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# In the last few decades, physicists have identified the

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In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 02:47
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In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different "flavors" of subatomic particles called quarks,most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display
most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying
mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying
mostly at least as small as the electron, which display
most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying

Also explain what "them" is referring to in some options.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 03:23
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B and E are the only real competitors. "As small or smaller than" in B is awkward. So going with E. "them" can unambiguously refer to quarks as it is a part of the modifier of "quarks".
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 03:49
Since physicists is the subject of the previous clause,cant "them" refer it physicists.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 04:07
The noun modifier should always touch the noun. A corollary of this can be taken as "A modifier modifies the noun which it touches."

But true the sentence could be better framed as E here uses a series of modifiers to modify the same noun. However, of the given options, E is the best.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 06:47
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Hi all,

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different "flavors" of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

Error Analysis: 1. This sentence uses the incorrect idiom “as small or smaller than” which is actually the mix of two degrees of comparison. This is incorrect. We must one correct idiom to convey the intended meaning.
2. Understanding the sentence structure is very important here. Note that “which display…” is meant to modify “quarks”. However, “which” is closer to “electron” than to “quarks”. Hence, there is an ambiguity in the reference of “which”. Also “display” does not agree in number with “electron” if “which” has to refer to “electron”.

POE:
A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display: Incorrect. “which” is closer to “electron” and hence refer to “electron”. However, “the verb “display” does not agree in number with “electron”.

E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying: Correct. Notice that the modifier “most of them at least as small as the electron” is placed between two commas that make this information non-essential for the sentence. In this case, “displaying” correctly modifies “quarks”. If we remove the non-essential information for the sentence, the comma before “displaying” will also be removed. Here, we do not have the case of comma + verb-ing that is modifying the preceding clause.

This sentence is like the following GMAT Prep question the correct answer of which is C:
In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circleother stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 07:37
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egmat wrote:
Hi all,

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different "flavors" of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

Error Analysis: 1. This sentence uses the incorrect idiom “as small or smaller than” which is actually the mix of two degrees of comparison. This is incorrect. We must one correct idiom to convey the intended meaning.
2. Understanding the sentence structure is very important here. Note that “which display…” is meant to modify “quarks”. However, “which” is closer to “electron” than to “quarks”. Hence, there is an ambiguity in the reference of “which”. Also “display” does not agree in number with “electron” if “which” has to refer to “electron”.

POE:
A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display: Incorrect. “which” is closer to “electron” and hence refer to “electron”. However, “the verb “display” does not agree in number with “electron”.

E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying: Correct. Notice that the modifier “most of them at least as small as the electron” is placed between two commas that make this information non-essential for the sentence. In this case, “displaying” correctly modifies “quarks”. If we remove the non-essential information for the sentence, the comma before “displaying” will also be removed. Here, we do not have the case of comma + verb-ing that is modifying the preceding clause.

This sentence is like the following GMAT Prep question the correct answer of which is C:
In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circleother stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

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In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 07:42
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In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

(A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display
(B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying
(C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying
(D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display
(E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying
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Last edited by carcass on 26 Nov 2012, 02:47, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the exis [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 08:23
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Fairly straight. As small or smaller than is wrong idiom. So A , B and C are out.
D: Mostly is an adverb; we want a pronoun such as most to refer to the noun quarks. So D is wrong

E is the ultimate choice.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the exis [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:48

Thanks I thought it was thougher. A good exercise
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 18:36
Good explanation!!
I got it right but couldnt have expolained the reasons better

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the exis [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2013, 03:15
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daagh wrote:
Fairly straight. As small or smaller than is wrong idiom. So A , B and C are out.
D: Mostly is an adverb; we want a pronoun such as most to refer to the noun quarks. So D is wrong

E is the ultimate choice.

Hi,

Doesn't "them" in choice E seems to have antecedent error?

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, [color=#ff00000]most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display[/color] a property known as color charge.

Them can refer to physicists/quarks right?
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the exis [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2013, 03:34
shanmugamgsn wrote:
daagh wrote:
Fairly straight. As small or smaller than is wrong idiom. So A , B and C are out.
D: Mostly is an adverb; we want a pronoun such as most to refer to the noun quarks. So D is wrong

E is the ultimate choice.

