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# Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991,

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Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2009, 10:26
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Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2009, 10:34
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A. “and dated…” is incorrect.
B. “they” refers to no one.
C. “was dated…” is incorrect. The subject of this verb is “Fossils.”
D. Correct.
E. “was dated…” is incorrect. The subject of this verb is “Fossils.”
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2009, 10:55
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of - it does not sound right
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years - doesnot sound correctold, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on Correct
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2010, 11:07
This question is more or less associated with S/V agreement. We cannot use the pronoun "it" as it makes the remaining choices a bit off.
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2011, 07:01
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This post was
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Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of
Do not use a comma before "AND" to separate two verbs that have same subject. Either eliminate the comma or add subject to the second verb, ( fossils were dated) creating a second main clause. Here subject is Fossils and two verbs are found and dated.

B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "has been dated at 34 million years old"-->singular. Eliminate

C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "was dated at 34 million years old"-->singular. Eliminate

D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "have been dated at 34 million years old"-->plural. Correct

E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of
, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, --> non-essential modifier whereas essential modifier is required.
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2014, 04:29
trainspotting wrote:
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of

In option D why cant we use pronoun "it" for "Sloth"

"It" being singular can logically refer only to Sloth, and pronoun can refer to noun in prepositional phrase.
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2014, 03:09
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jrashish wrote:
trainspotting wrote:
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of

In option D why cant we use pronoun "it" for "Sloth"

"It" being singular can logically refer only to Sloth, and pronoun can refer to noun in prepositional phrase.

Dear Ashish,

Thank you for posting your query here.

First of all, a pronoun can refer to the subject of the clause. But "sloth" is not the subject of the clause; "fossils" is. Second, note the difference between "a sloth" and "the sloth" in this context. "A sloth" is the one whose remains were found. This particular sloth need not have been the earliest one on the islands. "The sloth", i.e. the sloth as a species, was the earliest known mammal on the islands. So, the pronoun "it" can't really refer back to the particular sloth referred to in the first part of the sentence. We need "the sloth" to indicate the species as a whole.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2014, 11:54
Moreover "it" could have referred to the last noun which is Puerto Rico. Thats why "it" cannot be used.

egmat wrote:
jrashish wrote:
trainspotting wrote:
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of

In option D why can`t we use pronoun "it" for "Sloth"

"It" being singular can logically refer only to Sloth, and pronoun can refer to noun in prepositional phrase.

Dear Ashish,

Thank you for posting your query here.

First of all, a pronoun can refer to the subject of the clause. But "sloth" is not the subject of the clause; "fossils" is. Second, note the difference between "a sloth" and "the sloth" in this context. "A sloth" is the one whose remains were found. This particular sloth need not have been the earliest one on the islands. "The sloth", i.e. the sloth as a species, was the earliest known mammal on the islands. So, the pronoun "it" can't really refer back to the particular sloth referred to in the first part of the sentence. We need "the sloth" to indicate the species as a whole.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2014, 00:20
Hi e-gmat,

Hi Experts,

Source: Explanation links provided under OG quiz SV.

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands.

Isn't grammatically in this choice (A) "Found" modifies "SLOTH" when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Sloth found and dated.

(D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on

Per this sentence also "found" structurally seems to modify "SLOTH", when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 00:41
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Expert's post
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Hi Experts,

Source: Explanation links provided under OG quiz SV.

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands.

Isn't grammatically in this choice (A) "Found" modifies "SLOTH" when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Sloth found and dated.

(D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on

Per this sentence also "found" structurally seems to modify "SLOTH", when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Hi TGC,
Thank you for posting your query here.

You're absolutely correct in saying that the modifiers "found" and "dated" should refer to the "fossils". Actually, these modifiers are referring to "fossils" only. The confusion here arises only because the modifier is placed right next to "sloth". However, as explained in the article noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html a noun modifier can jump over a prepositional phrase to modify the head of the noun phrase.

In this case, since the phrase "of the arm of a sloth" modifies "fossils", the modifiers "found" and "dated" jump over this phrase and modify "fossils".

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 00:51
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Hi Experts,

Source: Explanation links provided under OG quiz SV.

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands.

Isn't grammatically in this choice (A) "Found" modifies "SLOTH" when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Sloth found and dated.

(D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on

Per this sentence also "found" structurally seems to modify "SLOTH", when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Hello TGC

Be aware of an OF-phrase that defines the noun. In this sentence, the modifier "of of the arm of a sloth" defines the noun "fossils". Without this modifier, the noun "fossils" does not make sense. In turn, the modifier "found in Puerto Rico in 1991" modifies the entire noun phrase "fossils of the arm of a sloth", not just "a sloth".

For example: A portrait of President Barack Obama, drawn by a student, will be sold for charity next week.

