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V02-35

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 01:58
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In most industries the rising cost of support services actually passes a greater financial burden to customers; in the legal profession, for example, a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

A. has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.
B. has made many attorneys raise their hourly rates.
C. has meant that many attorneys are being forced to raise their hourly rates.
D. forces many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.
E. is meaning that many attorneys are raising their hourly rates by force.

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 01:58
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Official Solution:

In most industries the rising cost of support services actually passes a greater financial burden to customers; in the legal profession, for example, a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

A. has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.
B. has made many attorneys raise their hourly rates.
C. has meant that many attorneys are being forced to raise their hourly rates.
D. forces many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.
E. is meaning that many attorneys are raising their hourly rates by force.

  1. The present perfect tense has forced does not take into account the fact that the rising costs are a current trend.
  2. Has made incorrectly uses the past tense; the phrase is also both informal and imprecise.
  3. Has meant incorrectly uses the past tense. Has meant and are being forced use inconsistent verb tenses, and are unnecessary phrases.
  4. The word 'forces' is correctly used.
  5. By force is a misplaced modifier that confuses the meaning of the sentence; is meaning is an imprecise phrase.

Answer: D
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New post 23 Nov 2015, 09:31
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With all due respect, but I do not agree with Official answer here. A is correct as well, because it also reflects something which is present, we do not know when the current climb happened. Even if it happened now, at the time of writing the sentence "has" could be correctly used.

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New post 12 Dec 2015, 11:17
Yes I agree with sa2222.
Option (A) uses present perfect tense which means that many attorneys are still in effect of raising their hourly rates. So it is still in effect.
Please let know why (A) is wrong.
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New post 15 Feb 2016, 02:50
Hi Experts/ daagh / chetan2u,

Can you please tell why is A wrong.....?
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New post 24 Feb 2016, 19:36
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Avisek47 wrote:
Yes I agree with sa2222.
Option (A) uses present perfect tense which means that many attorneys are still in effect of raising their hourly rates. So it is still in effect.
Please let know why (A) is wrong.


Hi Avisek, option A means that, the increase has already happened and itss effects are still in place.
Option D states the increase is still in effect.

If you look closely there is a slight hint of Parallelism also, you got to make a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced
parallel to rising cost of support services actually passes a greater financial burden

Since the former is an example of latter. Even i chose A instead of D. But now realize that D was the correct one.

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 04:58
I think this is a high-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. in the question , The sentence after for example :

'a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.'
is an example which is showing the effect of current climb in the cost of court reporting. since its an example it must show a phenomena which has happened.the impact has happened.
A current climb forces attornies to raise will mean when climb in cost happens attorneys are forced to raise hourly rate.
option A meaning as deduced by me -
the climb in cost happened and hence attornies are forced to raise hourly rates.How is it wrong
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New post 18 Jun 2016, 11:48
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gbansal1990 wrote:
I think this is a high-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. in the question , The sentence after for example :

'a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.'
is an example which is showing the effect of current climb in the cost of court reporting. since its an example it must show a phenomena which has happened.the impact has happened.
A current climb forces attornies to raise will mean when climb in cost happens attorneys are forced to raise hourly rate.
option A meaning as deduced by me -
the climb in cost happened and hence attornies are forced to raise hourly rates.How is it wrong


The important word here is "current". The climb is current, i.e. in the present; therefore effect of the "climb" can either be in present or in future. Thus " forces", "is forcing" or "will force" are three possible verbs that can be used to describe the effect of the current climb. Usage of past perfect implies that the many attorneys were "forced" in the past (though the effect is still there- hence present perfect). This is not the correct form since current climb could NOT have forced the attorneys in the past.
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New post 15 Jul 2016, 08:02
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Hi

I eliminated option choice D because we use simple present to express habitual actions/universal truths/principles.

For example, if we want to state a general phenomenon

A climb in the cost of reporting forces many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

The use of simple present is correct.