Hi,

Doesn't "them" in choice E seems to have antecedent error?

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, [color=#ff00000]most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display[/color] a property known as color charge.

Them can refer to physicists/quarks right?

Hii Shan.
"most of them......." is a modifier and hence it will modify the subject of only the preceding clause. The preceding clause is "called quarks".
Hope this helps.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the exis [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2013, 04:57
Marcab wrote:
shanmugamgsn wrote:
daagh wrote:
Fairly straight. As small or smaller than is wrong idiom. So A , B and C are out.
D: Mostly is an adverb; we want a pronoun such as most to refer to the noun quarks. So D is wrong

E is the ultimate choice.

Hi,

Doesn't "them" in choice E seems to have antecedent error?

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, [color=#ff00000]most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display[/color] a property known as color charge.

Them can refer to physicists/quarks right?

Hii Shan.
"most of them......." is a modifier and hence it will modify the subject of only the preceding clause. The preceding clause is "called quarks".
Hope this helps.

Thanks marcab!
ya "most of them... " is modifier.
So u mean pronoun in modifier refers to antecedent modifies clause/noun !
am i right?
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2013, 05:24
Hii Shan.
Here "them" refers to "quarks" and hence "most of them" correctly refers to "most of quarks".
Hope this helps.
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2013, 16:36
Marcab wrote:
Hii Shan.
Here "them" refers to "quarks" and hence "most of them" correctly refers to "most of quarks".
Hope this helps.

ya i got it ....
hmm thanks marcab ....
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 03:25
In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

(A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display WRONG IDIOM
(B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying WRONG IDIOM
(C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying WRONG IDIOM
(D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display WHICH is used falsely
(E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying CORRECT
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 04:41
In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

(A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display---"which" is referring to eletron instead of quarks
(B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying --- idiom "as small as",
(C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying---awkward
(D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display WHICH---samae as A is used falsely
(E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying-------correct
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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2013, 09:11
Could somebody clarify what exactly is the participial clause "displaying..." modifying in this case?
I mean Knewton says it is modifying "quarks"...

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 22:59
carcass wrote:
In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different “flavors” of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

(A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display
(B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying
(C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying
(D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display
(E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying

Doesn't E change the meaning of the sentence?
The quark is small or smaller than the electron,whereas E states that the quark is at least as small as the electron.

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 23:02
egmat wrote:
Hi all,

In the last few decades, physicists have identified the existence of different "flavors" of subatomic particles called quarks, most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display a property known as color charge.

Error Analysis: 1. This sentence uses the incorrect idiom “as small or smaller than” which is actually the mix of two degrees of comparison. This is incorrect. We must one correct idiom to convey the intended meaning.
2. Understanding the sentence structure is very important here. Note that “which display…” is meant to modify “quarks”. However, “which” is closer to “electron” than to “quarks”. Hence, there is an ambiguity in the reference of “which”. Also “display” does not agree in number with “electron” if “which” has to refer to “electron”.

POE:
A) most of them as small or smaller than the electron, which display: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B) most of them as small or smaller than the electron and displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

C) mostly as small or smaller than the electron, displaying: Incorrect. The idiom error persists.

D) mostly at least as small as the electron, which display: Incorrect. “which” is closer to “electron” and hence refer to “electron”. However, “the verb “display” does not agree in number with “electron”.

E) most of them at least as small as the electron, displaying: Correct. Notice that the modifier “most of them at least as small as the electron” is placed between two commas that make this information non-essential for the sentence. In this case, “displaying” correctly modifies “quarks”. If we remove the non-essential information for the sentence, the comma before “displaying” will also be removed. Here, we do not have the case of comma + verb-ing that is modifying the preceding clause.

This sentence is like the following GMAT Prep question the correct answer of which is C:
In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circleother stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for your awesome posts.
Doesn't E change the meaning of the sentence?
The quark is small or smaller than the electron,whereas E states that the quark is at least as small as the electron.

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Re: In the last few decades, physicists have identified the   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2013, 23:02

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