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# A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected

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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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unuk50 wrote:
A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

i) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
ii) 125 of the company's employees are men

Ans: A
i) if 130 of 255 employees are those without a college degree => <50% have a college degree => Sufficient
ii) 125 of 255 are male => 130 are female => either possibility exists: possibility that all 130 have a college degree, or possibility that <128 have a college degree. Insufficient.

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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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Question asks if combined probability is less than .5 ?

--> if we can estabilish that one of the two probability is less than .5 then we know that even 1(full probability) * 0.49(anything less than .5) = less than .5

--> A tells that the probability is less than .5 (255-130=125 and 125/255 is less than .5) -- sufficient
--> B clearly not sufficient
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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Question stem gives us the number of total employees = 255 and asks us -Is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman having a degree?
So we have to find out is the number of women who have a college degree is half of the total employee?
Mathematically speaking --->Number of women $$\frac{255 X 1}{2} <127.5$$ ??? (This is the crux of the argument)
Since women cannot be half, the numerical figure has to be <128
The other way to see this problem is $$P(Women with degree) =\frac{(Number of women with degree)}{Total employee} <\frac{1}{2}$$

Statement 1)
130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
It means that 125 people have college degree (These include both men and women)
Now lets look at the maximum probability that all women have college degree.
Women with college degree = 255-130 = 125 (Meaning All women that have college degree are 125 in number)
Notice how even if ALL the women have college degree, it is still not $$\frac{1}{2}$$
So the probability of being a woman and having a college degree cannot ever be $$\frac{1}{2}$$ because $$\frac{125}{255}$$is always less than$$\frac{1}{2}$$
Statement 1 gives a definite NO

SO SUFFICIENT (Now the answer can be only A or D)

Statement 2)
125 of the company's employees are men, Meaning (255-125) = 130 are women.
Lets work with the assumption that all 130 are with college degree
Is 130 < 128 (Remember we got this from Stimulus) ---> No
It can also be interpreted as :- $$Is \frac{130}{255} <\frac{1}{2}$$

Now lets again work with the assumption that NONE of 130 are with college degree.
MIN prob = None of these 130 are college holders..
0 < 128----> Yes
It can also be interpreted as :-$$Is \frac{0}{255}<\frac{1}{2}$$
The answer in this case is YES

Statement 2 is not giving definite answers. Sometimes it is YES and sometimes it is NO
Therefore not sufficient (Since B is not sufficient then the combined Option D also goes to garbage bin and only Option A remains)

Bunuel wrote:
A company has 255 employees. If one employee is randomly selected, is the probability that the employee a woman and has a college degree less than 1/2?

(1) 135 employees do not have a college degree.
(2) 125 are men.

Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 09 Jul 2016, 05:08.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 09 Jul 2016, 06:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
A

people who have college degree =120
consider all are woman then also p<1/2

2)no suff
women are 130 maybe or maybe not
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
Understanding the question
If you look at the 4 possible options that the question stem allows, you will see a Venn Diagram with the following subsets:
- WD: Women Degree
- WN: Women No Degree
- MD: Men Degree
- MN: Men No Degree

The question stem asks whether WD < 0.5, or in other words whether WD < 127.5 (or WD < 128, since humans have to be in integers)

Statement 1
It states that there D = 120 and N = 135. For that reason WD (a subset of D) MUST BE less than 120. Sufficient

Statement 2
It states that M = 125 and W = 130. However, WD (a subset of W) could or could not be less than 128. Not Sufficient.

OA = A
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
It will be awesome if you can make a venn diagram and attach it with your explanation.
Figures and diagrams always help in understanding the answer much more easily and also the retention of such explanation is higher.

minwoswoh wrote:
Understanding the question
If you look at the 4 possible options that the question stem allows, you will see a Venn Diagram with the following subsets:
- WD: Women Degree
- WN: Women No Degree
- MD: Men Degree
- MN: Men No Degree

The question stem asks whether WD < 0.5, or in other words whether WD < 127.5 (or WD < 128, since humans have to be in integers)

Statement 1
It states that there D = 120 and N = 135. For that reason WD (a subset of D) MUST BE less than 120. Sufficient

Statement 2
It states that M = 125 and W = 130. However, WD (a subset of W) could or could not be less than 128. Not Sufficient.

