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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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Passage breakdown


In the first paragraph (P1), the author presents the claim that a certain management system can work with two older systems

  • P. F. Drucker thinks that TQM is consistent with the "rationalist" and "human relations" schools of management.

In the second paragraph, the author qualifies the claim presented in P1:

  • The author argues that "TQM requires fundamentally different strategies."
  • He/she then explains the differences between TQM and the other schools of management.


For more on this process, check out this article and our live RC videos.


Explanations for individual questions


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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.


3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they
A. are primarily interested in increasing profits
B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure
C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability
D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability
E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

Originally posted by bb61 on 12 Aug 2014, 09:22.
Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 21:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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First para states that TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems.

2nd para states that However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems AND
TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

My question is how do these pieces of information in the 2nd paragraph qualify the claim made in the first?? I think answer for Q.2 should be A.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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sunaimshadmani wrote:
First para states that TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems.

2nd para states that However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems AND
TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

My question is how do these pieces of information in the 2nd paragraph qualify the claim made in the first?? I think answer for Q.2 should be A.



TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems but need different strategies. You can't graft TQM onto other system directly. You need different strategies to make sure that TQM can be worked successfully in conjunction with two older management systems.

In other words, you will get the same result as that in 1st paragraph by following different strategies.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
bb61 wrote:
According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.


3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they
A. are primarily interested in increasing profits
B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure
C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability
D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability
E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives



I am confused, the green highlighted ones are the answers or the one with Spoiler?
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
For Q2, I think the main thing is that we have to distinguish what was the point of Drucker and what was the point made by the author. Drucker believed that TQM "can work successfully in conjunction with two other older management systems", while the author did not completely agree. The author agreed that all three share "the ultimate objective of increasing profitability", TQM differs from the other two by requiring "fundamentally different strategies...". that's why the answer C: It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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Took 7 mins :( , including 2 mins 10 seconds to read the passage
-The passage talks about TQM and its relationship with other management systems
- The passage talks about other management systems as well and describes their roles in helping productivity

1.
Option (D) is the right answer as it clearly describes the author’s intent in writing the passage

2.
Answer C

3.
"TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability"
Answer A
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Shrivathsan wrote:
Someone please explain question 2.

where is the claim qualified in second paragraph ?


Qualify a claim means to explain whether the claim is right or wrong.

Here second para is telling that claim is wrong because there are differences between older 2 theories and TQM.

I hope that this will help.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
Hi,

I read your reply to know why C is better than B. I was confused between A and C, finally chose A as most other people did.
Can you please explain how C is better than A?

I see there are contradicting explanations given in second paragraph to explain why TQM strategy can not work or can not be directly worked with other strategies...

Are there any specific keywords in A to identify it as a trap?
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Hi RMD007,

Quote:
I read your reply to know why C is better than B. I was confused between A and C, finally chose A as most other people did.
Can you please explain how C is better than A?

I see there are contradicting explanations given in second paragraph to explain why TQM strategy can not work or can not be directly worked with other strategies...

Are there any specific keywords in A to identify it as a trap?


The claim in the first paragraph is that, "Total Quality Management (TQM) {...} can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems." Paragraph two elaborates on this claim by telling us that TQM cannot work in conjunction with these systems if it is simply grafted onto them; therefore, the second paragraph qualifies the claim by giving us information that limits/modifies the claim.

As for choice A..

Quote:
A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.


All of the information in the second paragraph supports the first sentence of the second paragraph. Nothing in the second paragraph explains a "phenomenon presented in the first paragraph". Furthermore, the second paragraph certainly does not contain contrasting explanations; rather, the statements in paragraph two provide a cohesive explanation of the statement made in the first sentence of paragraph two. In fact, the only thing "contrasted" in the second paragraph is the strategy of TQM with the strategy of the other systems, and this comparison does not explain anything presented in the first paragraph.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
bb61 wrote:
According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.


3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they
A. are primarily interested in increasing profits
B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure
C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability
D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability
E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives




In the primary purpose why not option E ?
could any one explain that ?
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Question 1


Quote:
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

mkumar26 wrote:
In the primary purpose why not option E ?
could any one explain that ?

The first paragraph tells us that "Total Quality Management (TQM) {...} can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems" (the "rationalist" school of scientific management and the "human relations" school of management).

Paragraph two elaborates on this claim by telling us that TQM cannot work in conjunction with such systems if it is simply grafted onto the others. Simply grafting TQM onto those other systems will not work because "TQM requires fundamentally different strategies".

Although the passage certainly discusses differences between TQM strategies and those of other systems, the passage does not explain the advantages of one system over the other. The passage gives us no reason to conclude that TQM is better or worse than the other management systems described. Instead, the passage objectively explains TQM's relationship with certain other management systems, so choice (D) is the best answer.

I hope this helps!
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Thanks ShashankDave for the in-depth explanation! I added a few comments in red, but in general this looks great!