However in the question statement it first states a general rule and then quotes an example

General Rule - In most industries the rising cost of support services actually passes a greater financial burden to customers;

Example - in the legal profession, for example, a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

It is incorrect to use simple present in the example, use of present perfect is alright.

Consider another example.

A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

It would be wrong to say ( It is not a general phenomenon )

A current strike by terrorists forces the government to call military.


Experts kindly comment.

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New post 18 Jul 2016, 12:14
sahilmalhotra01 wrote:
Hi

I eliminated option choice D because we use simple present to express habitual actions/universal truths/principles.

For example, if we want to state a general phenomenon

A climb in the cost of reporting forces many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

The use of simple present is correct.

However in the question statement it first states a general rule and then quotes an example

General Rule - In most industries the rising cost of support services actually passes a greater financial burden to customers;

Example - in the legal profession, for example, a current climb in the cost of court reporting has forced many attorneys to raise their hourly rates.

It is incorrect to use simple present in the example, use of present perfect is alright.

Consider another example.

A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

It would be wrong to say ( It is not a general phenomenon )

A current strike by terrorists forces the government to call military.


Experts kindly comment.

Thanks
Sahil


Just above your post, it is explained why present perfect is not correct. Probably you missed it:

v02-184809.html#p1698600

Or don't you agree with the reasoning?
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New post 18 Jul 2016, 20:23
sayantanc2k wrote:

Just above your post, it is explained why present perfect is not correct. Probably you missed it:

v02-184809.html#p1698600

Or don't you agree with the reasoning?


Before posting the query i have gone through the above post, but i still feel that usage of simple present tense is incorrect in this context. The reason for the same i have already mentioned in my post.
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New post 19 Jul 2016, 00:40
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sahilmalhotra01 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Just above your post, it is explained why present perfect is not correct. Probably you missed it:

v02-184809.html#p1698600

Or don't you agree with the reasoning?


Before posting the query i have gone through the above post, but i still feel that usage of simple present tense is incorrect in this context. The reason for the same i have already mentioned in my post.


Ok, let me try to put forward my reasoning in further details:

Suppose event 1 results in event 2.

If event 1 happens in present, result event 2 could not have happened in the past.

Event 1 = cost of court climbs.
Event 2 = attorneys are forced.

Event 1 happens in the present ( current event). Thus event 2 could not have happened in the past ( use of present perfect " has forced" indicates that the event of "forcing" occured in the past, i.e. before the event "climbing").

An example can be a general occurance as well. It need not necessarily be a specific occurance. Consider the following:
The nature is governed by many laws: for example, sun rises in the east.

Now coming to your example:

A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

For the same reason as described above, your sentence is wrong. If the strike is CURRENT, it could not have forced the government before the strike was made. Of course the following sentence could be correct:
A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

If you do not agree with this reasoning, please let me know which part in this reasoning do you feel is illlogical.
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New post 15 Aug 2016, 09:20
sayantanc2k wrote:
sahilmalhotra01 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Or don't you agree with the reasoning?


Before posting the query i have gone through the above post, but i still feel that usage of simple present tense is incorrect in this context. The reason for the same i have already mentioned in my post.


Ok, let me try to put forward my reasoning in further details:

Suppose event 1 results in event 2.

If event 1 happens in present, result event 2 could not have happened in the past.

Event 1 = cost of court climbs.
Event 2 = attorneys are forced.

Event 1 happens in the present ( current event). Thus event 2 could not have happened in the past ( use of present perfect " has forced" indicates that the event of "forcing" occured in the past, i.e. before the event "climbing").

An example can be a general occurance as well. It need not necessarily be a specific occurance. Consider the following:
The nature is governed by many laws: for example, sun rises in the east.

Now coming to your example:

A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

For the same reason as described above, your sentence is wrong. If the strike is CURRENT, it could not have forced the government before the strike was made. Of course the following sentence could be correct:
A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

If you do not agree with this reasoning, please let me know which part in this reasoning do you feel is illlogical.



