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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to

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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

http://discovermagazine.com/1996/nov/hotandcoldspotsb935

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a worldwide network of seismometers that chart the movement of seismic waves generated by earthquakes. These waves, originating in Earth’s crust or upper mantle, ricochet around the interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly through hotter rocks.

First glance


The first three choices place a comma after the word interior. The final two choices remove the comma and use the word and. These two clues together signal possible Modifier, Sentence Structure, or Parallelism issues.

Issues

(1) Parallelism: X and Y

Find the X and Y portions that map to the parallelism marker.

(A) most rapidly traveling … and slower

(B) travel most rapidly … and more slowly

(C) traveling most rapidly … and more slowly

(D) most rapidly travel … and slower

(E) travel most rapidly … and slower

Answers (B) and (C) are definitely parallel because both use the –ly versions of the relevant words (rapidly, slowly). Answers (A), (D), and (E) use slower instead of more slowly. Slower is primarily an adjective, not an adverb. While it can be possible in certain circumstances to use slower as an adverb, when parallelism is in play, it’s better to use the strict adverb form to signal clear parallelism: rapidly and slowly. Eliminate choices (A), (D), and (E).

(2) Modifier: which

Answer (B) employs a comma-which modifier. Check to make sure it’s used correctly.

A comma-which modifier should refer back to the closest main noun before the comma. In this case, that noun is interior, which does not make sense. The prior noun is earth’s crust, but this also does not make sense. The logical word is seismic waves but this is too far back to go with the comma-which modifier. Eliminate choice (B).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (C) uses the parallel construction most rapidly and more slowly. It also properly uses a comma –ing modifier, which refers back to the prior action, not just the prior main noun. The prior action is the seismic waves ricochet(ing) around the interior of the earth’s crust.

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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 30 Sep 2015, 06:55.
Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Aug 2018, 23:24, edited 5 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2016, 07:59
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rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 08:13
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dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 07:06
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I think it's C

Slower vs more slowly - it's the latter. hence, B or C. I don't see why there should be a comma in B after 'regions', so I go with C.

souvik101990 wrote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 07:11
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 10:17
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gagan0001 wrote:
dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct


Here verb-ing part is modifying or defining the way seisomometers chart seismic waves. They do so by travelling through different routes in different ways.

The seismometers chart seismic waves by traveling
    most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
    more slowly through hotter rocks.

even if travelling is not mentioend near more slowly it is understood.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 10:53
gagan0001 wrote:
dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct


I see it now. Thanks for the explanation.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 20:58
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meaning relation beteen main clause and comma+doing is varied. So, it is very hard for us to choose between "and do" and "comma+doing" . try to avoid to consider the meaning relation between main clause and comma+doing if we can do so.

comma+doing can show : result of main clause , detail of main clause or method of main clause.

doing and action in main clause can be considered THE SAME.

very hard.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2015, 05:13
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A, D and E: cold, dense regions and slower
Here, a reader might construe that slower is an ADJECTIVE intended to be parallel with cold and dense (both adjectives).
The intended meaning is for slower to serve as an ADVERB modifying traveling.
B and C convey this meaning more clearly by using the parallel forms most rapidly and more slowly:
MOST RAPIDLY through cold, dense regions and MORE SLOWLY through hotter rocks.
Eliminate A, D and E.

The referent for which + PLURAL VERB must be the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
B: waves that originate...which travel
Here, which travel (which + PLURAL VERB) seems to refer to waves (the nearest preceding plural noun).
As a result, that and which both have the same referent (waves).
Two different pronouns cannot have the same referent.
Eliminate B.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2015, 20:44
Mechmeera wrote:
gagan0001 wrote:
dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct


Here verb-ing part is modifying or defining the way seisomometers chart seismic waves. They do so by travelling through different routes in different ways.

The seismometers chart seismic waves by traveling
    most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
    more slowly through hotter rocks.

even if travelling is not mentioend near more slowly it is understood.



I do not agree with you here. ING modifier must associate with the subject and verb of the preceded clause. In our case, it is geologists, and the verb is use.
1st use of ing modifier -> show how it is used -> Geologists use smth by travelling... this is illogical.
2nd use of ing modifier -> show results -> Geologists use smth, and this results in travelling more rapidly and slowly...again doesn't add up, since it is the waves that travel, and by analysing the waves, geologists make conclusions.

