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# In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f

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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]

I don't understnad the question 18.
After checking the answer, I kind of sensed why d could be the answer, but still cannot see why clearly.

This is my guess.

Even though family members who were employed by tailors did the same jobs as seamstresses, those family memebers were considered or treated differently, so there was a conflict or confusion about the identity of the family members.

Based upon this assumption or guess, I could conclude that the family members did not enjoy the same economic and legal~(same as d)

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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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16b
17a
18d
19e

Done in 4 min.

As for 1 B I believe the last sentence said it all
"At the conflict's center was the issue of whether tailors' female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors' guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses' guild. "

The paragraph evolved around the conflict btw 2 guilds

Got wrong in #19.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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Soumyasrinivas wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstressesâ€™ guild, the first
independent all-female guild created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell womenâ€™s and childrenâ€™s clothing, but were prohibited from producing menâ€™s clothing or dresses for court women. Tailors
resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.
The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstressesâ€™ incorporation.
Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped
with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as
a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual
legal and economic privileges. At the conflictâ€™s center was the issue of whether tailorsâ€™ female relatives should be identified as family members
protected by the tailorsâ€™ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstressesâ€™ guild.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q1:
The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstressesâ€™ guild
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstressesâ€™ guild and the tailorsâ€™ guild
C. describe opposing views concerning the origins of the Parisian seamstressesâ€™ guild
D. explore the underlying reasons for establishing an exclusively female guild in seventeenth-century Paris
E. correct a misconception about changes in seamstressesâ€™ economic status that took place in Paris in the late seventeenth century

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:
According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstressesâ€™ guild was that

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women
B. tailors continued to have the exclusive legal right to clothe men
C. seamstresses who were relatives of tailors were prevented from becoming members of the seamstressesâ€™ guild
D. rivalry between individual seamstresses increased, thus hindering their ability to compete with the tailors for business
E. seamstresses were not allowed to accept male tailors as members of the guild

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailorsâ€™ guild?

A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstressesâ€™ guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of menâ€™s clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailorsâ€™ monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstressesâ€™ guild enjoyed.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.

Hi,
Can somebody explain the logic behind the right answer for question 3?

regards
Soumya

Hi Soumya.
The passage says that ''At the conflictâ€™s center was the issue of whether tailorsâ€™ female relatives should be identified as family members
protected by the tailorsâ€™ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstressesâ€™ guild."

This can be considered for not enjoying economic status.there was a doubt that whether they were protected or were individuals..

Also, the other 4 options can be removed by elimination.

A: there is no mention of convincing.
B-passage does not say relatives were for men's clothing
same with c and e no mention of monopoly.
seamstress guild got independence and relatives did not..
relatives after joining the guild might have got independence, but that is not sure.

PS: This is my logic anyone with better logic .please let me know. I am also trying to get better every day..
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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Time taken 8 mins.

Q18:

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild?
A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses' guild.
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men's clothing.
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors' monopoly.
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses' guild enjoyed.
>>The seamstresses, however, viewed .... Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges.
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.

Q19:

The author mentions the seamstresses' view of guild membership as a "mark of independence from the patriarchal family" (lines 40-41) primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild had implications that were not solely economic
>>The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic, however. .....
Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, ..... The seamstresses, however, ..........
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors' guild
>> Conflict was between 2 guilds and not the family members. Each has their own view/ perspective.
Any other suggestion to rule this out.
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses' guild were financially more successful than were tailors' female relatives protected by the tailors' guild
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
difficult passage. took 10mins.
it is missing one question out of 4, which is as follows :

The author mentions the seamstresses' view of guild membership as a "mark of independence from the patriarchal family" primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild had implications that were not solely economic
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors' guild
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses' guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses' guild were financially more successful than were tailors' female relatives protected by the tailors' guild
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
6 min 35 secs: Got the first question wrong.

2) According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that

Refer to "Guild members could make and sell women’s and children’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing men’s clothing or dresses for court women.Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women."

3) It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

Refer to "At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild."

Answer: D. Other choices cannot be inferred. Choice E is stated in the passage and is not an inference.