ShashankDave wrote:
Got all Correct. Here's my 2 cents regarding explanations..I request Experts to comment on my analysis.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. point out contradictions in a new management system

No. It's not indicated anywhere in the passage whether any of the discussed management methods is "new" - We can infer that TQM is newer than the two older management systems, but that doesn't tell us how new TQM is. More importantly, the passage does not explain contradictions within TQM.

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

No. In totality 3 methods have been discussed in the passage - rational school, human relations school, and TQM. In the second paragraph, it has been mentioned that the objective of all the three methods is to increase the profitability. Quoting from the passage - Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

No. Although the first paragraph discuss primarily this only, but the complete passage is about something else as the author argues something entirely different in the second paragraph. - We are only told that "the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the 'human relations' school of management." However, the passage does not identify the specific organizational features shared by these systems, and identifying such shared features is certainly not the primary purpose.
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
Yes. In the first paragraph, the author discusses what someone else has said about the relation between TQM and the other two schools. In the second paragraph, the author sets out to explain that TQM cannot simply be used with the other two methods by pointing out the differences between TQM and the other schools. In all, the author is trying to convince that the relationship is not exactly as close as it may seem to be.

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

No. This can be tricky. Yes, the author has pointed out that TQM cares about employees, shareholders, and customers alike, while the other systems only worry about shareholders. But if you read closely, you would understand that the author has discussed WHAT THE STRATEGIES ARE RATHER THAN POINTING OUT ANY STRATEGY AS BEING ADVANTAGEOUS OVER THE OTHER. - Great! The author describes the different systems and their relationships to one another but does not focus on advantages and disadvantages of each.

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

No. What "phenomenon"? There is no such thing in the passage. What "contrasting explanations"? Only differences between strategies and why TQM cannot be used with the other systems has been discussed, not any "contrasting explanations". Out of Scope

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

No. What "general principle"? Out of Scope.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

Yes. "qualifies" means to reduce in strength or value. The first paragraph makes a claim that TQM can be used with the other 2 systems. But the second paragraph says that TQM cannot be used with the other systems because of underlying fundamental differences. So the second paragraph weakens the claim made in the first paragraph. - I would say that, in this context, the meaning of "qualify" is "to limit or modify the meaning of". In other words, in the second paragraph, the author elaborates (provides more information) on the claim made in the first paragraph. The author makes the claim more specific.

For example, I might say, "I love pizza." But then I might qualify that statement by saying, "I only love pizza from New York."


D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

No. The exact opposite has happened.

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

No. No alternative approach has been discussed, and no "problem" has been talked about. Moreover, no "solution" has been discussed.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

Yes. Read the lines in the second paragraph - "While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent."
A line before this points out that the "ultimate objective" is to increase profitability.

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

No. We can't say as it has not been explicitly stated

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

No. Only "rational" school has this, not "human relations"

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

No. Nothing in the passage points to this

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

No. It has been stated that both have "short term objectives"
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GMATNinja wrote:
Thanks ShashankDave for the in-depth explanation! I added a few comments in red, but in general this looks great!

ShashankDave wrote:
Got all Correct. Here's my 2 cents regarding explanations..I request Experts to comment on my analysis.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. point out contradictions in a new management system

No. It's not indicated anywhere in the passage whether any of the discussed management methods is "new" - We can infer that TQM is newer than the two older management systems, but that doesn't tell us how new TQM is. More importantly, the passage does not explain contradictions within TQM.

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

No. In totality 3 methods have been discussed in the passage - rational school, human relations school, and TQM. In the second paragraph, it has been mentioned that the objective of all the three methods is to increase the profitability. Quoting from the passage - Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

No. Although the first paragraph discuss primarily this only, but the complete passage is about something else as the author argues something entirely different in the second paragraph. - We are only told that "the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the 'human relations' school of management." However, the passage does not identify the specific organizational features shared by these systems, and identifying such shared features is certainly not the primary purpose.
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
Yes. In the first paragraph, the author discusses what someone else has said about the relation between TQM and the other two schools. In the second paragraph, the author sets out to explain that TQM cannot simply be used with the other two methods by pointing out the differences between TQM and the other schools. In all, the author is trying to convince that the relationship is not exactly as close as it may seem to be.

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

No. This can be tricky. Yes, the author has pointed out that TQM cares about employees, shareholders, and customers alike, while the other systems only worry about shareholders. But if you read closely, you would understand that the author has discussed WHAT THE STRATEGIES ARE RATHER THAN POINTING OUT ANY STRATEGY AS BEING ADVANTAGEOUS OVER THE OTHER. - Great! The author describes the different systems and their relationships to one another but does not focus on advantages and disadvantages of each.

