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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics

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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2013, 18:38
11
15
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

77% (00:45) correct 23% (00:54) wrong based on 1376 sessions

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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

(A) with that of men have been
(B) to that of men are
(C) to those of men have been
(D) with those of men is
(E) to those of men has been

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/25/us/experts-say-job-bias-against-women-persists.html

Moreover, while some women's wages are improving, the ratio of their earnings to those of men has been roughly static for years. Since 1960, Mrs. Norwood says, it has remained at 57 percent to 65 percent. And the Rand Corporation, a research group, predicted in a recent study that women's wages would be 74 percent of those for men by the year 2000.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2013, 21:51
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Let's have a closer look and try to come up with a possible answer. The underlined part in the original sentence is as follows:
"with that of men have been" The preposition "with follows the noun "ratio." Is it correct to say "the ratio of WOMEN'S earnings WITH MEN'S EARNINGS"? Clearly not. We need to use "to" instead of "with." Next we also need to change "that" into plural "those" because we are referring to "earnings of men" and not "ratio." Finally do we need a plural or a singular verb form? What is the subject? What has/have been static? The subject is "the ratio" and therefore we need to use the singular verb form "has."
Thus the best choice is answer
E.

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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2014, 04:55
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mohnish104 wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been



The sentence presents a trap-

ratio of their(women) earning with that(ratio) of men.. This may sound good but it would be illogical to say the implied ratios have been static.

Correct comparison:
ratio of women's earnings with earnings of men...
ratio of their earnings with those of men...

Now let's look at subject verb angle-

Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.


Subject - ratio- singular
verb- have been- plural

This leads to subject verb agreement error- A, B and C can be eliminated

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been

Left with D and E

D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been

......... (focus on the predicate - since 1960)

Phone is not working since Monday- incorrect
Phone has not been working since Monday- correct

Context requires "present perfect continuous tense" - has been

Apart from this "ratio of X to Y" is the correct idiom.

Hence E is the answer.

Rules tested:-

1- comparison
2- subject verb agreement
3- Verb tense
4- Idiom

Hope this helps!
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2013, 04:32
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mohnish104 wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been



Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

Blue and green are subject verb pairs

So Based on this A,B and C are out

Since needs Has/ Have or has been or have been.. apart from that with is incorrect here so D is out

E is best!
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2014, 13:59
First look: Comparison, S/V agreement, P/N agreement, verb tense.

A. with that of men have been Wrong - "With" is not the correct idiom (ratio of x to y). The pronoun "that" <> "earnings", for the pronoun must agree in number with its referent.
B. to that of men are Wrong - the pronoun must agree in number with its referent. Subject and verb must agree in number. More so, the verb tense must match any time expressions in the sentence. In this case, the time expression "since 1960" signifies present perfect.
C. to those of men have been Wrong - the subject and verb must agree in number.
D. with those of men is Wrong - Incorrect idiom is employed. "is" is not the correct verb tense.
E. to those of men has been Correct - "Those" = "earnings."

IMO E
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2014, 09:05
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. withthat of men have been
B. tothatof men are
C. to those of menhavebeen
D. with those of menis
E. to those of men has been....CORRECT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2014, 21:42
what about "those" in option E -to those of men has been-

those is a demonstrative plural pronoun ...

in the question - we are comparing ratio of earning of men to the ratio of earning of women . ratio is a singular noun . The demonstrative pronoun those stands for ratio .... in this case there is a mismatch between pronoun (plural) and the noun that it stands for(ratio) is singular .

howsoever as the tutor from economist has written that we are comparing earnings - then the comparison is illogical . Read the original sentence - "Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960. "

you can not compare ratio of the earnings of woman to earnings of men - although you can compare ratio of earnings of women to ratio of earnings of men.

unfortunately this question is from Gprep .....
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2014, 00:42
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abhasjha wrote:
what about "those" in option E -to those of men has been-

those is a demonstrative plural pronoun ...

in the question - we are comparing ratio of earning of men to the ratio of earning of women . ratio is a singular noun . The demonstrative pronoun those stands for ratio .... in this case there is a mismatch between pronoun (plural) and the noun that it stands for(ratio) is singular .

howsoever as the tutor from economist has written that we are comparing earnings - then the comparison is illogical . Read the original sentence - "Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960. "

you can not compare ratio of the earnings of woman to earnings of men - although you can compare ratio of earnings of women to ratio of earnings of men.

unfortunately this question is from Gprep .....




Hi abhasjha,


Let’s first understand the structure and meaning of the sentence.

• Although women’s wages are improving,
Department of Labor statistics show
o that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.


MEANING

• So, the sentence tells us that although women’s wages are improving.
• Department of Labor statistics show that: (The word ‘although’ at the beginning of the sentence tells us that the next part of the sentence is going to be in contrast to the first part.)
o The ratio of something has been roughly static since 1960.

You have correctly mentioned in your analysis that 'the ratio of the earnings of women cannot be compared to earnings of men'. Now, what we need to know here is that a ratio can be defined for two entities. It cannot be defined for one entity.

