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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2015, 11:01
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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place

Modifiers:
if we have a verb+ed modifier (Also called past participle modifier) or verb+ing modifier (Also called participle modifier), after the modifier phrase, we need the noun immediately post the modifier phrase.

For example :
1) Verb+ed modifier
kept at the corner of the room, rock was glittering
Now " kept at the corner of the room" is modifying the noun - rock. So rock should come right after the modifier phrase.

2) Verb+ing modifier
Singing a popular number from a movie, Sunita mesmerized the audience
Now "Singing a popular number from a movie" is a verb+ing modifier and immediately post the modifier phrase, the noun which is getting modified by the modifier phrase should come. Hence here Sunita (Noun) comes and that makes sense as the action (verb+ing) is performed none other than Sunita.

Lets apply the same principle below:

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

Initiated is a verb+ed modifier and the immediate noun is "a $100 million investment" which is not the correct modification. The correct modification should be "Project SETI".
Hence we have a modifier issue


(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

"Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence" -> is a verb+ing modifier phrase so we need a the noun which is doing the action of "pledging" hence we require Project SETI and not the initiation (which is not the intended noun)
Hence there is a modifier issue


(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992the initiation of Project SETI took place

Now "on Columbus Day" is modifying "arrived" which is correct.
Therefore, "Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World " -> is a modifier phrase
and immediate noun is "the initiation" whereas we require "Project SETI" because the action of pledging make sense with "Project SETI".
Hence there is a modifier issue


Noun Modifier

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
This option provides a illogical meaning that
Project SETI initiated on five centuries 1992, so 2042 which is illogical.


(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Where as "five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World" correctly modifies the noun Columbus Day 1992.
This is called as noun modifier -> which modifies the closest noun.
Hence Correct


Tip : When it comes to modifier, meaning is the king and we need to understand the meaning of the sentence to determine whether modifier usage is correct
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2016, 22:46
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2016, 01:06
elevinty wrote:
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:C


First and foremost is the meaning of the sentence.
The sentence tells that five centuries earlier european arrived
Then in 1992, on a particular day which happened to be "Columbus day" SETI pledged money for research


(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
WRONG:- European didn't arrived on 1992

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New Worlda $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.
WRONG :- VOICES are mixed first clause is in active voice and second clause is in passive voice

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
CORRECT:- Correctly placed modifiers and correct consistent active voice.


(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.
WRONG:- European didn't arrived on 1992 and Also the sentence is in passive voice.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place
WRONG :- SUBJECT or DOER is missing. Who pledged ?? Also the sentence is in passive vice
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2016, 11:51
Split1) Verb Modifiers. Verb-ed modifier issue. Using the word "initiated" a verb-ed modifier at the beginning will require us to mention the main subject that the dependent clause is referring to. "initiated blah blah blah," Who initiated it? Project SETI? = Yes, A 100 million investment? = No. that takes out B quickly.

Split2 Verb Modifies. Verb-ing modifier issue. Using the word "pledging" a verb-ing modifier will require us to mention the main subject that the dependent clause is referring to. D and E are out. Who is "Pledging?" Project SETI? = Yes, "The initiation?"=No. D and E are out.

Split3) Meaning. The dependent clause is saying that Europeans arrive to the New World in 1992 = wrong meaning. A is out.

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 14:50
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Issues: Modifier | Structure/Meaning

Analysis:
1. Core of the sentence: Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment (With "Project SETI" being the subject)
2. Fluff in the sentence:
- Project SETI was initiated on Columbus Day 1992.
- Project SETI was initiated 5 centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World
3. "Initiated on Columbus day..., five centuries..., Project SETI... " is the correct structure as it links the modifiers logically and those modifiers correctly modify "Project SETI" as it placed right after comma.


(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
- this option suggests that "Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992" which is illogical.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.
- "Initiated" incorrectly modifies "a $100 million investment" (refer to analysis above)

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992
- Sentence fragment with no verb

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place
- Poor construction that leads to meaning issue

Answer: (C)

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 22:36
Great explanations by everyone!

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 18:07
I realize this is an old thread, but I'm having trouble understanding how a project can pledge something. in this case, a project pledging a $100 million investment. To my understanding, a project can't pledge something.

Is my thought on this completely off?

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 21:36
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mogarza08

1. pledge has several meanings. Here it is used as a verb meaning to offer or guarantee by a solemn promise:
pledge loyalty to a nation


2. to bind or secure by a pledge or promise

Pl see the meaning at the following link
<http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pledge>
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2017, 11:37
Its a silly question but can someone tell me the verb in the option C?

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on C   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2017, 11:37

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