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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2019, 17:00
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer! First, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few places we can focus on:

1. most rapidly traveling / travel most rapidly / traveling most rapidly / most rapidly travel
2. slower / more slowly
3. comma vs. no comma before "and"


Since #1 on our list seems a bit complicated, let's start with #2 on our list because it should eliminate 2-3 options quickly. This is an issue of parallelism, so let's make sure the two adverbs are written using the same structure:

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

We can eliminate options A, D, & E because they don't use parallel structure when describing the two speeds a seismometer travels in different conditions.

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's see if we can find any other problems to eliminate one of these options, leaving us with the correct choice:

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

This is INCORRECT for two reasons. First, using the comma + which creates a modifier that must refer back to the nearest preceding noun. In this case, that noun is "interior," which isn't what's traveling - the seismometer is! Second, there shouldn't be a comma before the "and" here. It's connecting two dependent clauses together, so it doesn't need a comma. We only use ",and" when connecting two independent clauses or when introducing the last item in a list. Since this is neither of those instances, it's not necessary.

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

This is CORRECT! It's clear that the phrase that begins with "traveling" is referring back to the seismometer, it uses parallel structure (rapidly/slowly), and it doesn't have that extra comma before "and."


There you have it - option C is the correct choice!


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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2019, 07:38
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teaser,

"cold, dense" are coordinate adjectives that do not require conjunction between them.

Please google 'coordinate adjectives" and get the correct picture.

About B:

Quote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly through hotter rocks.


The simple way to eliminate choice B is for the wrong reference of the pronoun 'which". Earth's interior cannot travel and therefore the pronoun's placement next to 'interior' is a lethal flaw. As we may see, the relative pronoun cannot jump over the verb 'originate' and refer to the waves.

One point in C about the modification of the present participle preceded by a comma should be kept in mind. If there are two clauses before the comma +verbing modifier, we must be always being concerned about the subject and the action of the immediate previous clause and not the farther clause. It would not matter whether the previous clause is a relative clause or a subordinate clause. In the given context, 'geologists', the subject of the main clause, has no locus standi to be in contention with 'waves'.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2019, 08:05
souvik101990 wrote:
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower


IMO C

In this scientists are using a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate and which region does it traverse through
With this in mind

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
Parallelism is lost, most rapidly, it should be slowly

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
Ambiguous referent of which ->Out

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
Correct Answer

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
Parallelism is lost, most rapidly, it should be slowly

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower ->Out
and that, IMO means that there are two waves which are moving
one which originated and the one which travel
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2019, 17:18
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.


(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower (most rapidly is not parallel with slower)

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly (,Which modifying interior. Q. Can interior travel most rapidly? (wrong)

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly ( Sub+Verb,...., Verb+ing)--> Cause and effect. Correctly use. Correct answer.

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower (most rapidly is not parallel with slower)

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower(most rapidly is not parallel with slower)
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2019, 07:45
To map Earth`s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that "originate" in the earth`s crust and ricochet around its interior???"traveling" most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly.

Why C option with modifier Traveling with -ing but the previous verb "originate" doesn't use -ing modifier as the original article - (refer to the second sentence) http://discovermagazine.com/1996/nov/ho ... dspotsb935?
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2019, 22:35
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.


(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

This is a parallelism concept question, So Correct answer is most rapidly .....................more slowly

So eliminate A,D,E

Between B and C ,

B say Interior, which travel most rapidly: It means interior which is traveling which is wrong. So correct answer is C.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to   [#permalink] 11 Jun 2019, 22:35

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