONG. Thought that passage is all about readers’ convenience(para 1), profitability of publishers and movement of authors (both para 3) but it is not. May be I lost my way in understanding the essence of the passage.
(D) Although digital books can now be displayed on computers and handheld electronic devices, consumers will demonstrate that they prefer books printed at the point of sale. – WRONG. Consumer preference is not covered in passage. Irrelevant.
(E) Digital publishing will transform the economics of the publishing business and in doing so will likely create competitive pressures to pay authors a greater percentage of publishers' net revenue. – CORRECT.

2. The author uses the phrase "whole categories of expense" (lines 30-31) primarily to refer to

(A) the fees collected by literary agents from their clients – WRONG. Irrelevant. Never discussed in passage.
(B) the price paid to have books printed and bound – WRONG. Irrelevant. Never discussed in passage.
(C) the royalties paid to authors by their publishers – WRONG. Not discussed till that point of passage.
(D) the costs specific to the retail trade in traditional printed books – CORRECT. Costs discussed in para 2 are part of traditional publishing.
(E) the total sales of a book minus the value of those books returned unsold to the bookseller – WRONG. Mutates the unsold book aspect of passage. Out of scope, thus incorrect.

3. It can most reasonably be inferred that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?
Marked C which is wrong. After POE let with A and C. In the timed scenario thought that digital publishing would revitalize book business which is again with some assumption, which I refrained to make in case o A. Thus eliminated A.

(A) Those publishers that fail to embrace the new digital model of publishing will be unlikely to remain economically competitive. – CORRECT.
(B) The primary threat to the spread of digital publishing will be the widespread use of computers and handheld devices for reading text. – WRONG. Passage nowhere at any point suggests that there’s any threat or even if it is anyhow, he/she doesn’t put it in that manner. Passage is all about publishing books.
(C) The growth of digital publishing is likely to revitalize the book retail business. – WRONG.
(D) Any book will sell more copies if it is published digitally than if it is published traditionally. – WRONG. Out of scope. It’s never discussed neither a hint is given by author.
(E) Digital publishing will allow publishers to substantially decrease the amount of money they allocate for advertising their books. – WRONG. Out of scope. Advertising never discussed.

4. Each of the following is identified in the passage as something digital publishing will dispense with the need for EXCEPT:

(A) warehousing printed books – WRONG. Para 2
(B) having book covers designed – CORRECT. Not discussed ever.
(C) having books shipped to retail stores – Para 2.
(D) having unsold books returned to publishers – WRONG. Para 2.
(E) displaying books in retail stores – WRONG. Para 2.

5. If the scenario described in the first two paragraphs were to become true, then which one of the following would most likely be the case?
Though it’s an inference question and looks difficult, the choices however make it easier if passage is understood correctly.

(A) The need for warehousing will shift mainly from that of individual books to that of paper and binding material to make books. – CORRECT. The line “most digital files of books will be printed and bound on demand at point of sale by machines that can quickly and inexpensively make single copies that are indistinguishable from books made in factories” in para 1 clearly signals shift in inventory type and bases.
(B) The patronage of stores that sell used books will increase significantly. – WRONG. Patronage is not discussed in para 1 and 2.
(C) Most publishers will sell their own books individually and will not use distributors or retailers. – WRONG. Neither Para 1 and 2 nor para 3 discusses such sort of thing.
(D) There will be significantly less demand by publishers for the services of copy editors and book designers. – WRONG. Irrelevant.
(E) The demand for book-grade paper will decrease significantly. – WRONG. Irrelevant.

6. It can most reasonably be inferred that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?
Marked B which is wrong. The reason or choosing B s that since ease of keeping books in print form would be difficult new model would be accepted, a flawed inference on my part.
(A) The changing literary tastes of consumers will be the main cause of the eventual transition to the new digital model. – WRONG. Out of scope. Never discussed in passage.
(B) The ease of keeping books "in print" will be the primary factor in the eventual acceptance of the new digital model. – WRONG.
(C) The demands of literary agents will be the impetus for completing the transition to the new digital model. – CORRECT. The line “Literary agents … be expected to demand a significantly bigger slice of revenue for their authors” n para 3 helps mark this option as correct.
(D) The development of innovative marketing strategies will ensure acceptance of the new digital model. – WRONG. Innovative marketing strategies are not the behind acceptance of new model.
(E) Widespread familiarity with new ways of storing information will be the primary reason for the acceptance of the new digital model. – WRONG. It may be one of the reasons but not the primary one. Also it’s not discussed.