4) The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from thepatriarchal family” primarily in order to

4) The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from thepatriarchal family” primarily in order to
A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic - Correct
B. illustrate the conflict that existed between tailors and their female family members over membership in the tailors’ guild - Incorrect - No conflict between tailors guild and female family members has been illustrated in the passage.
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France - Incorrect - France? Out of scope
D. provide an explanation for the dramatic increase in the number of women working as seamstresses after 1675 - Incorrect - We have no information to support the increase in number of women.
E. indicate that members of the seamstresses’ guild were financially more successful than were tailors’ female relatives protected by the tailors’ guild - Incorrect - Out of context.

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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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Difficult passage , took 9 mins in total , including almost 4 mins to read . All correct though .
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild -- Correct --

2. According to the passage, one source of dissatisfaction for Parisian seamstresses after the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild was that --Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women.

A. seamstresses were not allowed to make and sell clothing for all women

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.

To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade. The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family.

4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” (lines 40-41) primarily in order to

A. emphasize that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild had implications that were not solely economic - Correct
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred? I know that family member seamstresses were not heads of households but its a bit of a stretch to conclude that they did not enjoy certain economic and legal status
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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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Question 3

oasis90 wrote:
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred? I know that family member seamstresses were not heads of households but its a bit of a stretch to conclude that they did not enjoy certain economic and legal status

Nived wrote:
Can you please explain question 3? How can D be inferred?

Let’s take a closer look at question #3:

Quote:
3) It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was true of seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors’ guild?

In order to be confident in our answer, we must confirm that it's the best of all five choices, so let's take a look at each one:

Quote:
A. They were instrumental in convincing Louis XIV to establish the seamstresses’ guild.

At no point in the passage does the author reveal who convinced Louis XIV to establish this guild. Eliminate choice (A).

Quote:
B. They were rarely allowed to assist master tailors in the production of men’s clothing.

"They" in this statement are "seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild." We know that seamstress guild members could not produce any men's clothing, but there's no evidence of any such restriction on non-guild seamstresses, who were employable by male family members in the tailors' guild. Eliminate choice (B).

Quote:
C. They were considered by some tailors to be a threat to the tailors’ monopoly.

Again, a less precise reader might mistake "They" for "seamstress guild members" in this statement. However, we know that familial non-guild seamstresses were part of the labor force employed by tailors. We also are told explicitly that "Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status." We know that tailors felt threatened by seamstress guild members, but don't see anything to suggest they were threatened by their own employees. Eliminate choice (C).

Quote:
D. They did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges that members of the seamstresses’ guild enjoyed.

"They" still means "seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors' guild." We must confirm that seamstresses employed by relatives who were members of the tailors guild did not enjoy the same economic and legal privileges as seamstresses who were members of the seamstress guild. Here's where the passage spells out this contrast:

"The seamstresses, however, viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family. Their guild was composed not of family units but of individual women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges."

This tells us that seamstress guild members enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges (those that came with being protected as individuals, independent of their patriarchal family units). Guild seamstresses and non-guild seamstresses alike viewed guild membership as a mark of independence, but only guild seamstresses enjoyed this privilege. That's a solid inference, so (D) looks good.

Quote:
E. They felt their status as working women gave them a certain degree of independence from the patriarchal family.

Since we know that "They" does not refer to seamstress guild members, we know that this can't be inferred from the passage. Eliminate choice (E), and we’re left with (D) as by far our best answer choice.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
Q4) why option C is wrong? "..women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges." So with seamstresses’ guild, woman enjoyed legal and economic privileges.

Q1) Explain the meaning of answer choice A and B. what does it mean by sources of conflicts??
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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mallya12 wrote:
Q4) why option C is wrong? "..women who enjoyed unusual legal and economic privileges." So with seamstresses’ guild, woman enjoyed legal and economic privileges.

Q1) Explain the meaning of answer choice A and B. what does it mean by sources of conflicts??

Question #1 asks us to identify the primary purpose of the passage. Let's take a look at answer choices (A) and (B):
Quote:
A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

A "scholarly debate" requires at least two competing ideas from some kind of academic or research-based viewpoint. This passage does not contain that kind of debate -- instead, the author presents only his or her own research findings about the seamstresses' guild. (A) is out.

