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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea

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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.


(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,


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Originally posted by tejal777 on 01 Oct 2009, 06:47.
Last edited by Bunuel on 10 Dec 2018, 08:49, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Jun 2019, 08:53
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer! First, here is the original question with the major differences between options highlighted in orange:

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences stand out:

1. appear(ed) as / appear(ed) to have been
2. equipped for facing / equipped to face
3. path / paths


Let's start with #1 on our list: appear(ed) as / appear(ed) to have been. While this may look complicated, it's really just a matter of verb tense and meaning. Here is what each of these structures really means:

appear(ed) as --> present tense --> Neanderthals still exist and are equipped to face obstacles
appear(ed) to have been --> past tense --> Neanderthals don't still exist, but they were equipped for obstacles in the past

Since we know that the Neanderthals are extinct because of what's written later in the sentence, we know that we can rule out any sentences that suggest Neanderthals still exist in present day. Let's see how each option breaks down:

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(*While option D is technically past tense, it's not idiomatically correct to say "appeared as" in this case. Saying "appeared to have been" is clearer.)
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

We can eliminate options A, C, & D because they place Neanderthals as alive in present day, which they are certainly not.

Next, let's tackle #2 on our list: equipped for facing / equipped to face. This is an issue of idioms! While the phrases "equipped to" and "equipped for" are both grammatically correct, there is a rule for what is allowed to come after them:

equipped to + VERB (Our new car is equipped to drive in icy conditions.)
equipped for + NOUN (My family is well equipped for a tornado.)

Let's see how the remaining options hold up against this rule:

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

This is CORRECT because it uses the structure equipped to + VERB correctly.

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

This is INCORRECT because it uses a verb after "equipped for," when the rule states that it can only be followed by a noun.


There you have it - option B is the correct choice!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 23 Jan 2019, 16:45.
Last edited by Bunuel on 06 Jun 2019, 08:53, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2013, 12:14
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hi all,

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

some theory first

use of as
1. for comparison: ex: Amy takes care of the children in the day care as a mother does.

2. for simultaneous action: ex: As I was traveling in the subway, I noticed attended bags underneath the seat.

3. for giving reason: ex: Mary has substituted green tea for coffee as she wants to cut down her caffeine consumption.

4. for presenting role or function: ex: As an elder sister, Emma takes care of her siblings very well.

now coming to the question

Now as we read the sentence we cant find any: comparison,simultaneous action,reason,or presenting any role.

so the use of "as" is wrong here.

therefore option A, C, D are out.

now we have B and E.

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

OPTION E has 2 errors:

firstly:
appeared to have been equipped=====> use of appeared changes the meaning ...it means they appeared in the past but the context of the sentence is in present tense...

secondly:
for facing is unidiomatic.

more to share:

the use "have been" after "TO"...doesnt means it is in present perfect "......it is no longer a verb and now its an infinitive so it is talking about the past.

hope it helps.

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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2009, 23:57
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As …as is idiom; and Choice A, C and D are out for the same reason

As for choice B the verb “appear” has invisible object “us” (appear to whom). As we are talking “the Neanderthals” in the present context. A present verb is required. Hence the correct answer
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New post 11 Dec 2009, 18:02
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The issue here is with 'appear as equipped to ..... ' . 'Appear as' indicates comparison but there's nothing to compare to in the sentence. So option B corrects that by using the correct usage of 'appear to have been equipped .....'. Hope this helps.
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New post 14 Dec 2009, 23:52
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IMO D
Combining enormous physical strength with higher
intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for
facing any obstacle the environment could put in their
path,
but their relatively sudden disappearance during
the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt
to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the
environment could put in their paths,-->"red" seems to be consistent in past tense

And the "relatively sudden disappearance" implies that Neanderthals is no longer "appear"but "appeared".
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2009, 05:24
rgarg1nortel wrote:
Combining enormous physical strength with higher
intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for
facing any obstacle the environment could put in their
path
, but their relatively sudden disappearance during
the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt
to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the
environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any
obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the
environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the
environment could put in their paths,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any
obstacle the environment could put in their path,

What could be the answer and why?


C and D are out of reckoning as it should be path rather than paths ( we don't require plural of path).
E is obviously wrong as it uses the wrong tense of appear and also it is not parallel.
Choice boils down between A and B. Since 'appear as equipped' is not correct, it changes the meaning of the phrase, so B is the correct one.(IMO).
What is the OA anyway?
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2009, 05:32
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BMindful wrote:
IMO D
Combining enormous physical strength with higher
intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for
facing any obstacle the environment could put in their
path,
but their relatively sudden disappearance during
the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt
to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the
environment could put in their paths,-->"red" seems to be consistent in past tense

And the "relatively sudden disappearance" implies that Neanderthals is no longer "appear"but "appeared".


MindFul,
Your interpretation of appear/appeared seems to be wrong. It is now that Neanderthals 'appear' equipped, it is not that they appeared quipped. In the Paleolithic age, Neanderthals were either equipped or not equipped to face the circumstances and apparently they weren't as they disappeared.

The tone of the sentence is in present tense as hence it should be appear and not appeared.

I hope I am clear. Guys please comment as well.
cheers.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 11:06
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scheol79 wrote:
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,



We know paths is wrong - removes C & D

The idiom is "appear to be" not "appear as". Therefore, A is out.

Between B & E - "have been" is the present perfect continuous tense - something that started in the past but continues in the PRESENT. Hence, the present tense - appear and not appeared.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 11:27
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The idiom is "appear to be" not "appear as".