Hi,
I have a doubt here, according to my understanding, isn't Current an adjective? does it really mean right now the cost is climbing.
I would like to quote the another example,
A lethal strike by terrorist has forced the government to call military.
isn't this sentence parallel to the one in question.
If yes, then option A should be correct.

Can any expert please help?
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New post 16 Aug 2016, 10:14
yuvaksh wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Ok, let me try to put forward my reasoning in further details:

Suppose event 1 results in event 2.

If event 1 happens in present, result event 2 could not have happened in the past.

Event 1 = cost of court climbs.
Event 2 = attorneys are forced.

Event 1 happens in the present ( current event). Thus event 2 could not have happened in the past ( use of present perfect " has forced" indicates that the event of "forcing" occured in the past, i.e. before the event "climbing").

An example can be a general occurance as well. It need not necessarily be a specific occurance. Consider the following:
The nature is governed by many laws: for example, sun rises in the east.

Now coming to your example:

A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

For the same reason as described above, your sentence is wrong. If the strike is CURRENT, it could not have forced the government before the strike was made. Of course the following sentence could be correct:
A Current strike by terrorists has forced the government to call military.

If you do not agree with this reasoning, please let me know which part in this reasoning do you feel is illlogical.



Hi,
I have a doubt here, according to my understanding, isn't Current an adjective? does it really mean right now the cost is climbing.
I would like to quote the another example,
A lethal strike by terrorist has forced the government to call military.
isn't this sentence parallel to the one in question.
If yes, then option A should be correct.

Can any expert please help?


The adjective "current" conveys that the event it refers to is happening in the present. The word "lethal" on the other hand does not indicate any time frame. Hence the sentence you mentioned is perfectly alright, but replacing "lethal" with " current" would make the sentence wrong.
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New post 25 Aug 2016, 08:20
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. D is wrong - forces many attorneys means it is unclear whther this is actually happening or not.

If anything, A is ok, but you can use "is forcing in option D"
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New post 26 Aug 2016, 10:57
bitun10 wrote:
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. D is wrong - forces many attorneys means it is unclear whther this is actually happening or not.

If anything, A is ok, but you can use "is forcing in option D"


Use of simple present tense implies that the event occurs nowadays.

Option D implies that the climb is current and nowadays this current climb forces attorneys. There is no problem with using simple present.

Option A (use of present perfect) is wrong because of the reason stated in these posts:
v02-184809.html#p1698600
v02-184809.html#p1711583
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New post 08 Sep 2016, 14:38
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The expert's explanation seems invalid to me. "Current" here does not necessarily mean that it is only happening at the moment. From this situation, "Current" can also imply that the action started in the past and continues to the present. The effect of this action could start in the past also. Therefore, "Present perfect" is the right answer here.

We can see tons of example like:

THE CURRENT CRISIS HAS CALLED INTO QUESTION THE IDEA OF A GREATER EUROPE, OR A WAY OF BRINGING TOGETHER ALL ENDS OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT INTO A NEW GROUPING

The current crisis has triggered significant debate concerning economic theory and policy

The current crisis has been precipitated by numerous factors; there is no one single cause to which we can point

The current crisis has demonstrated the importance of a coordinated framework for crisis managemen
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New post 09 Sep 2016, 10:30
gomax1199 wrote:
The expert's explanation seems invalid to me. "Current" here does not necessarily mean that it is only happening at the moment. From this situation, "Current" can also imply that the action started in the past and continues to the present. The effect of this action could start in the past also. Therefore, "Present perfect" is the right answer here.

We can see tons of example like:

THE CURRENT CRISIS HAS CALLED INTO QUESTION THE IDEA OF A GREATER EUROPE, OR A WAY OF BRINGING TOGETHER ALL ENDS OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT INTO A NEW GROUPING

The current crisis has triggered significant debate concerning economic theory and policy

The current crisis has been precipitated by numerous factors; there is no one single cause to which we can point

The current crisis has demonstrated the importance of a coordinated framework for crisis managemen


My explanation to your post will be in the same line as the following - first read this post and then continue with the explanation below:
v02-184809.html#p1723265

Your example is more difficult to explain than the one in the previous post, since your example contains the word "current" - but my argument would be in the same line:

First the word "current" necessarily means " of the present".

