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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to

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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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A
B
C
D
E

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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.


(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower


http://discovermagazine.com/1996/nov/hotandcoldspotsb935

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a worldwide network of seismometers that chart the movement of seismic waves generated by earthquakes. These waves, originating in Earth’s crust or upper mantle, ricochet around the interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly through hotter rocks.

First glance


The first three choices place a comma after the word interior. The final two choices remove the comma and use the word and. These two clues together signal possible Modifier, Sentence Structure, or Parallelism issues.

Issues

(1) Parallelism: X and Y

Find the X and Y portions that map to the parallelism marker.

(A) most rapidly traveling … and slower

(B) travel most rapidly … and more slowly

(C) traveling most rapidly … and more slowly

(D) most rapidly travel … and slower

(E) travel most rapidly … and slower

Answers (B) and (C) are definitely parallel because both use the –ly versions of the relevant words (rapidly, slowly). Answers (A), (D), and (E) use slower instead of more slowly. Slower is primarily an adjective, not an adverb. While it can be possible in certain circumstances to use slower as an adverb, when parallelism is in play, it’s better to use the strict adverb form to signal clear parallelism: rapidly and slowly. Eliminate choices (A), (D), and (E).

(2) Modifier: which

Answer (B) employs a comma-which modifier. Check to make sure it’s used correctly.

A comma-which modifier should refer back to the closest main noun before the comma. In this case, that noun is interior, which does not make sense. The prior noun is earth’s crust, but this also does not make sense. The logical word is seismic waves but this is too far back to go with the comma-which modifier. Eliminate choice (B).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (C) uses the parallel construction most rapidly and more slowly. It also properly uses a comma –ing modifier, which refers back to the prior action, not just the prior main noun. The prior action is the seismic waves ricochet(ing) around the interior of the earth’s crust.

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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 30 Sep 2015, 05:55.
Last edited by Bunuel on 31 Oct 2018, 00:18, edited 6 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2016, 06:59
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rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 07:13
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dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 06:06
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I think it's C

Slower vs more slowly - it's the latter. hence, B or C. I don't see why there should be a comma in B after 'regions', so I go with C.

souvik101990 wrote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 06:11
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 09:17
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gagan0001 wrote:
dipanjan_1988 wrote:
Ans E?
A,B and C are modifying the interior and not the waves.
D is not parallel.


C is not modifying the interior but it is modifying the whole preceding phrase.
the comma + ing phrase can be used to show cause and effect relationship as well as to give extra info about the preceding phrase.
Here the modifier is performing the latter part.

And between slower and more slowly we require adverb to modify travelling. So more slowly is correct


Here verb-ing part is modifying or defining the way seisomometers chart seismic waves. They do so by travelling through different routes in different ways.

The seismometers chart seismic waves by traveling
    most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
    more slowly through hotter rocks.

even if travelling is not mentioend near more slowly it is understood.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 19:58
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meaning relation beteen main clause and comma+doing is varied. So, it is very hard for us to choose between "and do" and "comma+doing" . try to avoid to consider the meaning relation between main clause and comma+doing if we can do so.

comma+doing can show : result of main clause , detail of main clause or method of main clause.

doing and action in main clause can be considered THE SAME.

very hard.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2015, 04:13
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A, D and E: cold, dense regions and slower
Here, a reader might construe that slower is an ADJECTIVE intended to be parallel with cold and dense (both adjectives).
The intended meaning is for slower to serve as an ADVERB modifying traveling.
B and C convey this meaning more clearly by using the parallel forms most rapidly and more slowly:
MOST RAPIDLY through cold, dense regions and MORE SLOWLY through hotter rocks.
Eliminate A, D and E.

The referent for which + PLURAL VERB must be the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
B: waves that originate...which travel
Here, which travel (which + PLURAL VERB) seems to refer to waves (the nearest preceding plural noun).
As a result, that and which both have the same referent (waves).
Two different pronouns cannot have the same referent.
Eliminate B.

The correct answer is C.
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New post 11 Oct 2015, 21:35
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A, D and E: cold, dense regions and slower
Here, a reader might construe that slower is an ADJECTIVE intended to be parallel with cold and dense (both adjectives).
The intended meaning is for slower to serve as an ADVERB modifying traveling.
B and C convey this meaning more clearly by using the parallel forms most rapidly and more slowly:
MOST RAPIDLY through cold, dense regions and MORE SLOWLY through hotter rocks.
Eliminate A, D and E.

The referent for which + PLURAL VERB must be the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
B: waves that originate...which travel
Here, which travel (which + PLURAL VERB) seems to refer to waves (the nearest preceding plural noun).
As a result, that and which both have the same referent (waves).
Two different pronouns cannot have the same referent.
Eliminate B.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2016, 03:20
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I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2016, 03:35
sayantanc2k wrote:
rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.


