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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea

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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2018, 11:13
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

simdang wrote:
I do not 100% understand why the OA of this question is B.

As I thought this question is stating about neanderthals (a kind of human from the past) so the tense should be past simple -> I omit A, B, and C.

We have the idiom "appear to V" and it is "to V"; therefore, why can't we state "appear to be equipped" but "appear to have been equipped" like the OA?

Thank you so much for your precious response, I really appreciate that!

Dear simdang,

The sentence certainly mentions about the neanderthals, but doesn't talk about them in reference to past rather talks about them in the reference to present. Kindly refer to the Non-Underline portion of the sentence for clarity.For E.g. Verb "indicates" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence is a verb used in the present tense and is used for the singular subject "disappearance". Also "have been" is the present perfect tense and is used for something that started in the past and coming into present.
I hope this helps.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 05:45
Hello Experts -

Just for my understanding - please let me know, if there is anything wrong with below sentence -

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as they were equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2018, 00:02
tejal777 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 755
Page: 700

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,




Here is my approach/LEARNING:
Main issue

1.MEANING:

We are talking about Neanderthals in the present about how they appeared in the past.
For this the correct construction with Verb form is

APPEAR TO + HAVE + EQUIPPED(talking in present timeframe about how it appeared in the past)
APPEAR TO + BE +EQUIPPED(--how it appeared in the past(Not talking in present time frame)


2.Idiom issue

equipped to is prefrred over
equipped for

appear as--
appear as cannot follow a VERB..since as is a prepostion and verb should follow..also appear as means visible as or similiar something
appear to be --
means seems to (intended meaning here)

So clearly B wins and we have all the above takeaways for any new OG probs we crash into :) :)

Press Kudos if it helps !!
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 19:58
the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to a

We see the tense of the two bolds needs to be in present ..so appear is correct form..
Now read the the context .We are talking in present about the past.

Sp D and E are out which use appeared.

equipped to face is is correct idiom not equipped for facing..

So A,C is out.

NOTE:

"to have VERBed" is a type of infinitive that refers to actions in a timeframe previous to the timeframe of the sentence itself.
this is actually the only kind of infinitive that can do this, so it will take the same form regardless of the tense of the main clause.
so, if you write .[/color]

"the students seem to have cheated"
then

* the sentence itself is in the present ("seem"). so, the sentence is talking about the way things appear to a present observer.
* according to that present observer, it seems to be the case that the students cheated at some point in the past.
if you write
"the students seemed to have cheated"
then

* the sentence itself is in the past ("seemed"). so, the sentence is talking about the way things appeared to a past observer.

* according to that past observer, it seems to be the case that the students cheated at some point earlier in the past.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2019, 15:45
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer! First, here is the original question with the major differences between options highlighted in orange:

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences stand out:

1. appear(ed) as / appear(ed) to have been
2. equipped for facing / equipped to face


Let's start with #1 on our list: appear(ed) as / appear(ed) to have been. While this may look complicated, it's really just a matter of verb tense and meaning. Here is what each of these structures really means:

appear(ed) as --> present tense --> Neanderthals still exist and are equipped to face obstacles
appear(ed) to have been --> past tense --> Neanderthals don't still exist, but they were equipped for obstacles in the past

Since we know that the Neanderthals are extinct because of what's written later in the sentence, we know that we can rule out any sentences that suggest Neanderthals still exist in present day. Let's see how each option breaks down:

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(*While option D is technically past tense, it's not idiomatically correct to say "appeared as" in this case. Saying "appeared to have been" is clearer.)
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

We can eliminate options A, C, & D because they place Neanderthals as alive in present day, which they are certainly not.

Next, let's tackle #2 on our list: equipped for facing / equipped to face. This is an issue of idioms! While the phrases "equipped to" and "equipped for" are both grammatically correct, there is a rule for what is allowed to come after them:

equipped to + VERB (Our new car is equipped to drive in icy conditions.)
equipped for + NOUN (My family is well equipped for a tornado.)

Let's see how the remaining options hold up against this rule:

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

This is CORRECT because it uses the structure equipped to + VERB correctly.

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

This is INCORRECT because it uses a verb after "equipped for," when the rule states that it can only be followed by a noun.


There you have it - option D is the correct choice!


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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2019, 04:24
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Two critical cues may help us to get over this complicated issue of verb and idiom usage.

1. 'appear as equipped' and 'appeared as equipped' are both wrong because 'as equipped' suggests that the Neanderthals seem to be equipped even today since the main verb of the clause is 'indicates' as seen in the non-underlined part. This will effectively remove A, C, and D.

The second cue is that there was a purpose for their being equipped and that purpose is to face any obstacle. This intent is best expressed by an infinitive phrase 'to face' as in B rather than by a prepositional phrase 'for facing' as in E.

B is the eventual winner. Tense questions are always tricky.
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New post 06 Feb 2019, 13:17
"equipped to" and "equipped for" mean the same thing and both are grammatically correct. If you're worried that "equipped for" is unidiomatic, I would take a look at its usage in relation to "equipped to". According to Google Ngram (see here), "equipped to" and "equipped for" are both used pretty frequently. It's true that "equipped to" is used more often (about 3 times as often); however, it's not used so much more often that I would say "equipped for" is unidiomatic. Thus, I wouldn't eliminate (E) based on the use of "equipped for". See also this question in which the correct answer uses "for" over "to".

When deciding between (B) and (E), you need to look at "appear" vs "appeared". Your best clue for deciding between the two is the verb "indicates" in the following clause.

Using "appear" and "indicates" will create a better contrast since you are contrasting two things that are true during the same period of time. Using "appeared" and "indicates" creates an awkward contrast since it compares two things that are true during different periods of time. For example,
He walked to school, but he drives to soccer practice. -- Contrasting two things that are true during different periods of time.
He walks to school, but he drives to soccer practice. -- Contrasting two things that are true during the same period of time. This is much better.

A few more examples:
He appears ready for school, but his homework is incomplete.
He appeared ready for school, but his homework is incomplete.
He appears ready for school, but his homework was incomplete.

He appears to be ready to go, but his missing keys indicate otherwise.
He appeared to be ready to go, but his missing keys indicate otherwise.
He appears to be ready to go, but his missing keys indicated otherwise.
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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Nea   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2019, 13:17

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