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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f

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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2005, 06:24
8
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

74% (01:58) correct 26% (02:40) wrong based on 553

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Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

69% (00:30) correct 31% (00:45) wrong based on 549

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Question 3
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A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

53% (00:47) correct 47% (00:40) wrong based on 541

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Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

58% (01:02) correct 42% (00:52) wrong based on 519

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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the first independent all-female guild created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women. Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.

The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstresses’ incorporation. Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges. At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild

C. describe opposing views concerning the origins of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

D. explore the underlying reasons for establishing an exclusively female guild in seventeenth-century Paris

E. correct a misconception about changes in seamstresses’ economic status that took place in Paris in the late seventeenth century



2. According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women

B. tailors continued to have the exclusive legal right to clothe men

C. seamstresses who were relatives of tailors were prevented from becoming members of the seamstresses’ guild

D. rivalry between individual seamstresses increased, thus hindering their ability to compete with the tailors for business

E. seamstresses were not allowed to accept male tailors as members of the guild



3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.

B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.

C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.

D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.

E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.



4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” (lines 40-41) primarily in order to

A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic

B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors’ guild

C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France

D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675

E. indicate that members of the seamstresses’ guild were financially more successful than were tailors’ female relatives protected by the tailors’ guild

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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2012, 19:17
OA is bada.


I don't understnad the question 18.
After checking the answer, I kind of sensed why d could be the answer, but still cannot see why clearly.

This is my guess.

Even though family members who were employed by tailors did the same jobs as seamstresses, those family memebers were considered or treated differently, so there was a conflict or confusion about the identity of the family members.

Based upon this assumption or guess, I could conclude that the family members did not enjoy the same economic and legal~(same as d)

Please, help me understand.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2012, 03:51
1
16b
17a
18d
19e

Done in 4 min.

As for 1 B I believe the last sentence said it all
"At the conflict's center was the issue of whether tailors' female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors' guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses' guild. "

The paragraph evolved around the conflict btw 2 guilds

Got wrong in #19.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2013, 05:37
Guys I have a doubt regarding 16 Q i.e Primary purpose

I came close A and B can someone please help me in eliminating A.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2013, 09:50
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Hi, Let me see if I can explain...

A only mentions the Seamstresses, NOT the tailors, but if you look at the passage it talks about both equally.

So the passage overall is talking about how the 2 guilds interacted and were the same/different. This is B.

I hope that makes sense..

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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 19:42
Soumyasrinivas wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the first
independent all-female guild created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women. Tailors
resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.
The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstresses’ incorporation.
Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped
with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as
a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual
legal and economic privileges. At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members
protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q1:
The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild
C. describe opposing views concerning the origins of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
D. explore the underlying reasons for establishing an exclusively female guild in seventeenth-century Paris
E. correct a misconception about changes in seamstresses’ economic status that took place in Paris in the late seventeenth century

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:
According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women
B. tailors continued to have the exclusive legal right to clothe men
C. seamstresses who were relatives of tailors were prevented from becoming members of the seamstresses’ guild
D. rivalry between individual seamstresses increased, thus hindering their ability to compete with the tailors for business
E. seamstresses were not allowed to accept male tailors as members of the guild

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.


Hi,
Can somebody explain the logic behind the right answer for question 3?

regards
Soumya



Hi Soumya.
The passage says that ''At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members
protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild."

This can be considered for not enjoying economic status.there was a doubt that whether they were protected or were individuals..

Also, the other 4 options can be removed by elimination.

A: there is no mention of convincing.
B-passage does not say relatives were for men's clothing
same with c and e no mention of monopoly.
seamstress guild got independence and relatives did not..
relatives after joining the guild might have got independence, but that is not sure.

PS: This is my logic anyone with better logic .please let me know. I am also trying to get better every day..:)
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2015, 03:48
1
Time taken 8 mins.

Q18:

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild?
A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses' guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men's clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors' monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses' guild enjoyed.
>>The seamstresses, however, viewed .... Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.

Q19:

The author mentions the seamstresses' view of guild membership as a "mark of independence from the patriarchal family" (lines 40-41) primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild had implications that were not solely economic
>>The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. .....
Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, ..... The seamstresses, however, ..........
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors' guild
>> Conflict was between 2 guilds and not the family members. Each has their own view/ perspective.
Any other suggestion to rule this out.
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses' guild were financially more successful than were tailors' female relatives protected by the tailors' guild
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2015, 04:54
Difficult passage. Took me 10 minutes.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2015, 01:32
difficult passage. took 10mins.
B,A,D,A are my answers .
it is missing one question out of 4, which is as follows :

The author mentions the seamstresses' view of guild membership as a "mark of independence from the patriarchal family" primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild had implications that were not solely economic
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors' guild
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses' guild were financially more successful than were tailors' female relatives protected by the tailors' guild
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2016, 09:59
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.