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

No. What "phenomenon"? There is no such thing in the passage. What "contrasting explanations"? Only differences between strategies and why TQM cannot be used with the other systems has been discussed, not any "contrasting explanations". Out of Scope

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

No. What "general principle"? Out of Scope.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

Yes. "qualifies" means to reduce in strength or value. The first paragraph makes a claim that TQM can be used with the other 2 systems. But the second paragraph says that TQM cannot be used with the other systems because of underlying fundamental differences. So the second paragraph weakens the claim made in the first paragraph. - I would say that, in this context, the meaning of "qualify" is "to limit or modify the meaning of". In other words, in the second paragraph, the author elaborates (provides more information) on the claim made in the first paragraph. The author makes the claim more specific.

For example, I might say, "I love pizza." But then I might qualify that statement by saying, "I only love pizza from New York."


D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

No. The exact opposite has happened.

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

No. No alternative approach has been discussed, and no "problem" has been talked about. Moreover, no "solution" has been discussed.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

Yes. Read the lines in the second paragraph - "While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent."
A line before this points out that the "ultimate objective" is to increase profitability.

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

No. We can't say as it has not been explicitly stated

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

No. Only "rational" school has this, not "human relations"

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

No. Nothing in the passage points to this

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

No. It has been stated that both have "short term objectives"


GMATNinja
Thank you for your kind appreciation :)
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM. Why option C is better than option B?

The fastest way to eliminate option B (without going into the details below) would be to mark the word "an" before "exception" and realize that there are more than one systems mentioned in paragraph B.

Now to details....

Option B: The first paragraph describes a general PRINCIPLE. The second discusses AN EXCEPTION.
The PRINCIPLE in the first paragraph is that TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school. In order for B to be correct, we require an example which is an EXCEPTION to this principle, i.e. an example (exception) that shows that TQM is NOT consistent with rationalist and HR schools. Such exception is not shown in paragraph 2.
Moreover the second paragraph does not discuss AN (one) exception (even if it were an exception), but many other systems that are not consistent with TQM:

Option C: First paragraph presents a CLAIM. The second provides information that QUALIFIES the claim.
The claim is that TQM CAN WORK SUCCESSFULLY in conjunction with 2 other principles. The PRINCIPLE mentioned above (TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school) is used to support this claim.

The second paragraph qualifies the claim providing the information that TQM cannot be grafted to other non-TQM systems ( i.e. TQM is not consistent with other systems) and thereby adds reservation to the above CLAIM. ( qualify = add reservation to)

Therefore C is better than B.


In my opinion the gist between A and C in this question is Qualify vs Contrast

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

So contrast is present pros and cons. Wich is done and according to the author, he validates the claim that TQM works BUT with a different strategy.
Wich means he is not contrasting, he is evaluating or qualifying :shocked
Got it wrong, but now I can see why

Hope it helps
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
PaterD wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM. Why option C is better than option B?

The fastest way to eliminate option B (without going into the details below) would be to mark the word "an" before "exception" and realize that there are more than one systems mentioned in paragraph B.

Now to details....

Option B: The first paragraph describes a general PRINCIPLE. The second discusses AN EXCEPTION.
The PRINCIPLE in the first paragraph is that TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school. In order for B to be correct, we require an example which is an EXCEPTION to this principle, i.e. an example (exception) that shows that TQM is NOT consistent with rationalist and HR schools. Such exception is not shown in paragraph 2.
Moreover the second paragraph does not discuss AN (one) exception (even if it were an exception), but many other systems that are not consistent with TQM:

Option C: First paragraph presents a CLAIM. The second provides information that QUALIFIES the claim.
The claim is that TQM CAN WORK SUCCESSFULLY in conjunction with 2 other principles. The PRINCIPLE mentioned above (TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school) is used to support this claim.

The second paragraph qualifies the claim providing the information that TQM cannot be grafted to other non-TQM systems ( i.e. TQM is not consistent with other systems) and thereby adds reservation to the above CLAIM. ( qualify = add reservation to)

Therefore C is better than B.


In my opinion the gist between A and C in this question is Qualify vs Contrast

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

So contrast is present pros and cons, wich is not entirely done, the author just validates the claim that TQM works BUT with a different strategy or approach, as GMATNinja highlights on ShashankDave explanation, the author specify under what kind of conditions does the statement properly fits.
Wich means he is not contrasting, but evaluating or qualifying :shocked
Got it wrong, but the discus really helps the enlighten process.

Hope it helps
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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spatel2 wrote:
Can you explain why B is wrong? why is "exception to a general principle outlined" wrong here? I feel like "can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes," notes is a key word that identifies principal.

Quote:
2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

If the "general principle" is that TQM "can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems", then an exception would be an example where TQM CANNOT work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. The second paragraph does not describe such an exception. Rather, the second paragraph elaborates on that principle. In other words, yes, TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems, but to do so, you can't just graft it on. The second paragraph qualifies the claim by giving us information that limits/modifies the claim.

C is the best answer.
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Re: According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Q [#permalink]
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