Appear as - may exist in the following sentence: It appears as if/as though I was wrong

Usage of appear according to Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary:

You've got to appear (to be) calm in an interview even if you're terrified underneath.
To people who don't know him he probably appears (to be) rather unfriendly.
Things aren't always what they appear to be.
[+ to infinitive] She appears to actually like the man, which I find incredible.
There appears to be some mistake.
[+ (that)] It appears (that) she left the party alone.
It appears to me (that) (= I think that) we need to make some changes.
FORMAL It would appear (that) (= It seems that) nobody on board the aircraft actually had a licence to fly it.
[+ adverb or preposition] It appears as if/as though I was wrong.
Everything was not as it appeared - secret deals had been done.
I know how it must appear, but it's not really as bad as it looks.
"Has he left?" "It appears not/so."
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 11:55
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Quote:
[+ to infinitive] She appears to actually like the man, which I find incredible. - observe this! this is wrong on the GMAT


This is not wrong ! The relative pronoun "which" is not modifying man. If it was modifying man, it would have been WHO.

WHICH is modifying the fact that she - likes the man.

She appears to actually like the man, which I find incredible.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2011, 18:40
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I think its B..
Just checked OG 12..the OA is also B..

Here is the explanation

A As equipped indicates that Neanderthals still
appear this way; equipped should be followed
by an infi nitive form instead of a
prepositional phrase.


B Correct. The verb tense clearly indicates
that the current evidence is about
Neanderthals in the past.

C As equipped does not indicate that
Neanderthals appeared this way in the past;
while individual Neanderthals may well
have followed diff erent paths, this sentence
is about the single evolutionary path taken
by Neanderthals as a species.


D Present-tense appear is needed to parallel
present-tense indicates and to reinforce that
this is current evidence about Neanderthals
in the past; as in C, paths should be singular
.

E For facing is an incorrect substitution of a
prepositional phrase for an infinitive.

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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2012, 19:44
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<<their relatively sudden disappearnce during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led o their extinction>>

sentence needs to be in present tense because of "indicates"

so, D and E are out.

C contains equipped --needs to be have been equipped as we have "indicates" in the later half
thier paths - no need to use plural 'paths' here

B has all these taken care
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2012, 05:16
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Hi GMATers

My first split was appear vs appeared. When did the neanderthals appear equipped? They appear equipped now. Back when they were alive, they were equiped. These days we can't tell for sure, so when we observe them now, they appear equipped. Alternatively you could say that appear needs to be in the same tense as indicates: appears X, but indicates Y.

That leaves only A, B and C which can be split into appears as equipped vs appears to have been equipped.

From this point my instict told me appears to have been equipped because it sounds right (the native speaker coming out of me here). But I think you can eliminate appears as because it compares appears with equipped.

hope that helps

B.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 03:02
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OA is B, Can some faculty explain why it is appear not appeared, I am getting Confused.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 04:20
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honchos wrote:
OA is B, Can some faculty explain why it is appear not appeared, I am getting Confused.


Hi Honchos,

Let me see if I can help.

To state the obvious.

appear = present tense
appeared = past tense

Now which is correct here?

We are looking NOW at something that happened in the past.

So therefore, you need present tense. It 'appear(s)' to us NOW that something happened in the past.

Hope that helps.

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 17:28
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I was able to narrow down B & E because of the past tense meaning. I incorrectly selected E. The OG says "for facing" E.

Thanks,
Al

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,


(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 23:39
EasyAL43 wrote:
I was able to narrow down B & E because of the past tense meaning. I incorrectly selected E. The OG says "for facing" E.

Thanks,
Al

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,


(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,


I would like to bring up a second difference:

That between appear and appeared. In the case of E appeared is in the past tense and does not match the present tense of indicates. For that reason I would choose B over E. To answer your question about idioms, I would rarely use equipped for... anything. the better idiom is equipped to do something.
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Re: Neaderthal appear as equipped...OG12 #73  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2013, 14:08
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Hi Alexander,

Here goes the answer to your question:

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.


Neanderthals existed in the past. They do not exist anymore. But the way this sentence has been written, it suggests that they still exist. They “appear” as equipped…. This is the flaw in this sentence. We need a verb that suggests that Neanderthals are extinct.


Now let’s see the sentence with the correct answer choice:


Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.


This choice corrects the verb tense error in the original sentence. Verb phrase “appear to have been equipped” correctly suggests that Neanderthals when alive were equipped to face any environmental problem. They were equipped at that time.


If choice B were worded as “appear to be equipped to face…”, it would be incorrect because again it would convey the same meaning as Choice A.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Neaderthal appear as equipped...OG12 #73  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2013, 14:56
egmat wrote:
Image


Hi Alexander,

Here goes the answer to your question:

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.


Neanderthals existed in the past. They do not exist anymore. But the way this sentence has been written, it suggests that they still exist. They “appear” as equipped…. This is the flaw in this sentence. We need a verb that suggests that Neanderthals are extinct.


Now let’s see the sentence with the correct answer choice:


Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.


This choice corrects the verb tense error in the original sentence. Verb phrase “appear to have been equipped” correctly suggests that Neanderthals when alive were equipped to face any environmental problem. They were equipped at that time.


If choice B were worded as “appear to be equipped to face…”, it would be incorrect because again it would convey the same meaning as Choice A.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Thanks Shraddha...it does help. Can you comment on my question regarding:

..."for facing" is a [for verb-ing] vs [to verb] modifier. I think of it as "for what" vs " in order to" - In choice B, the Neaderthals were equipped in order toface any obstacles in their path
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Re: Neaderthal appear as equipped...OG12 #73   [#permalink] 20 Sep 2013, 14:56

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