Say a crisis has started some time ago and is still continuing - Provided that there has been no change in the crisis situation after it started, it is alright to say that some effect of the "current crisis" may have occurred in the past because the "current" crisis is the same as that started some time ago.

The same argument is not valid for a "climb" - a "current climb" cannot be same as the climb when it started, because the very climb changes the point (or value) from which it climbs - The current climb happens at a higher value whereas the previous climb happened at a lower value. Therefore the "current climb" can cause something to happen in present or in future - not in the past. (If this argument does not make sense and you are more comfortable with some mathematical analogy, then consider this way: Suppose a value is rising - the derivative at a lower value is not same as the derivative at a higher value. Saying that the derivative at the higher value causes something to happen is not same as saying that the derivative at the lower value causes the same thing to happen.)

Please let me know whether you agree (or disagree) with this explanation.
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New post 09 Sep 2016, 15:51
Thank you so much for your time, we really appreciate that.

If I'm pushing the problem too far, please disregard my reply. But my two cents is that, "climb" here does not bear a degree or level value, upon which you may decide that "climb" in the past is different from "climb" in the present. I think "climb" here is a concept describing an action of moving from lower value (degree) to higher ones. The concept itself is the same. If we go with mathematics analogy, there is no difference in nature between a climb "from 1 to 2" in the past and a climb "from 4 to 5" in the present. What I mean to say is that the noun represents more of a concept rather than bears a value implication with it.

At the moment we said, it's very likely that the climb has already started in the past and we already saw its impact and the impact is still there at the moment, as is the "climb". That's why we should use Present perfect. Besides, I do agree with a reply from another member that "simple present to express habitual actions/universal truths/principles". The descriptive tone of the passage makes the use of simple present unnatural.

Again, I quote some example here:
The current decrease in the number of homeless and houseless people has given rise to alternative services, all aimed to reduce the hardships they experience. Jessica O’Donnell reports
Indeed the current decrease in the number of ‘immigrants’ has led to public criticism of the federal government (Ibbitson, 2003).
The current increase in the usage of electricity as a primary source of energy has created exceeding application of batteries and energy storage devices, particularly capacitors
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New post 10 Sep 2016, 07:51
gomax1199 wrote:
Thank you so much for your time, we really appreciate that.

If I'm pushing the problem too far, please disregard my reply. But my two cents is that, "climb" here does not bear a degree or level value, upon which you may decide that "climb" in the past is different from "climb" in the present. I think "climb" here is a concept describing an action of moving from lower value (degree) to higher ones. The concept itself is the same. If we go with mathematics analogy, there is no difference in nature between a climb "from 1 to 2" in the past and a climb "from 4 to 5" in the present. What I mean to say is that the noun represents more of a concept rather than bears a value implication with it.

At the moment we said, it's very likely that the climb has already started in the past and we already saw its impact and the impact is still there at the moment, as is the "climb". That's why we should use Present perfect. Besides, I do agree with a reply from another member that "simple present to express habitual actions/universal truths/principles". The descriptive tone of the passage makes the use of simple present unnatural.

Again, I quote some example here:
The current decrease in the number of homeless and houseless people has given rise to alternative services, all aimed to reduce the hardships they experience. Jessica O’Donnell reports
Indeed the current decrease in the number of ‘immigrants’ has led to public criticism of the federal government (Ibbitson, 2003).
The current increase in the usage of electricity as a primary source of energy has created exceeding application of batteries and energy storage devices, particularly capacitors


Your line of argument is strong and is difficult to refute - yet I see a rise or decrease or increase as a changing phenomenon and therefore a current status of such a phenomenon cannot be same as a past status. At this point I would say that we have both understood each other's reasoning but do not agree. If we can find an official question on this issue, then we shall be able to conclude what is acceptable in GMAT - that is what finally matters. I shall keep a tab on this issue and revert to you if I find some official material.
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