What are the two entities in the given sentence for which the ratio is defined? These two entities are ‘their earnings’ i.e. the earnings of women and ‘that of men’ i.e. the earnings of men. So, the comparison in this sentence is between the earnings of the women and the earnings of the men.


ERRORS

1. Since the noun ‘earnings’ is plural, the singular relative pronoun ‘that’ is incorrect in this sentence. So, we need to use ‘those’.

2. Another error in the given sentence is the use of plural verb ‘have been’ for the singular subject ‘the ratio’.

3. Also, it is unidiomatic to say ‘the ratio of X with Y’. The correct idiomatic usage is ‘the ratio of X to Y’.


All these errors are corrected in option E.

• Although women’s wages are improving,
• Department of Labor statistics show
o that the ratio of their earnings to those of men has been roughly static since 1960.

As you can see in the underlined portion, the earnings of women are compared to those of men.



P.S.: A ratio can be defined for one entity if the values of the same entity from different times are compared. :-D



Hope this helps! :)
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2014, 02:11
Bumping up good question.
Question is testing very basic concepts.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2014, 01:36
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:

The sentence presents a trap-

ratio of their(women) earning with that(ratio) of men.. This may sound good but it would be illogical to say the implied ratios have been static.

Correct comparison:
ratio of women's earnings with earnings of men...
ratio of their earnings with those of men...

Now let's look at subject verb angle-

Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.


Subject - ratio- singular
verb- have been- plural

This leads to subject verb agreement error- A, B and C can be eliminated

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been

Left with D and E

D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been

......... (focus on the predicate - since 1960)

Phone is not working since Monday- incorrect
Phone has not been working since Monday- correct

Context requires "present perfect continuous tense" - has been

Apart from this "ratio of X to Y" is the correct idiom.

Hence E is the answer.

Rules tested:-

1- comparison
2- subject verb agreement
3- Verb tense
4- Idiom

Hope this helps!
Dolly Sharma
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CrackVerbal


Hi CrackVerbalGMAT,

Hmm, while I agree with you about other concepts, I don't agree with you about the comparison which you mentioned as in

Correct comparison:
ratio of women's earnings with earnings of men...
ratio of their earnings with those of men...

If we compare ratio of women's earnings and ratio of men's earnings, the correct comparison should be:

ratio of women's earnings with ratio of men's earnings
ratio of their earnings with that of men's earnings

Please correct me if I am wrong!

Best,
Lucy
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2016, 17:57
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mohnish104 wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been


Because 'since' is present, we need have been/has been. And since 'ratio' is singular, we need has been.

Only choice E fulfills this requirement :)
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2016, 21:12
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been - Ratio with is incorrect , Subject verb agreement - Ratio needs has
B. to that of men are - that is incorrect , Subject verb agreement
C. to those of men have been - Subject verb agreement
D. with those of men is - Ratio with is incorrect , usage of is
E. to those of men has been - Correct
Answer E
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2016, 22:07
the ratio is singular so cut off all options with have/are

left with D and E

as the main sentence implies the action is there since 1960 and continuing..you have to use present perfect.
Plus for comparison 'to' is much better to 'with'
(see i also compared the above sentence with 'to' :D)

So E
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 02:30
mohnish104 wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been


I Guess there is A pronoun Error

whome does Their Refer Too.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 08:34
Razween wrote:
I Guess there is A pronoun Error

whome does Their Refer Too.

Hi Razween, if you notice, their is not a part of the underlined portion.

So, we should not worry about it.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2016, 23:58
Ratio is always singular.
So Option A,C are out because of the incorrect plural verb "HAVE"
Option B is out because of incorrect plural verb "ARE"
Option D and E remaining,
THE CORRECT IDIOM USED WITH RATIO IS :==>RATIO OF X TO Y
Option D is out because of incorrect idiom (ratio of x with y)
Option E is bang on . Correct


mohnish104 wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.
A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is (incorrect idiom)
E. to those of men has been

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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 00:09
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A. with that of men have been
B. to that of men are
C. to those of men have been
D. with those of men is
E. to those of men has been
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 08:40
Imo E
The concept here is that some action happened in the past and continue happening in present we use has been .
Option D is wrong .
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2018, 09:03
I just came across this question on GMAT PREP EXAM #4 and It gave me a surprising amount of trouble despite answering correctly.

The trouble I had with this question was related to "that of" versus "those of". Was the author not comparing the RATIO of earnings of women to the ratio of earnings of men? Therefore requiring "THAT" instead of "THOSE".

I went through all the answer explanation posted but I am still unclear about this particular point and I really do not want to hurt my SC score because of silly mistakes like these.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2018, 09:13
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Ratio of women's earnings to men's earnings is static
Ratio= women's earnings/men's earnings
not ratio of women's earnings/ratio of men's earnings.

hope its clear
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics &nbs [#permalink] 09 Aug 2018, 09:13

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