Quote:
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild

In the first sentence of the passage, the author states that Louis XIV established the seamstresses' guild. After that, the author focuses closely on the conflicts between the seamstresses' guild and the tailors' guild. The "sources of conflict" between the two groups include the tailors' resentment that women were given guild status, the seamstresses' impatience with restrictions on their work, and "the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild."

Another way of thinking about "primary purpose" questions is to ask, "why did the author write this passage?" In this case, the author wanted to explain the conflicts that arose between seamstresses and tailors when the seamstresses' guild was established. Answer choice (B) captures this purpose, and is the correct answer to question #1.

Let's take a look at question #4:
Quote:
4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” primarily in order to

And here is answer choice (C):
Quote:
C. imply that the establishment of the seamstresses’ guild ushered in a period of increased economic and social freedom for women in France

By saying that "women in France" enjoyed increased freedoms, this answer choice makes a much broader claim than can be supported by the passage. It may be true that women in the seamstresses' guild experienced increased economic and social freedoms, but we cannot expand that to argue that French women in general enjoyed these freedoms. You can eliminate (C) for question #4.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
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Knowing the meaning of guild and seamstress will help to understand the passage and answer the Question.

guild an association of people for mutual aid or the pursuit of a common goal.
seamstress a woman who sews, especially one who earns her living by sewing.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
Can someone help me understand how the answer to 4. The author mentions the seamstresses’ view of guild membership as a “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” (lines 40-41) primarily in order to is A ?

My understanding :
Seamstresses' guild (SG - women only) has conflicts with tailor's guild (TG - men + women) for factors more than economic reasons.
TG's women did not view anything from guild membership; SG's women viewed guild membership as a mark of independence from the patriarchal family.

So, “mark of independence from the patriarchal family” is to show the view of SG's women and NOT to mention that the cause of conflict is beyond economic reasons.
Hence, A does not seem correct for me.
I went on opting C but I know it's wrong. A view/feeling of independence may not be the fact too (can mere be a view)
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
Quote:
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.

Quote:
A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

Why not A? the debat started after the establishment of Parisian seamstresses’ guild

Quote:
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild

the summary is only in the end. But in the passage they have discussed reasons for it.

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In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]

Question 1

imSKR wrote:
Quote:
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild.

Quote:
A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

Why not A? the debat started after the establishment of Parisian seamstresses’ guild

Quote:
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild

the summary is only in the end. But in the passage they have discussed reasons for it.

GMATNinja

This passage tells us about the origin of the Parisian seamstresses' guild before launching into a discussion about the seamstresses' guild's conflict tailors' guild.

Let's take a closer look at (A) to see why it doesn't give the primary purpose of the passage:
Quote:
A. outline a scholarly debate over the impact of the Parisian seamstresses’ guild

For this passage to outline a scholarly debate, we'd expect to see some mention of a researcher or the results from an investigation from multiple scholars. The results from these scholars' work would be compared to give us some idea of the nature of the debate.

This passage does not have any of these things -- there is no mention of scholarly debate.

We're given information about the conflict between the two guilds, but no information about a possible scholarly debate over the impact of the seamstresses' guild. For this reason, (A) cannot be the answer to this question.

Compare this to (B):
Quote:
B. summarize sources of conflict between the newly created Parisian seamstresses’ guild and the tailors’ guild

The start of the second paragraph tells us:

"The conflict between the guilds was not purely economic"

Later in the paragraph, we're told:

"guild membership held very different meanings for tailors and seamstresses"

The end of the paragraph gives the summary you quote:

"At the conflict’s center was the issue of whether tailors’ female relatives should be identified as family members protected by the tailors’ guild or as individuals under the jurisdiction of the seamstresses’ guild."

This tells us the reasons for the conflict between the two guilds. We're given this summary of the underlying reasons, or the sources, for the disagreement in the second paragraph. This is why (B) is the answer to this question.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the f [#permalink]
Hey, I felt this passage is very vague and confusing, maybe it is just the natural of the difficult passage. The conflict between guilds was introduced in the second paragraph. To be honest with you, I didn't even now tailor even have a guild until the very end. Then you can go back to the starting sentence of the paragraph, realizing the comparison is between tailor's guild and seamstresses' guild.
Does anyone have the similar impression?
Let me know.
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Re: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses guild, the f [#permalink]
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What is the difficulty level of this question ?
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