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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2015, 12:01
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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place

Modifiers:
if we have a verb+ed modifier (Also called past participle modifier) or verb+ing modifier (Also called participle modifier), after the modifier phrase, we need the noun immediately post the modifier phrase.

For example :
1) Verb+ed modifier
kept at the corner of the room, rock was glittering
Now " kept at the corner of the room" is modifying the noun - rock. So rock should come right after the modifier phrase.

2) Verb+ing modifier
Singing a popular number from a movie, Sunita mesmerized the audience
Now "Singing a popular number from a movie" is a verb+ing modifier and immediately post the modifier phrase, the noun which is getting modified by the modifier phrase should come. Hence here Sunita (Noun) comes and that makes sense as the action (verb+ing) is performed none other than Sunita.

Lets apply the same principle below:

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

Initiated is a verb+ed modifier and the immediate noun is "a $100 million investment" which is not the correct modification. The correct modification should be "Project SETI".
Hence we have a modifier issue


(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

"Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence" -> is a verb+ing modifier phrase so we need a the noun which is doing the action of "pledging" hence we require Project SETI and not the initiation (which is not the intended noun)
Hence there is a modifier issue


(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992the initiation of Project SETI took place

Now "on Columbus Day" is modifying "arrived" which is correct.
Therefore, "Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World " -> is a modifier phrase
and immediate noun is "the initiation" whereas we require "Project SETI" because the action of pledging make sense with "Project SETI".
Hence there is a modifier issue


Noun Modifier

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
This option provides a illogical meaning that
Project SETI initiated on five centuries 1992, so 2042 which is illogical.


(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Where as "five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World" correctly modifies the noun Columbus Day 1992.
This is called as noun modifier -> which modifies the closest noun.
Hence Correct


Tip : When it comes to modifier, meaning is the king and we need to understand the meaning of the sentence to determine whether modifier usage is correct
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2016, 12:51
Split1) Verb Modifiers. Verb-ed modifier issue. Using the word "initiated" a verb-ed modifier at the beginning will require us to mention the main subject that the dependent clause is referring to. "initiated blah blah blah," Who initiated it? Project SETI? = Yes, A 100 million investment? = No. that takes out B quickly.

Split2 Verb Modifies. Verb-ing modifier issue. Using the word "pledging" a verb-ing modifier will require us to mention the main subject that the dependent clause is referring to. D and E are out. Who is "Pledging?" Project SETI? = Yes, "The initiation?"=No. D and E are out.

Split3) Meaning. The dependent clause is saying that Europeans arrive to the New World in 1992 = wrong meaning. A is out.
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 15:50
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Issues: Modifier | Structure/Meaning

Analysis:
1. Core of the sentence: Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment (With "Project SETI" being the subject)
2. Fluff in the sentence:
- Project SETI was initiated on Columbus Day 1992.
- Project SETI was initiated 5 centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World
3. "Initiated on Columbus day..., five centuries..., Project SETI... " is the correct structure as it links the modifiers logically and those modifiers correctly modify "Project SETI" as it placed right after comma.


(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
- this option suggests that "Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992" which is illogical.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.
- "Initiated" incorrectly modifies "a $100 million investment" (refer to analysis above)

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992
- Sentence fragment with no verb

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World,on Columbus Day 1992,the initiation of Project SETI took place
- Poor construction that leads to meaning issue

Answer: (C)
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 23:36
Great explanations by everyone!

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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 19:07
I realize this is an old thread, but I'm having trouble understanding how a project can pledge something. in this case, a project pledging a $100 million investment. To my understanding, a project can't pledge something.

Is my thought on this completely off?
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 22:36
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1. pledge has several meanings. Here it is used as a verb meaning to offer or guarantee by a solemn promise:
pledge loyalty to a nation


2. to bind or secure by a pledge or promise

Pl see the meaning at the following link
<http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pledge>
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New post 22 Oct 2017, 12:37
Its a silly question but can someone tell me the verb in the option C?
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2018, 21:17
egmat wrote:
elevinty wrote:
what I dont understand is the structure:
In C and B: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, what is the function of the noun phrase in here(five centuries....), at first glance it seemed as an misplaced modifier, because you need a noun subject after the introductory phrase instead we have another modifier, to me the place of this modifier seems illogic.

Anyway, correct me if am wrong:
The sentence starts with an adverb(initiated...) hence it can come any where in the sentence and still modify the main clause, the second bit is a noun modifier(five centuries...) that is functioning as appositive, therefore it can come before or after the noun that it's meant to modify, as a result the sentence is grammatically right.


Image


Hi there,

Let's look at Choice B first: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

The rule about the Verb-ed Modifier that you need to keep in mind here is that whenever a Verb-ed Modifier starts a sentence, it MUST always logically refer to the subject of the main clause.
In this choice, Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" starts the sentence. So it must logically refer to the Subject of the main clause. The Subject of the main clause per this choice is "a $100 million investment". Is this the entity that the "Initiated" should logically refer to? Certainly not. It was Project SETI that was initiated on Columbus Day 1992. So, in this choice the opening Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" ILLOGICALLY refers to "a $100 million investment". This is the reason why this choice is Incorrect.

Let's analyze Choice C now: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992,five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Following the same rule, we see that here the opening Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" now refers to "Project SETI", the Subject of the main clause. This most certainly is the LOGICAL modification. Hence, this choice is Correct.

Pick any official question that starts with Verb-ed Modifier, the opening modifier ALWAYS refers to the Subject of the following clause, for e.g.: OG13#37, #98, #110.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


e-gmat,

can you please analyze option A?

Isn't option A logical? Option A and C both seem logical. What is wrong with A?
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New post 24 Apr 2018, 06:20
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

What happened on the Columbus day 1992? Project SETI pledged.
When did Europeans arrived in the New World? NOT on the Columbus day. They arrived five centuries after the CD.


(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Correct

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.
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New post 06 May 2018, 08:44
elevinty wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 262
Page: 694

Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.


QA : C , Parallelism structure , two in and one out . mike from Magoosh has explained this pretty well.
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