"drawn by a student" modifies the entire noun phrase "A portrait of President Barack Obama", not just "President Barack Obama".

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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2014, 01:31
trainspotting wrote:
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of

split : S+V pairs
Subject = fossils
B,C,E out use of singular verbs
Between A & D
D is correct - have been dated - present continuous perfect
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2015, 02:58
Can anybody explain OG explanation that "since sloth is is the object of a preposition and not the subject of the sentence, no reasonable antecedent for the pronoun it."
Consider also that 'it' is also the object of the verb made.
Why does being the object of a preposition disqualifies 'sloth' to be the antecedent of 'it'?
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2015, 03:55
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of
Usage"and" shows \\sm and IC both are missing + "it" has no reference

B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
"that" refers to sloth which is not a subject + "they" doesn't have a reference + Usage of "has been" is wrong must be have been + "it" has no reference.

C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of
Same as B

D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
Correct

E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of
Which refers to "sloth" not to the subject hence wrong

Hence D
Ans

Regards
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2015, 08:47
Sorry to say but 'found' and 'dated' are modifiers and not verb

Cheers

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of
Do not use a comma before "AND" to separate two verbs that have same subject. Either eliminate the comma or add subject to the second verb, ( fossils were dated) creating a second main clause. Here subject is Fossils and two verbs are found and dated.

B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "has been dated at 34 million years old"-->singular. Eliminate

C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "was dated at 34 million years old"-->singular. Eliminate

D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
Fossils of the arm of sloth-->plural. "have been dated at 34 million years old"-->plural. Correct

E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of
, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, --> non-essential modifier whereas essential modifier is required.
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2015, 08:54
Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for the explanation. If that is the case, then whats wrong with option A. We know that pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule.
Why is -> .... modifier... , and modifier ... <- not a correct format?

Regards,

egmat wrote:
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Hi Experts,

Source: Explanation links provided under OG quiz SV.

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands.

Isn't grammatically in this choice (A) "Found" modifies "SLOTH" when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Sloth found and dated.

(D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on

Per this sentence also "found" structurally seems to modify "SLOTH", when meaning wise it should modify "FOSSILS".

Hi TGC,
Thank you for posting your query here.

You're absolutely correct in saying that the modifiers "found" and "dated" should refer to the "fossils". Actually, these modifiers are referring to "fossils" only. The confusion here arises only because the modifier is placed right next to "sloth". However, as explained in the article noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html a noun modifier can jump over a prepositional phrase to modify the head of the noun phrase.

In this case, since the phrase "of the arm of a sloth" modifies "fossils", the modifiers "found" and "dated" jump over this phrase and modify "fossils".

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 14:44
Could someone help clear my doubt?

I thought a verb-ed modifier must modifier the preceding noun entity.

Isn't found a past tense verb-ed modifier?

Thank you,
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 22:36
g3lo18 wrote:
I thought a verb-ed modifier must modifier the preceding noun entity.

Isn't found a past tense verb-ed modifier?

Hi g3lo18, found is a past participle. Past participles have a bit of a flexibility in terms of what they modify: They can modify the Noun or the Noun-Phrase (whichever makes sense) immediately before the participle.

There are quite a few official examples (other than this one) that corroborate this point. I am listing a few:

An OG 13 question:

In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

- made modifies observation (and not electric current)

An OG 12 question:

Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

- surpassed modifies nation’s third leading cause (and not death)

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses modifier issues of Participial Phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2016, 16:00
EducationAisle wrote:
g3lo18 wrote:
I thought a verb-ed modifier must modifier the preceding noun entity.

Isn't found a past tense verb-ed modifier?

Hi g3lo18, found is a past participle. Past participles have a bit of a flexibility in terms of what they modify: They can modify the Noun or the Noun-Phrase (whichever makes sense) immediately before the participle.

There are quite a few official examples (other than this one) that corroborate this point. I am listing a few:

An OG 13 question:

In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

- made modifies observation (and not electric current)

An OG 12 question:

Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

- surpassed modifies nation’s third leading cause (and not death)

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses modifier issues of Participial Phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.

That would be great. Sent PM. Thank you for the response, so is a past participle the same as a verb-ed modifier?

Thank you,
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Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2016, 09:55
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years
old, made it the earliest known mammal of
the Greater Antilles islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the
earliest known mammal of
B. sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years
old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on
C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
making this the earliest known mammal of
D. sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old,
making the sloth the earliest known mammal on
E. sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old,
made the sloth the earliest known mammal of[/quote]

mikemcgarry
Can you please advise should the antecedent for the pronoun must not lie in a prepositional phrase?
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Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991,   [#permalink] 14 Jun 2016, 09:55

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