7. The primary purpose of the final sentence of the passage is to
Was stuck between A, B and D but eventually eliminated A and D.

(A) suggest that traditional publishing houses have been too slow to embrace digital publishing – WRONG. This option might be correct in real world sense and would lead people choosing it as correct but the last line’s role in the passage is to explain the situation (may help explain the caution) mentioned just ahead of the it.
(B) provide a broader context that helps to clarify the situation facing traditional publishers – CORRECT. Clarify the situation matches “may help explain”. It about why traditional publishers hold back initially and how they have to navigate the transition.
(C) summarize the argument for the claim that digital publishing will likely replace traditional publishing – WRONG. This is way too broad for the final sentence when it only concerns publishing conglomerates.
(D) illustrate the primary obstacle facing traditional publishing houses that wish to incorporate digital publishing capabilities – WRONG. Though it may be primary obstacle but it is not only for publisher who wish to incorporate digital publishing capabilities. For the second part this option is incorrect.
(E) recommend a wait-and-see approach on the part of traditional publishing houses – WRONG. No recommendation as such is given by author n the passage.

Took 17 minutes(way on higher side).

PS: The summary is written after i revisited the passage to understand more to know where i made mistakes. So the answer (under timed conditions might not reflect the passage summary.
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Re: The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
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Hi everyone,
Took 15:20 minutes including 5 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

Paragraphs 1 expresses a contrast: while digitalization may make us think that printed books are short-lived, the author thinks that digitalization will lead some people to print book at a very fast speed.

P2

Paragraph 2 talks about the economic factors. This new form of printing has several advantages in terms of economic savings that are listed in the beginning of the paragraph. The author guess is that this method will supplant or rival the traditional publishing houses BUT there will be some time before getting to this point.

P3

Paragraph 3 adds more consequences related to the digitalization scenario. One of them is the higher payment that author, and their literary agents, might require to those using the digital publishing model because they don't have all the costs that a traditional publisher has.
Note that in this case literary agents and not authors will demand a higher payment.
All this leads to a rivalry between digital and traditional publishers but the author highlights that, because there is a great risk that traditional publishers will be eliminated by digital publishers, conglomerates are careful about digitalization.

Main point

The main point is to discuss digital publishing and all the possible consequences related to its advent

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following statements most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

Pre-thinking:

Main point question

Refer to the main point above


(A) The shift from traditional to digital publishing is typical of the shift from one economic model to a more efficient economic model.
Too narrow to represent the purpose of the all passage. Hence incorrect

(B) Digital publishing is likely to one day rival traditional publishing, but social and economic factors are currently hindering its acceptance.
Never mentioned. Incorrect

(C) Digital publishing will be convenient for readers and profitable for publishers but will also result in a great deal of movement by authors among different publishing houses.
"great deal of movement" never mentioned. Incorrect

(D) Although digital books can now be displayed on computers and handheld electronic devices, consumers will demonstrate that they prefer books printed at the point of sale.
Never mentioned. Incorrect

(E) Digital publishing will transform the economics of the publishing business and in doing so will likely create competitive pressures to pay authors a greater percentage of publishers' net revenue.
This is true and broad enough to represent the all passage. Correct

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. The author uses the phrase "whole categories of expense" (lines 30-31) primarily to refer to

Pre-thinking:

Purpose question

To highlight the fewer expenses that digital publishers have compared to traditional publishers

(A) the fees collected by literary agents from their clients
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) the price paid to have books printed and bound
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) the royalties paid to authors by their publishers
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) the costs specific to the retail trade in traditional printed books
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) the total sales of a book minus the value of those books returned unsold to the bookseller
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. It can most reasonably be inferred that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

Pre-thinking:

Inference question

Let's evaluate the answer choices


(A) Those publishers that fail to embrace the new digital model of publishing will be unlikely to remain economically competitive.
This seems correct. In the end of paragraph 3 the actions taken by the traditional publishers are classified in a scenario in which traditional publishers are a departing economic model. Hence correct

(B) The primary threat to the spread of digital publishing will be the widespread use of computers and handheld devices for reading text.
Not the primary threat, which is the fewer costs. Hence incorrect

