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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2016, 03:20
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I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2016, 03:35
sayantanc2k wrote:
rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.


Thanks, that was useful.
I never considered comma as main decision point until now. Will note this point.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 07:02
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rukna wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.


Thanks, that was useful.
I never considered comma as main decision point until now. Will note this point.


Nonetheless, in a real GMAT question I have never come across an answer being eliminated ONLY because of punctuation issues.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 08:22
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower : what is most rapidly travelling thru cold? not sure move on!
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly : interior travel? weird!
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly : travelling modifies richocheting and it says "seismeic waves richocheting by travelling through bla bla...." seems correct!
{remember two functions of ",ing" modifier 1. describe the action and should hold logical with the subject performing the same action (use "by" as shown in above example) 2. cause and effect. }
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower : and is wrongly used. read the sentence and youll know how it sounds. (and and and.....) no proper parallelism!
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower : now this "and"puts two things in parallel ..seismic waves that originate and seismic waves that travel most rapidly ...seems correct

between C and E
richocheting means something moving like a bullet ( here richochet is used as a verb) thus intended meaning is to describe that richocheting ..even if intended meaning is not clear go for other split that is C : most rapidly.. and slowly...
E : most rapidly.. and slower .
so C is describing the richocheting (verb) using "slowly" (adverb) correctly but "slower" is comparative form (adjective)
ans : C

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2016, 09:06
kevinyuan136 wrote:
Hi, can someone explain why does "[C] traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks" not cause confusion? I think "traveling ..." could also be interpreted as a modifier of the subject "geologists."

For example: Geologists use a network to chart X waves that originate in the earth's crust, hoping to understand X waves in more detail.

Thanks.


The present participle modifier is not modifying the geologists.
I will try to break the sentence for better understanding.

To map Earth's interior,
geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves
that
originate in the earth's crust
and ricochet around its interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.

Here that is a relative pronoun modifier which refers to Seismic waves(SW).
therefore if we substitute that with Seismic waves, we get
Seismic waves originate in earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.
So here the verb+ing modifier is modifying Seismic waves ricochet around earth's interior as
Seismic waves ricochet around earth's interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.

So the verb+ing modifier is not modifying the geologists here. There is presence of another S-V pair which is followed by verb+ing modifier.
For the modifier to modify the first clause, it should be placed next to that clause.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 00:21
Hi, is "slower" only used as an ajective or can it also be used as an adverb ? (I came across this issue on the following question) Thanks a lot ! :-D

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic
waves that originate in the earth’s crust and ricochet around its interior, most
rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and
more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more
slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
slower

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 00:31
jbyx78 wrote:
Hi, is "slower" only used as an ajective or can it also be used as an adverb ? (I came across this issue on the following question) Thanks a lot ! :-D

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic
waves that originate in the earth’s crust and ricochet around its interior, most
rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and
more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more
slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
slower


Keep in mind we need to compare like terms. In each answer, it says, "rapidly." So because there's a comparison, we need "slowly." Elim all but B & C.
C is correct because it's saying [subject] travelling most rapidly...and [implied subject] [implied verb] more slowly. I teach my clients that a common subject is like a fork, and the verbs are like the prongs. If there is a common subject we need verbs and other things to be parallel.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 03:22
jbyx78

Please format the question properly and follow the forum rules while posting.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2016, 01:34
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

I thought C is wrong because "travelling" refers to "seismic waves" but Verb-ing refers to subject of "Previous action" - so in this case subject of " originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" - Seismic Waves.

We need " More rapidly" -- "more slowly" so A, D & E is wrong.
In B- which is referring to "interior". Nonsensical.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2016, 04:25
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
- rapidly and slower are not parallel. Verb-ing is not common to both adjectives
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
– changes meaning, which now modifies the interior of earth crust instead of waves as intended in the original statement
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
- correct
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
– changes meaning and parallelism structure of rapidly and slower, awkward
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower
– waves should be they, not that. And should be preceded by comma (Independent Clause). Rapidly and slower are not parallel

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2016, 05:25
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior,

Now Fit in all options to check the continuity after seismic waves

(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower - makes no sense

(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly - which is for interior , so wrong

(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly - Correct

(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower - and makes no connection to main clause

(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower - and makes no connection to main clause
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2017, 01:55
Hi,

We can eliminate by observing that rapidly and slowly should be used instead of rapidly and slower.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower --
B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly
C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly
D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower

Now we are left out with options A and C. Again " , which " is not very clear explaining so we can eliminate that also.

