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# Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or

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Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 18 Sep 2019, 03:19
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Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive, depending on the process used to arrive at them. In the process of deduction, you begin with some statements, called premises, which are assumed to be true, and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. For example, in mathematics, you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. With deduction, you can provide absolute proof of your conclusions, since your premises are considered correct. The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

On the other hand, in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data. For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion.

Both deduction and induction by themselves are inadequate for a scientific approach. While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises. And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory. Accordingly, a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method.

1. The author’s primarily concerned with
A. describing two modes of constructing a logical argument
B. explaining two processes while evaluating them on a specific criterion
C. discussing how neither one of the two mentioned processes is relevant for a scientific approach
D. establishing how logical arguments are more or less flawed, no matter through which process they are arrived at
E. establishing the supremacy of one process over the other

A. Incorrect: Partial Scope
This choice barely captures the scope of the first two paragraphs and fails to account for the final one. In addition to describing the two processes, the author also explains them in detail and then evaluates them in the end with respect to how they fare on a particular criterion.
B. Correct
This choice is along the same lines as our pre-thought answer. The specific criterion mentioned in the choice refers to how scientific these processes are.
C. Incorrect: Inconsistent
First of all, the author doesn’t say that the processes are not relevant for a scientific approach. He/she says that neither of two approaches is sufficient on its own. Secondly, this discussion is limited to only the third paragraph.
D. Incorrect: Out of Context
The negative points of the two processes are mentioned with respect to evaluating these process in terms of how scientific they are. The author by no means call them illogical. In fact, this statement goes against the following information given to us in the passage:
For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data.
E.Incorrect: Opposite
First of all, the two processes are not pitched against each other in terms of which one of two is more credible in its way of developing an argument. Secondly, the author clearly states that neither of two processes is sufficient on its own for a scientific approach.

2. Which one of the following statements can be inferred about the induction process of arriving at a logical argument?
A. There is no way to be certain whether the theories it provides are fully logical.
B. A theory arrived at through it is not likely to be the only possible explanation of the observed facts
C. One can provide a hundred percent proof for the conclusion drawn through it.
D. The conclusion arrived at through it are very likely to be causal in nature.
E. One of the reasons it fails to provide a single theory is that no two individuals are likely to interpret a given set of information in the same way.

A.Incorrect: Inconsistent
In the second paragraph, the author says that the theories, though logical, cannot be fully proved as correct. Hence, this choice is not consistent with the information given in the passage.
B. Correct
This information is a combination of two pieces of information given to us in the second paragraph. First, we are told that:
In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data.
Second, we are told that:
Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data.
C. Incorrect: Opposite
This statement is made in the first paragraph for the process of deduction. For induction, the author says that one can never be fully sure of the theory one arrives at through it.
Reference (final paragraph):
And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory.
D. Incorrect: Out of Context
The causal relation drawn between parents behavior/ genetic makeup and children’s chances of developing schizophrenia does not suggest that most of the conclusions arrived at through the process of induction are causal in nature. This relation is specific to the example given to explain the process.
E.Incorrect: Out of Scope
Although we are told that there could be more than one theory to explain the data in induction, there is no information regarding the cause of the same.

3. Which one of the following statements is true as per the information given in the passage?
A. Deduction as a process does not allow for experimentation.
B. There are only two ways to classify a logical argument.
C. The conclusions arrived at through the process of induction do not take in to account any actual reference points.
D. If the premises of the arguments derived through the deduction process are tested, the validity of most such arguments will be jeopardized.
E. The process of deduction takes in to account the possibility that the basis of the conclusion is questionable.
A. Correct
This information is explicitly given to us in the final paragraph.
Reference:
While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises.
B.Incorrect: Inconsistent
In the first sentence, the author tells us that logical arguments are usually classified in two ways, allowing for the possibility that there could be more, not so often used way of classifying them.
C.Incorrect: Opposite
We are clearly told in the second paragraph that:
…in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from those data.
The data sets are indeed reference points. Hence, this choice states just the opposite of what we are given in the passage.
D. Incorrect: Out of Context
The author says that deduction on its own is not scientific since the premises are never really validated. This does not mean that if the premises are tested, most of them will turn out to be invalid.
E. Incorrect: Opposite
This statement goes against the information given in the first paragraph.
Reference:
The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

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When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long

Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 09 Jun 2018, 03:01.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Sep 2019, 03:19, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (573).
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2018, 19:19
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1
1. The author’s primarily concerned with

A. describing two modes of constructing a logical argument

Incorrect: Partial Scope. This choice barely captures the scope of the first two paragraphs and fails to account for the final one. In addition to describing the two processes, the author also explains them in detail and then evaluates them in the end with respect to how they fare on a particular criterion.