Tough one, but I believe ING modifier is incorrect here.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2015, 22:19
Hi,

Verb-ing modifier rightly modifies the previous clause.

As per meaning of the sentence we are provided with two cases: Travelling "rapidly" and travelling "slowly".

Also "rapidly" and "slowly" are parallel.

Hence C.

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New post 11 Oct 2015, 22:35
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A, D and E: cold, dense regions and slower
Here, a reader might construe that slower is an ADJECTIVE intended to be parallel with cold and dense (both adjectives).
The intended meaning is for slower to serve as an ADVERB modifying traveling.
B and C convey this meaning more clearly by using the parallel forms most rapidly and more slowly:
MOST RAPIDLY through cold, dense regions and MORE SLOWLY through hotter rocks.
Eliminate A, D and E.

The referent for which + PLURAL VERB must be the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
B: waves that originate...which travel
Here, which travel (which + PLURAL VERB) seems to refer to waves (the nearest preceding plural noun).
As a result, that and which both have the same referent (waves).
Two different pronouns cannot have the same referent.
Eliminate B.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 01:35
Hi souvik101990,

I have following doubts

1) For same Noun, we are using "most", which is used for more than 2 objects, and "more", which is used for 2 objects.
2) We have comma VERBing in C but I am unable to find cause-effect over here.
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New post 15 Oct 2015, 02:53
rohitmanglik wrote:
Hi souvik101990,

I have following doubts

1) For same Noun, we are using "most", which is used for more than 2 objects, and "more", which is used for 2 objects.
2) We have comma VERBing in C but I am unable to find cause-effect over here.


1. Can you elaborate a little bit? With the sentences/answer choices in question.

2. VerbING does not always have to be an effect. It can also simplify modify the subject of the preceding clause, which in this case is "seismic waves".
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 14:23
souvik101990 wrote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower



Can anybody post the Official Explanation to this Question?

Would be really helpful.
Kudos for certain. :)
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2015, 06:45
In Oxford Grammar for EAP (English Grammar and Practice for Academic Purposes) by Oxford

"If meaning is clear, you can also replace connecting words such as because, so, and therefore with a participle."

Hence,

To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and the ricochet around its interior , traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.

can be translated into

To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and the ricochet around its interior , because the seismic waves travel most rapidly through cold dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2015, 18:51
travelling is indeed referring to waves, but in C cold, dense is showing adj list to noun region, which is not parallel.

Please clarify if i am missing anything
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2015, 00:35
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sudhirmadaan wrote:
travelling is indeed referring to waves, but in C cold, dense is showing adj list to noun region, which is not parallel.

Please clarify if i am missing anything



Actually the Adj can be compound together without problem.

For instance,

Johnson and Johnson is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in New Brunswick.

"If one use more than one adj to pre-modify a noun, follow this order : opinion, age, shape, color, origin, material, purpose + noun"


As for Parallelism, actually if one use tree diagram in "Doing Grammar by Prof. Max Morenberg" , the last part can be shown as follow.

1)
traveling / most rapidly / through cold, dense regions / and /more slowly / through hotter rocks.
Vi / Adv Phrase / Prep. Ph : Adv -place / Conj. / Adv Phrase / Prep Ph: Adv - place



I can keep diagraming to the end that shows words by words. For instance, Prep Phrase : Preposition + Noun Phrase : Prepositional Obj
2)
through / cold, dense regions
Prep. / Noun Phrase : Prepositional Object


through / hotter rocks
Prep. / Noun Phrase : Prepositional Object


3)
cold, dense / regions
Adj Ph / Noun Phrase

hotter / rocks
Adj Ph / Noun Phrase


Hope this is clear.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2016, 13:30
Hi, can someone explain why does "[C] traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks" not cause confusion? I think "traveling ..." could also be interpreted as a modifier of the subject "geologists."

For example: Geologists use a network to chart X waves that originate in the earth's crust, hoping to understand X waves in more detail.

Thanks.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2016, 02:35
souvik101990 wrote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower


I do not choose c because I think "traveling" can not modify "originate" logically.
more clear errors is "which" in B and "slower" in a,d and e.
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