Thanks, that was useful.
I never considered comma as main decision point until now. Will note this point.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 07:02
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rukna wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.


Thanks, that was useful.
I never considered comma as main decision point until now. Will note this point.


Nonetheless, in a real GMAT question I have never come across an answer being eliminated ONLY because of punctuation issues.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 08:22
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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower : what is most rapidly travelling thru cold? not sure move on!
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly : interior travel? weird!
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly : travelling modifies richocheting and it says "seismeic waves richocheting by travelling through bla bla...." seems correct!
{remember two functions of ",ing" modifier 1. describe the action and should hold logical with the subject performing the same action (use "by" as shown in above example) 2. cause and effect. }
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower : and is wrongly used. read the sentence and youll know how it sounds. (and and and.....) no proper parallelism!
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower : now this "and"puts two things in parallel ..seismic waves that originate and seismic waves that travel most rapidly ...seems correct

between C and E
richocheting means something moving like a bullet ( here richochet is used as a verb) thus intended meaning is to describe that richocheting ..even if intended meaning is not clear go for other split that is C : most rapidly.. and slowly...
E : most rapidly.. and slower .
so C is describing the richocheting (verb) using "slowly" (adverb) correctly but "slower" is comparative form (adjective)
ans : C
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 00:31
jbyx78 wrote:
Hi, is "slower" only used as an ajective or can it also be used as an adverb ? (I came across this issue on the following question) Thanks a lot ! :-D

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic
waves that originate in the earth’s crust and ricochet around its interior, most
rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and
more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more
slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
slower


Keep in mind we need to compare like terms. In each answer, it says, "rapidly." So because there's a comparison, we need "slowly." Elim all but B & C.
C is correct because it's saying [subject] travelling most rapidly...and [implied subject] [implied verb] more slowly. I teach my clients that a common subject is like a fork, and the verbs are like the prongs. If there is a common subject we need verbs and other things to be parallel.
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New post 29 Jan 2017, 20:59
Hi expert,
I would like ask for your thought about option B.
In my 2 cents,"which" could rightly modifies seismic waves.What's wrong is that we now have two modifiers back-to-back--"that originate...," and "which travel most ...".

Is my reasoning correct?
Also,if we want to modifies the same thing,do we always have to use the same relative pronoun--either both "that" or both "which"?

Thanks
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New post 30 Jan 2017, 00:01
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Normally we wouldn't stack two noun modifiers together like that, regardless of whether "which" or "that" is used. In this case, since the first modifier ends in a noun ("interior"), the second modifier ends up incorrectly modifying that noun. That's one of the main reasons we're not going to do well stacking modifiers.

In theory, you could have two modifiers, one essential (using that) and the other non-essential (using which):

The book that I wrote, which comes out this summer, describes my experiences in Iran.

Note that in this case, the first modifier ends in a verb, not a noun, so there's no confusion about what the second noun is modifying.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 10:21
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
- "rapidly" is NOT // w/ "slower"

B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
- ", which" incorrectly refers to "interior". How can interior travel rapidly?

C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
- correct as is.

D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
- same as "A". "rapidly" and slower" are NOT //

E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower
- same as "A". "rapidly" and slower" are NOT //

pretty easy here once you understand that they're testing parallelism. "rapidly" and "slowly" are both adverbs that need be parallel. once you get this, you've got a 50/50 shot!

Kudos please if you find this helpful :)
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2018, 21:24
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower - Incorrect parallelism between 'most rapidly travelling' and 'slower'. It must be 'travelling most rapidly and more slowly...'

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly - Incorrect because 'which' is modifying 'interior' and it does not make sense. It should modify 'waves'.

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly - Correct. Verb+ing modifying the waves. And parallelism is maintained between 'most rapidly' and 'more slowly'. Verb ING applies to both now.

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower - Tempting but incorrect. Parallelism lost as mentioned in option A.

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower - Tempting but incorrect. Not confident but parallelism not clear. Not sure of meaning error here. Please assist. GMATNinja
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 00:12
There's a simple problem with E. It says "waves that originate AND richochet AND that travel." That looks like a mess of conjunctions and an unneeded second "that"! If we wanted to justify the last part by saying it's "that originate and ricochet" AND "that travel," we'd need to have a reason to separate that third verb out. The version in C makes much more sense. "Traveling rapidly/slowly" is what the waves do WHILE they're ricocheting, and an adverbial modifier ("traveling") is the way to express that.

As for "most rapidly/slower," that *can* be parallel. Fast and slow are funny words, in that they are used as both adjectives and adverbs. Language can be funny that way.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 22:21
daagh AjiteshArun DmitryFarber sayantanc2k souvik101990
I considered cold,dense region and slower as parallel
So I rejected more slowly
Since if cold,dense region and slower are not parallel as per the intended meaning mentioned in above post
Don't we need a and between cold and dense region since both are separate
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