B. explaining two processes while evaluating them on a specific criterion

Correct. The specific criterion mentioned in the choice refers to how scientific these processes are.

C. discussing how neither one of the two mentioned processes is relevant for a scientific approach

Incorrect: Inconsistent. First of all, the author doesn’t say that the processes are not relevant for a scientific approach. He/she says that neither of two approaches is sufficient on its own. Secondly, this discussion is limited to only the third paragraph.

D. establishing how logical arguments are more or less flawed, no matter through which process they are arrived at

Incorrect: Out of Context. The negative points of the two processes are mentioned with respect to evaluating these process in terms of how scientific they are. The author by no means call them illogical. In fact, this statement goes against the following information given to us in the passage:
For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data.

E. establishing the supremacy of one process over the other

Incorrect: Opposite. First of all, the two processes are not pitched against each other in terms of which one of two is more credible in its way of developing an argument. Secondly, the author clearly states that neither of two processes is sufficient on its own for a scientific approach.

2. Which one of the following statements can be inferred about the induction process of arriving at a logical argument?

A. There is no way to be certain whether the theories it provides are fully logical.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. In the second paragraph, the author says that the theories, though logical, cannot be fully proved as correct. Hence, this choice is not consistent with the information given in the passage.

B. A theory arrived at through it is not likely to be the only possible explanation of the observed facts

Correct. This information is a combination of two pieces of information given to us in the second paragraph. First, we are told that:
In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data.
Second, we are told that:
Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data.

C. One can provide a hundred percent proof for the conclusion drawn through it.

Incorrect: Opposite. This statement is made in the first paragraph for the process of deduction. For induction, the author says that one can never be fully sure of the theory one arrives at through it.
Reference (final paragraph):
And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory.

D. The conclusion arrived at through it are very likely to be causal in nature.

Incorrect: Out of Context. The causal relation drawn between parents behavior/ genetic makeup and children’s chances of developing schizophrenia does not suggest that most of the conclusions arrived at through the process of induction are causal in nature. This relation is specific to the example given to explain the process.

E. One of the reasons it fails to provide a single theory is that no two individuals are likely to interpret a given set of information in the same way.

Incorrect: Out of Scope
Although we are told that there could be more than one theory to explain the data in induction, there is no information regarding the cause of the same.

3. Which one of the following statements is true as per the information given in the passage?

A. Deduction as a process does not allow for experimentation.

Correct. This information is explicitly given to us in the final paragraph.
Reference:
While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises.

B. There are only two ways to classify a logical argument.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. In the first sentence, the author tells us that logical arguments are usually classified in two ways, allowing for the possibility that there could be more, not so often used way of classifying them.

C. The conclusions arrived at through the process of induction do not take in to account any actual reference points.

Incorrect: Opposite. We are clearly told in the second paragraph that:
…in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from those data.
The data sets are indeed reference points. Hence, this choice states just the opposite of what we are given in the passage.

D. If the premises of the arguments derived through the deduction process are tested, the validity of most such arguments will be jeopardized.

Incorrect: Out of Context. The author says that deduction on its own is not scientific since the premises are never really validated. This does not mean that if the premises are tested, most of them will turn out to be invalid.

E. The process of deduction takes in to account the possibility that the basis of the conclusion is questionable.

Incorrect: Opposite
This statement goes against the information given in the first paragraph.
Reference:
The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2018, 11:12
Can anyone please tell me that why is option B correct for question 1 instead of A?
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2018, 11:14
Can anyone please tell me that why is option A wrong for question 1 as the author is only describing two set of arguments.
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2018, 03:06
Please provide explanation for question no. 03
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2018, 10:01
prathi123 wrote:
Can anyone please tell me that why is option B correct for question 1 instead of A?

Because the author does more than just explaining the two methods. The author tells us how just one approach cannot be just enough for a scientific approach.
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2018, 15:10
shahsuhailp wrote:
Please provide explanation for question no. 03

This is mentioned in the paragraph 03 : "While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - ..................................."

Hope it helps
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or  [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2018, 21:49
1. The author’s primarily concerned with
B. explaining two processes while evaluating them on a specific criterion - only this one falls in

-----------------------------------

2. Which one of the following statements can be inferred about the induction process of arriving at a logical argument?

Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data.

B. A theory arrived at through it is not likely to be the only possible explanation of the observed facts

---------------------------------------

3. Which one of the following statements is true as per the information given in the passage?

While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises.

A. Deduction as a process does not allow for experimentation.
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Thanks!
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Simple strategy:
“Once you’ve eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”

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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2018, 21:49
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