In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the first independent all-female guild created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women. Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women. The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstresses’ incorporation. Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges. At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild
C. describe opposing views concerning the origins of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
D. explore the underlying reasons for establishing an exclusively female guild in seventeenth-century Paris
E. correct a misconception about changes in seamstresses’ economic status that took place in Paris in the late seventeenth century



2. According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women
B. tailors continued to have the exclusive legal right to clothe men
C. seamstresses who were relatives of tailors were prevented from becoming members of the seamstresses’ guild
D. rivalry between individual seamstresses increased, thus hindering their ability to compete with the tailors for business
E. seamstresses were not allowed to accept male tailors as members of the guild



3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.



4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” primarily in order to

A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors’ guild
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses’ guild were financially more successful than were tailors’ female relatives protected by the tailors’ guild



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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2016, 01:08
6 min 35 secs: Got the first question wrong.

2) According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that

Refer to "Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women.Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women."

Answer: A

3) It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

Refer to "At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild."

Answer: D. Other choices cannot be inferred. Choice E is stated in the passage and is not an inference.

4) The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from thepatriarchal family” primarily in order to

4) The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from thepatriarchal family” primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic - Correct
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors’ guild - Incorrect - No conflict between tailors guild and female family members has been illustrated in the passage.
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France - Incorrect - France? Out of scope
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675 - Incorrect - We have no information to support the increase in number of women.
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses’ guild were financially more successful than were tailors’ female relatives protected by the tailors’ guild - Incorrect - Out of context.

Answer: A
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2016, 06:04
souvik101990 wrote:
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.



In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the first independent all-female guild created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women.Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstresses’ incorporation. Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family.Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges. At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild
C. describe opposing views concerning the origins of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild
D. explore the underlying reasons for establishing an exclusively female guild in seventeenth-century Paris
E. correct a misconception about changes in seamstresses’ economic status that took place in Paris in the late seventeenth century


2) According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that
A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women
B. tailors continued to have the exclusive legal right to clothe men
C. seamstresses who were relatives of tailors were prevented from becoming members of the seamstresses’ guild
D. rivalry between individual seamstresses increased, thus hindering their ability to compete with the tailors for business
E. seamstresses were not allowed to accept male tailors as members of the guild


3) It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?
A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.


4) The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from thepatriarchal family” primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors’ guild
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses’ guild were financially more successful than were tailors’ female relatives protected by the tailors’ guild



5 mins 10 sec. 75%

is this a 600-700 level rc?
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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2017, 12:25
Time taken - 13 minutes

Got 2/4 correct. Need to improve on the timing and accuracy. :(
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2017, 11:34
Difficult passage , took 9 mins in total , including almost 4 mins to read . All correct though .
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild -- Correct --

2. According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that --Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.

To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family.


4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” (lines 40-41) primarily in order to

A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic - Correct
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New post 05 Dec 2017, 13:27
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New post 01 Jun 2018, 10:45
Still not clear about question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

Can someone explain.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 08:22
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred? I know that family member seamstresses were not heads of households but its a bit of a stretch to conclude that they did not enjoy certain economic and legal status
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2018, 21:24
oasis90 wrote:
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred? I know that family member seamstresses were not heads of households but its a bit of a stretch to conclude that they did not enjoy certain economic and legal status

Nived wrote:
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred?

Let’s take a closer look at question #3:

Quote:
3) It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

In order to be confident in our answer, we must confirm that it's the best of all five choices, so let's take a look at each one:

Quote:
A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.

At no point in the passage does the author reveal who convinced Louis XIV to establish this guild. Eliminate choice (A).

Quote:
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.

"They" in this statement are "seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild." We know that seamstress guild members could not produce any men's clothing, but there's no evidence of any such restriction on non-guild seamstresses, who were employable by male family members in the tailors' guild. Eliminate choice (B).

Quote:
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.

Again, a less precise reader might mistake "They" for "seamstress guild members" in this statement. However, we know that familial non-guild seamstresses were part of the labor force employed by tailors. We also are told explicitly that "Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status." We know that tailors felt threatened by seamstress guild members, but don't see anything to suggest they were threatened by their own employees. Eliminate choice (C).

Quote:
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.

"They" still means "seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild." We must confirm that seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors guild did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges as seamstresses who were members of the seamstress guild. Here's where the passage spells out this contrast:

    "The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges."

This tells us that seamstress guild members enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges (those that came with being protected as individuals, independent of their patriarchal family units). Guild seamstresses and non-guild seamstresses alike viewed guild membership as a mark of independence, but only guild seamstresses enjoyed this privilege. That's a solid inference, so (D) looks good.

Quote:
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.

Since we know that "They" does not refer to seamstress guild members, we know that this can't be inferred from the passage. Eliminate choice (E), and we’re left with (D) as by far our best answer choice.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f &nbs [#permalink] 09 Jun 2018, 21:24
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