(C) The growth of digital publishing is likely to revitalize the book retail business.
Out of scope. hence incorrect

(D) Any book will sell more copies if it is published digitally than if it is published traditionally.
Too extreme. Incorrect

(E) Digital publishing will allow publishers to substantially decrease the amount of money they allocate for advertising their books.
advertising is a costs not discussed but we can assume that it is a cost that is faced by both publishers. Incorrect


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. Each of the following is identified in the passage as something digital publishing will dispense with the need for EXCEPT:

Pre-thinking:

Detail question

Refer to the beginning of P2: "no physical inventory, thereby eliminating the
costs of warehousing, shipping books to wholesalers
and to retail stores, displaying physical books in retail
(20) stores
, and returning unsold books to publishers."


(A) warehousing printed books
Mentioned. Incorrect

(B) having book covers designed
Not mentioned. Correct

(C) having books shipped to retail stores
Mentioned. Incorrect

(D) having unsold books returned to publishers
Mentioned. Incorrect

(E) displaying books in retail stores
Mentioned. Incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. If the scenario described in the first two paragraphs were to become true, then which one of the following would most likely be the case?

Pre-thinking:

Inference question

Probably traditional publishers will cease to exist soon.


(A) The need for warehousing will shift mainly from that of individual books to that of paper and binding material to make books.
Seems a reasonable inference. Correct

(B) The patronage of stores that sell used books will increase significantly.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

(C) Most publishers will sell their own books individually and will not use distributors or retailers.
Most publishers might be too general. We could say that most digital publisher will act like this. Incorrect

(D) There will be significantly less demand by publishers for the services of copy editors and book designers.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

(E) The demand for book-grade paper will decrease significantly.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


6. It can most reasonably be inferred that the author would agree with which one of the following statements?

Pre-thinking:

Inference question

Let's evaluate the answer choices


(A) The changing literary tastes of consumers will be the main cause of the eventual transition to the new digital model.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

(B) The ease of keeping books "in print" will be the primary factor in the eventual acceptance of the new digital model.
It is very difficult to say that the ease of keeping books in print will be the primary factor. Too extreme and hence incorrect

(C) The demands of literary agents will be the impetus for completing the transition to the new digital model.
From P2 we can see that the literary agents and not the authors will ask for more money from the publishers. If they would not ask for more money the traditional publishers would not be obliged to be in competition with the digital publishers. Hence the traditional publishers will keep their authors and would not be seen as a departing economic model like discussed in last paragraph. Hence correct

(D) The development of innovative marketing strategies will ensure acceptance of the new digital model.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

(E) Widespread familiarity with new ways of storing information will be the primary reason for the acceptance of the new digital model.
Cannot infer from the given information. Incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


7. The primary purpose of the final sentence of the passage is to

Pre-thinking:

Purpose question

The purpose is to give the reader a broader point of view thanks to which she/he can understand why things are moving slower than expected


(A) suggest that traditional publishing houses have been too slow to embrace digital publishing
Not in line with pre-thinking. Incorrect

(B) provide a broader context that helps to clarify the situation facing traditional publishers
In line with pre-thinking. correct

(C) summarize the argument for the claim that digital publishing will likely replace traditional publishing
Not in line with pre-thinking. Incorrect

(D) illustrate the primary obstacle facing traditional publishing houses that wish to incorporate digital publishing capabilities
Not in line with pre-thinking. Incorrect

(E) recommend a wait-and-see approach on the part of traditional publishing houses
Not in line with pre-thinking. Incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Re: The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
Can someone explain why option choice C is wrong in 1 question?

1. Which one of the following statements most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?


(C) Digital publishing will be convenient for readers and profitable for publishers but will also result in a great deal of movement by authors among different publishing houses. - Is this because the passage doesnt mention great deal of movement in the passage? It just says that it will initially shift to digitally publishing firms from traditional firms. Later on these traditional firms will reduce their redundant cost to be competitive in the market. Hence, cant we say there is movement first to digital firms and then probably they will consider these traditional firms too once they become competitive?

(E) Digital publishing will transform the economics of the publishing business and in doing so will likely create competitive pressures to pay authors a greater percentage of publishers' net revenue. - I felt this is stated only in the last few paras and is not the main point of the passage??