IMO by POE option C is correct.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2017, 20:59
Hi expert,
I would like ask for your thought about option B.
In my 2 cents,"which" could rightly modifies seismic waves.What's wrong is that we now have two modifiers back-to-back--"that originate...," and "which travel most ...".

Is my reasoning correct?
Also,if we want to modifies the same thing,do we always have to use the same relative pronoun--either both "that" or both "which"?

Thanks

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2017, 00:01
Normally we wouldn't stack two noun modifiers together like that, regardless of whether "which" or "that" is used. In this case, since the first modifier ends in a noun ("interior"), the second modifier ends up incorrectly modifying that noun. That's one of the main reasons we're not going to do well stacking modifiers.

In theory, you could have two modifiers, one essential (using that) and the other non-essential (using which):

The book that I wrote, which comes out this summer, describes my experiences in Iran.

Note that in this case, the first modifier ends in a verb, not a noun, so there's no confusion about what the second noun is modifying.
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2017, 09:19
The logical structure of the sentence is:

...geologists use a network of seismometers to A [chart seismic waves] that B [originate in the earth's crust] and C [ricochet around its interior]. The waves travel most rapidly through cold and dense regions and slowly through hotter rocks.

A) This option is wrong because "slower" must be parallel to "rapidly" and thus should take the form "slowly".

B) "which" makes an illogical reference to "interior".

D) The structure "cold, dense regions, and slower" makes slower a part of a wrong list.
"waves that originate...and most rapidly travel" does not form parallel structure.

E) This option is wrong because "slower" must be parallel to "rapidly" and thus should take the form "slowly".

Thus, option C.

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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2017, 06:17
sayantanc2k wrote:
rukna wrote:
I was stuck b/w C and E.

In C, I thought that there is ambiguity on who is travelling => the waves or geologists. So, I thought that was wrong.
Can someone explain why is this right then.


A present participle modifier refers to the subject of the preceding clause or the entire preceding clause.

In this case the clause " that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior" is the preceding clause, and hence the present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." refers to the subject "that" of the previous clause; the pronoun "that" here is used to replace "waves".

Consider that the entire present participle modifier "traveling most rapidly...." is nested within the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks."

You are right in thinking that there could be a bit of ambiguity since the present participle clause "travelling...." could refer to "Geologists", if one considers that it is outside the relative clause "that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its.......through hotter rocks." However in that case we would have to choose E as the correct answer, which has a more severe problem as follows:

E is wrong because two clauses are joined just with "and" not with comma + "and".

Wrong: I play and I sing
Right: I play, and I sing
Right: I play and sing.

Similarly,
Wrong: that originate and ricochet and that travel
Right: that originate and ricochet, and that travel
Right: that originate, ricochet and travel

Moreover option E does not depict the bearing between ricocheting and travelling and considers them as two different activities.



I am confused between C and E.

I do understand that E can be eliminated as slower is not parallel to most rapidly.

However, OG mentions this for eliminating E. "Adding a relative clause "and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower..." makes the sentence wordy and awkward.

What is a relative clause? How is this awkward and wordy!?

Is E not following this formula :Geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in .....interior and that travel most rapidly ...through hotter rocks.

--> to chart seismic waves that verb A and that verb B.....


Granted that the two independent clauses should be separated by a comma. ( seismic waves that verb A, and that verb B)
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 17:53
To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, most rapidly traveling through cold. dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.

A. interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower

B. interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and more slowly

C. interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly

D. interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower

E. interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and slower
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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How does one identify those clauses and how can i say in this below sentence clause given is restrictive or non-restrictive

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic
waves that originate in the earth’s crust and ricochet around its interior, most
rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and
more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more
slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
slower
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Re: To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 05:17
rahulkiller321 wrote:
How does one identify those clauses and how can i say in this below sentence clause given is restrictive or non-restrictive

To map Earth’s interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic
waves that originate in the earth’s crust and ricochet around its interior, most
rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower through hotter rocks.
(A) interior, most rapidly traveling through cold, dense regions and slower
(B) interior, which travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions, and
more slowly
(C) interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more
slowly
(D) interior and most rapidly travel through cold, dense regions, and slower
(E) interior and that travel most rapidly through cold, dense regions and
slower


(A),(D) and (E) are gone."Travel most rapidly..." must be parallel with [travel] more slowly
(B) is incorrect. The placement of "WHICH" doesn't make any sense-- earth's interior can't move !?

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To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to

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