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# Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on

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Updated on: 18 Dec 2018, 01:55
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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.

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Originally posted by elevinty on 17 May 2010, 10:50.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Dec 2018, 01:55, edited 7 times in total.
Edited the question.
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04 Nov 2013, 08:12
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elevinty wrote:
what I dont understand is the structure:
In C and B: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, what is the function of the noun phrase in here(five centuries....), at first glance it seemed as an misplaced modifier, because you need a noun subject after the introductory phrase instead we have another modifier, to me the place of this modifier seems illogic.

Anyway, correct me if am wrong:
The sentence starts with an adverb(initiated...) hence it can come any where in the sentence and still modify the main clause, the second bit is a noun modifier(five centuries...) that is functioning as appositive, therefore it can come before or after the noun that it's meant to modify, as a result the sentence is grammatically right.

Hi there,

Let's look at Choice B first: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．

The rule about the Verb-ed Modifier that you need to keep in mind here is that whenever a Verb-ed Modifier starts a sentence, it MUST always logically refer to the subject of the main clause.
In this choice, Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" starts the sentence. So it must logically refer to the Subject of the main clause. The Subject of the main clause per this choice is "a \$100 million investment". Is this the entity that the "Initiated" should logically refer to? Certainly not. It was Project SETI that was initiated on Columbus Day 1992. So, in this choice the opening Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" ILLOGICALLY refers to "a \$100 million investment". This is the reason why this choice is Incorrect.

Let's analyze Choice C now: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．

Following the same rule, we see that here the opening Verb-ed Modifier "Initiated" now refers to "Project SETI", the Subject of the main clause. This most certainly is the LOGICAL modification. Hence, this choice is Correct.

Pick any official question that starts with Verb-ed Modifier, the opening modifier ALWAYS refers to the Subject of the following clause, for e.g.: OG13#37, #98, #110.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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17 May 2010, 11:42
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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

=> It means Europeans arrived on the Columbus Day. OUT.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．
=> It means \$100 investment was initiated on Columbus Day.
(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．==> CORRECT.

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．
=>Sam as it is in A.
(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place
=> Unnecessary commas.

Some thoughts:
1. Opening modifier:
In case of opening modifier, the following structure must be followed:
Opening Modifier + Comma +Subject Noun
=> Here, the noun must be modified by the opening modifier.
Example:
Seeing the police, the thief ran away.
Tired by journey, she has done this.
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Updated on: 17 May 2010, 12:13
what I dont understand is the structure:
In C and B: Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, what is the function of the noun phrase in here(five centuries....), at first glance it seemed as an misplaced modifier, because you need a noun subject after the introductory phrase instead we have another modifier, to me the place of this modifier seems illogic.

Anyway, correct me if am wrong:
The sentence starts with an adverb(initiated...) hence it can come any where in the sentence and still modify the main clause, the second bit is a noun modifier(five centuries...) that is functioning as appositive, therefore it can come before or after the noun that it's meant to modify, as a result the sentence is grammatically right.
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Originally posted by elevinty on 17 May 2010, 11:57.
Last edited by elevinty on 17 May 2010, 12:13, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 04:44
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elevinty wrote:
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place

A. The sentence says that Europeans arrived in 1992.
B. Passive voice highlights the investment instead of the project SETI as the principal subject.
C. Correct.
D. This sentence lacks a verb (that is not acting as a modifier).
E. The structure of the sentence, placing the main subject and verb at the end, doesn't deliver the best clear meaning.
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20 Sep 2013, 02:45
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I’m going for C.

Logically the sentence should have “Initiated…” as a modifier of “Project Seti” So I discard B, D and E
A- When did European arrive 1992 or five centuries ago?

Does someone have the OA?
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2014, 22:20

You mentioned that "However, as the original sentence suggests, Project SETI was initiated \$on Columbus Day 1992"
In SC, how does one know that the meaning of the original sentence (Choice A) is what the author intended or that the correct ANS choice will preserve that meaning.
Maybe, the original sentence was unclear.

Thanks.
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08 Jul 2014, 06:22
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (Meaning error :See bold part , should be "initiated on Columbus day 1992" )

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI． (wrong modification)

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．(Correct)

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．(Pledging modifying to extraterrestrial :-wrong modification)

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place ((Pledging modifying to extraterrestrial :-wrong modification) )

Hope that helps
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Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on  [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 15:21
gmatcracker2407 wrote:

You mentioned that "However, as the original sentence suggests, Project SETI was initiated \$on Columbus Day 1992"
In SC, how does one know that the meaning of the original sentence (Choice A) is what the author intended or that the correct ANS choice will preserve that meaning.
Maybe, the original sentence was unclear.

Thanks.

Let me try, if I can explain your query.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．
Here, if we get rid of modifier "five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World", which essentially modifies 1992, then the answer can be read something like... > "Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI". Here "Initiated on Columbus Day 1992" seems to modify "a \$100 million investment". Now which one sounds better i) Investment was initiated or ii) Project was initiated or iii) Investment was done? Clearly 2nd and 3rd point. Since 3rd point is intuitive, and is not there in the sentence we should rule out the answer choice B. This at the same time helps us understand clearly about the intended meaning in original sentence. Because now on we will be looking for an answer choice, in which "Initiated" modifies "project".

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．
Now that intended meaning is clear, C looks correct choice, as it has modifier "Initiated" modifying "project", and "five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World" modifying "Columbus Day 1992".

Again, we were lucky to understand sentence meaning in answer choice B itself, sometimes we have to glance through all choices for such purpose, if meaning is not clearly understood from original sentence itself.
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09 Jun 2015, 01:07
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I knew that noun modifiers can in some certain cases modify some slightly farther nouns. For example, here is an example from an OG correct asnwer choice:

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it ...