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Re: The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
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­The Internet makes possible the instantaneous
transmission and retrieval of digital text. It is widely
assumed that this capacity will lead to the displacement
of printed books by digitized books that are read
(5) mainly on computer screens or handheld electronic
devices. But it is more likely, I believe, that most
digital files of books will be printed and bound on
demand at point of sale by machines that can quickly
and inexpensively make single copies that are
(10) indistinguishable from books made in factories.
Once
most books have been digitized, anyone with access to
the Internet will be able to purchase printed books
from a practically limitless digital catalog that includes
even those books that, under traditional publishing
(15) assumptions, would have been designated "out of print."


Also, the digital publication of a book online
involves no physical inventory, thereby eliminating the
costs of warehousing, shipping books to wholesalers
and to retail stores, displaying physical books in retail
(20) stores, and returning unsold books to publishers. This
would make digital publishing much less expensive
than traditional publishing. Given the economic
efficiency and convenience for customers of this new
digital model of publishing, it is likely to eventually
(25) supplant or at least rival traditional publishing al
though it will be some time before a catalog of
printable digitized books becomes large enough to
justify investment in book printing machines at
numerous regional sites.


(30) Moreover, the elimination of whole categories of
expense means that under the digital publishing model,
authors would be responsible for a greater proportion
of the value of the final product and would therefore,
according to literary agents, be entitled to a larger
(35) share of the proceeds. Currently a large percentage of
publishers' revenue is absorbed by the costs of printing,
selling, and distributing physical books, costs that are
irrelevant to digital publication. Literary agents
marketing new manuscripts could thus be expected
(40) to demand a significantly bigger slice of revenue for
their authors than has been traditional. But large,
established publishing houses, which are heavily
invested in the infrastructure of traditional publishing,
initially will be reluctant to accede. So the opportunity
(45) to bid for new manuscripts will go first to upstart
digital-publishing firms unfettered by traditional
practices or infrastructure. Under this competitive
pressure, traditional publishers will have to reduce
their redundant functions in order to accommodate
(50) higher royalty payments to authors or else they will
lose their authors. Such adjustments are typical of the
interval between a departing economic model and its
successor and may help explain the caution with
which today's publishing conglomerates are approaching
(55) the digital future.



(C) Digital publishing will be convenient for readers and profitable for publishers but will also result in a great deal of movement by authors among different publishing houses.


The above is just a fact among the others

(E) Digital publishing will transform the economics of the publishing business and in doing so will likely create competitive pressures to pay authors a greater percentage of publishers' net revenue.

From the portions above clearly the economic landscape will change dramatically with new opportunities
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Re: The Internet makes possible the instantaneous transmission and retriev [#permalink]
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Expert Reply
nikitathegreat wrote:
Can someone explain why option choice C is wrong in 1 question?

Which one of the following statements most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(C) Digital publishing will be convenient for readers and profitable for publishers but will also result in a great deal of movement by authors among different publishing houses. - Is this because the passage doesnt mention great deal of movement in the passage? It just says that it will initially shift to digitally publishing firms from traditional firms. Later on these traditional firms will reduce their redundant cost to be competitive in the market. Hence, cant we say there is movement first to digital firms and then probably they will consider these traditional firms too once they become competitive?

(E) Digital publishing will transform the economics of the publishing business and in doing so will likely create competitive pressures to pay authors a greater percentage of publishers' net revenue. - I felt this is stated only in the last few paras and is not the main point of the passage??

Sometimes the structure of the passage will build to the main ­point.

For example, imagine a passage about the NBA playoffs that opens by talking about the Sixers-Knicks series. In paragraph 2, it talks about how the Knicks have more depth. In paragraph 3, it talks about how the Knicks are a better rebounding team. Paragraph 4 talks about the many many years of failures of this Sixers team. And then paragraph 5 concludes that the Knicks will win the series.

The main idea is that the Knicks will win the series, right? And it's fine that this isn't explicitly mentioned until the end, because it's the idea the whole passage is building towards. Any answer choice that only mentioned the Knicks' depth, for instance, wouldn't be the main idea.

Same deal here. We get two and a half paragraphs about how digital publishing affects conventional publishing before concluding, at the end, that the economic model in publishing is changing drastically. (C) is doing the same thing here that an answer choice about the Knicks' rebounding advantage did in the previous example. It's one more detail that leads to a conclusion.

(E), on the other hand, is the conclusion we're building towards, so it's fine that it isn't mentioned until the end.

I hope that clears things up!
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