OA = A
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
Tricky one..

Statement 1: 130 i.e. more than half of the total employees (255) don't have college degree.

So even we assume all the other employees i.e. 125 to be women, 125/255 < 1/2.

Statement 2: Similar to the above explanation, this statement is not sufficient, as the probability could be < or > 1/2.
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
Not getting this one
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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shonakshi wrote:
Not getting this one

Let me try helping you out.

Total Employees = 255.

A says 130 donot have the college degree.

=> 255-130 have the college degree = 125.

So, lets say all of these 125 are women.

So, Probability that all of these women have the college degree = MAX probability for women to have the degree = 125/255 <1/2.

Even if I consider that all employees are women, still I will get the max probability for women to have the college degree < 1/2.

Thus, A is sufficient.
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
shonakshi wrote:
Not getting this one

have a look at my post just 3 -4 post earlier to yours ... you will get what the question is asking and how to solve it
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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unuk50 wrote:
A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

(1) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
(2) 125 of the company's employees are men

The question here is the number of women who has College Degree > 127. So, let`s call that x, is x >127
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
Genoa2000 wrote:

Just found it in Exam #5

________________
Done. Thank you.
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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Given: A certain company has 255 employees.
Asked: If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

(1) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree

 Have College degree Do not have College degree Total Men Women Total 125 130 255

There is a probability that an employees selected to have a college degree = 125/255 < 1/2
Even if we assume that all employees are women who have college degrees, then also probability that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree < 1/2
SUFFICIENT

(2) 125 of the company's employees are men

 Have College degree Do not have College degree Total Men 125 Women 130 Total 255

If we assume that all women employees have college degrees, then probability that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree = 130/255 > 1/2
In this case, probability may or may not be <1/2
NOT SUFFICIENT

IMO A
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
unuk50 wrote:
A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

(1) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
(2) 125 of the company's employees are men

Given: An employee is randomly selected

What we need to find out: If the probability of selecting a woman with a college degree is less than 1/2

What we know
(i) Total employees
(ii) Probability of selecting a woman with a college degree <= Probability of selecting a woman
(iii) Probability of selecting a woman with a college degree <= Probability of selecting an employee with a college degree

Statement 1 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree

Probability of selecting an employee with a college degree = (255 - 130)/255 = (125/255) < 127.5/255 or (125/255) <1/2
Therefore, Probability of selecting a woman with a college degree < 1/2

Statement 1 is sufficient

Statement 2 125 of the company's employees are men

Probability of selecting a woman = (255 - 125)/255 = 130/255 > 1/2
Therefore, probability of selecting a woman with a college degree < (some number greater than 1/2)
We cannot conclude whether that number would be greater or lesser than 1/2
Statement 2 is insufficient

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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
Correct Option : A

We need to prove : P(W) < P(D) by 50%
We have :
Company : 255 employees. - 50% of 255 is between 127 or 128, which is either Womens or has Degree.

Statement (1) : 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree : 255 - 130 = 125 Nos
Consider all 125 are women's who has Degree, its still less than 127 or 128 - Condition proved - Sufficient

(2) 125 of the company's employees are men : 255 -125 = 130 Nos
130 Womens are greater than 127 or 128, if all Women have degree, fails to prove the required condition - Not Sufficient, eliminates - B, D, and E.
For C details are not sufficient

Winner A
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability less than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

(1) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
(2) 125 of the company's employees are men

(1) we have 255-130=125 people have a college degree, but we do not know how many of them are female. However, we can know the maximum number of female emloyees with degree is 125, so p<=125/255<1/2, Sufficient
(2)we can know there are 130 employees are female, but we cannot deduce how many of them have a degree. Let's say if 125 of them have a degree, then the probability is less than 1/2, but if all of them have a degree, then the probability will greater than 1/2, so this condition is Not Sufficient.
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Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
How would the response change if the question asked "greater than 1/2" vs the original question?
See below
A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected at random from the company's employees, is the the probability greater than 1/2 that the employee selected will be a woman who has a college degree?

(1) 130 of the company's employees do not have a college degree
(2) 125 of the company's employees are men
Re: A certain company has 255 employees. If an employee is to be selected [#permalink]
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