'which' can jump over 'called proton-induced X-ray emission' because 'called ... X-ray emissions' is a phrase that modifies 'technique'; 'which' here modifies 'technique' or more precisely the whole phrase 'a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission'

However, consider this example from Verbal Review, 2nd Edition, in a correct answer choice:

Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Here, 'initiated' modifies 'Project SETI' while the phrase 'five centuries after ...' intervenes.

It is interesting that 'initiated' can jump in this case; actually 'five centuries after ...' seems to be an appositive which describes the 'Columbus Day 1992' which is 'five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World'.
Also notice that this phrase 'five centuries after ...' is a non-essential or non-restrictive modifier.

Let's add this new rule about opening modifiers to our grammar toolbox!
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22 Jun 2015, 12:01
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Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place

Modifiers:
if we have a verb+ed modifier (Also called past participle modifier) or verb+ing modifier (Also called participle modifier), after the modifier phrase, we need the noun immediately post the modifier phrase.

For example :
1) Verb+ed modifier
kept at the corner of the room, rock was glittering
Now " kept at the corner of the room" is modifying the noun - rock. So rock should come right after the modifier phrase.

2) Verb+ing modifier
Singing a popular number from a movie, Sunita mesmerized the audience
Now "Singing a popular number from a movie" is a verb+ing modifier and immediately post the modifier phrase, the noun which is getting modified by the modifier phrase should come. Hence here Sunita (Noun) comes and that makes sense as the action (verb+ing) is performed none other than Sunita.

Lets apply the same principle below:

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．

Initiated is a verb+ed modifier and the immediate noun is "a \$100 million investment" which is not the correct modification. The correct modification should be "Project SETI".
Hence we have a modifier issue

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．

"Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence" -> is a verb+ing modifier phrase so we need a the noun which is doing the action of "pledging" hence we require Project SETI and not the initiation (which is not the intended noun)
Hence there is a modifier issue

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992the initiation of Project SETI took place

Now "on Columbus Day" is modifying "arrived" which is correct.
Therefore, "Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World " -> is a modifier phrase
and immediate noun is "the initiation" whereas we require "Project SETI" because the action of pledging make sense with "Project SETI".
Hence there is a modifier issue

Noun Modifier

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
This option provides a illogical meaning that
Project SETI initiated on five centuries 1992, so 2042 which is illogical.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．
Where as "five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World" correctly modifies the noun Columbus Day 1992.
This is called as noun modifier -> which modifies the closest noun.
Hence Correct

Tip : When it comes to modifier, meaning is the king and we need to understand the meaning of the sentence to determine whether modifier usage is correct
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03 Aug 2016, 02:06
elevinty wrote:
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place

OA:C

First and foremost is the meaning of the sentence.
The sentence tells that five centuries earlier european arrived
Then in 1992, on a particular day which happened to be "Columbus day" SETI pledged money for research

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
WRONG:- European didn't arrived on 1992

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New Worlda \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．
WRONG :- VOICES are mixed first clause is in active voice and second clause is in passive voice

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．
CORRECT:- Correctly placed modifiers and correct consistent active voice.

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992．
WRONG:- European didn't arrived on 1992 and Also the sentence is in passive voice.

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place
WRONG :- SUBJECT or DOER is missing. Who pledged ?? Also the sentence is in passive vice
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18 Feb 2017, 15:50
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Issues: Modifier | Structure/Meaning

Analysis:
1. Core of the sentence: Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment (With "Project SETI" being the subject)
2. Fluff in the sentence:
- Project SETI was initiated on Columbus Day 1992.
- Project SETI was initiated 5 centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World
3. "Initiated on Columbus day..., five centuries..., Project SETI... " is the correct structure as it links the modifiers logically and those modifiers correctly modify "Project SETI" as it placed right after comma.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
- this option suggests that "Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992" which is illogical.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI．
- "Initiated" incorrectly modifies "a \$100 million investment" (refer to analysis above)

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992，five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence．

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992
- Sentence fragment with no verb

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World，on Columbus Day 1992，the initiation of Project SETI took place
- Poor construction that leads to meaning issue

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21 May 2017, 19:07
I realize this is an old thread, but I'm having trouble understanding how a project can pledge something. in this case, a project pledging a \$100 million investment. To my understanding, a project can't pledge something.

Is my thought on this completely off?
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07 Jul 2017, 22:36
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mogarza08

1. pledge has several meanings. Here it is used as a verb meaning to offer or guarantee by a solemn promise:
pledge loyalty to a nation

2. to bind or secure by a pledge or promise

Pl see the meaning at the following link
<http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pledge>
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24 Apr 2018, 06:20
Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

What happened on the Columbus day 1992? Project SETI pledged.
When did Europeans arrived in the New World? NOT on the Columbus day. They arrived five centuries after the CD.

(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.

(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a\$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

Correct

(D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.

(E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.
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18 Dec 2018, 01:11
Choice C, the best answer, is a complete sentence, and its (initial structures correctly modify Project SETI so that there is no ambiguity regarding when events took place. Choice A is faulty because its construction illogically suggests that Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992 and that Project SETI was initiated five centuries thereafter. In B, Initiated on Columbus Day ... illogically modifies a \$100 million investment, suggesting that it was the investment itself, not Project SETI, that was initiated. In D and E, the initial phrase beginning with Pledging in both cases illogically modifies the initiation of Project SETI; it is not the project's initiation, but the project itself, that pledged a certain investment. Furthermore, D is a sentence fragment, while E may be faulted for ambiguity. The phrase five centuries after could modify either Pledging or the search, and on Columbus Day 1992 could refer to the date of either the initiation of Project SETI or the arrival of Europeans in the New World. Hence, C is the answer.
Re: Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on   [#permalink] 18 Dec 2018, 01:11
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