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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India

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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 14:22
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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by RaviChandra on 02 Nov 2015, 05:34, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 23:35
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Given : Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan
grey schist.

Simplifying the given sentence:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire, fashioned either from A or B.

If we understand basic meaning of the sentence, we will realize that not the kushan empire but the deities are fashioned from something.

So, the right sentence is:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire and fashioned either from A or from B.

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - Correct
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2012, 09:33
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Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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04 May 2013, 05:53
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This stony example isn’t that stony . Just follow the simple rule of correlative parallelism of ‘ either --- or’ conjunction and you will get the right choice popping up like Mount Everest in front of you The tenet of correlative //is that whatever is on the right of ‘either’ should be there on the right of ‘or’ also

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or --- either from (preposition) or Gandharan stone ( noun )– wrong
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from -- either the spotted sandstone or from --- either ( noun ) or (preposition) wrong
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or – either fashioned (past participle) or Gandharan (noun) –wrong
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from ---either fashioned(past participle ) or from ( preposition) wrong
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from --- either from(preposition ) or from (preposition) – correct structure. E is eventually:
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2012, 10:48
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sachindia wrote:
isnt E also technically wrong

. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

date and were fashioned are not parallel.

E gmat pls help.

Hi Sachindia,

I have seen this question many a times. And really speaking, this is one of those misconceptions - If we have active voice and and passive voice in a list, then that list cannot be parallel. But as I said, this is a misconception.

The cricket match started in the morning and was aired live across the country.
As you can see in this sentence - the two verbs - are in different voices. But this sentence is absolutely correct. The context of the verbs is such that they need to be in the specific voice to communicate the intended meaning.

Now if I were to change this sentence so as to force the verbs to have same voice, then I will end up making the sentence too long and imprecise.
The cricket match started in the morning and many leading TV networks aired it live across the country.
As you can see in this sentence, I have made the two verbs in same voice but to do that I had to add additional information - many leading TV networks. The focus on my original sentence was not on who aired the match live. The focus was only on the FACT that it WAS AIRED LIVE.

So both sentences are correct. The noteworthy thing is that - Your can have active voice parallel to passive voice - if the context allows.
In fact check out OG12#36. Analyze that sentence and see it in the light of this discussion here.

Do let me know if you have any other questions.

Thanks,

Payal
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2010, 05:40
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whats wrong with D?

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (fashioned ) from
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2010, 15:11
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IDisappear, man, please underline the tested part. It's so messy without it.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2014, 00:45
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Here is OG's explaination

"Th e sentence makes two claims about the earliest
known images of Hindu deities in India: Th ey
date from the Kushan Empire, and they are made
from sandstone or schist. Th e clearest, most
eff ective way to incorporate these two claims into
a single sentence is to provide two parallel
predicates for the single subject, the earliest known
images of Hindu deities in India. Th e two options of
media, presented as either/or choices, must also be
given in parallel structure: either from … or from …
or from either … or. …

A Placement of the modifi er fashioned …
suggests that the Empire (the closest noun),
not the images of the deities, was fashioned
out of these materials; to parallel either from,
the preposition from should also follow or.
B Parallelism requires that either precede the
fi rst appearance of from or that the second
appearance of from be eliminated.
C As in A and B, the placement of the
modifi er after Empire is misleading;
parallelism requires that the phrase
fashioned from, or another comparable
D Parallelism requires that a verb follow or,
since a verb follows either.
E Correct. Two verbs, date and were fashioned,
introduce parallel predicates for the subject,
earliest known images; the choices of media
are correctly presented with the structure
either from … or from.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2014, 08:32
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russ9 wrote:

Can you please explain a nagging issue:

1) If there is a comma separating two clauses, don't the two clauses need some sort of coordinating conjunction such as "and or but" and don't the two clauses need to be independent?

2) I eliminated A and B because the second part of the clause because it's not independent. Was that wrong?

3) What is the general rule when we have a comma with a coordinating conjunction. Conversely, what is the general rule when we have a comma without a coordinating conjunction?

Thanks!

Hi russ9,

I apologize for reverting so late. But then better late than never.

Let's clarify all your doubts now.

1) Yes, your understanding is correct. Only a Comma CANNOT join two Independent Clause (IC). We need Comma + FANBOYS to join two ICs. These FANBOYS are called coordinating conjunctions.

2) I am afraid you did not eliminate Choices A and B for the right reasons. We CANNOT have ICs after comma. That will lead to incorrect sentence structure as only Comma will be joining two ICS. This is not possible. In Choices A, B, and C, modification of "fashioned" is not correct. The Verb-ed Modifiers in GMAT modifies the preceding Noun Entity. Here the preceding Noun Entity is "the Kushan Empire". Now this modification does not make sense because according to the intended meaning, the Empire was not made up of the mentioned material. The earliest known images were made of these materials.

3) Again, to reiterate, Comm + FANBOYS join only two ICs. Just a Comma can join an Independent Clause and a Dependent Clause.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2014, 03:15
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it is simple "Either X or Y '

X and Y should be same form and structure
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2010, 16:42
Either from X..... Or From Y
Where X and Y has to be parallel.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2010, 16:55
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or - 'fashioned either from the.....' incorrectly modifying 'Kushan empire'
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - same as A
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or - same as A
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - awkward. also incorrect idiom
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2010, 06:59
E

In D, fashioned has to be explicitly mentioned as it comes after either.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2010, 08:58
Silly mistake....Marked A.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2010, 10:31
gurpreetsingh wrote:
whats wrong with D?

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (fashioned ) from

IMO-
Option D misses out on the pronoun "where" - This makes the construction of the statement awkward.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2010, 12:35
Yes please explain in detail... why do we need the "were" ?
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 21:07
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.

Great explanation. Please correct me if my reasoning was right.

In the original sentence, fashioned is working as a verb-ed modifier. Since the original sentence has two clauses combined by "and" , we need parallelism.

Many of the earliest known images of India DATE should be parallel with the second clause WERE FASHIONED. in this case were fashioned is working as a verb.

I did not think the way you explained above, but let me know if my reasoning is in the right direction.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2012, 07:35
isnt E also technically wrong

. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

date and were fashioned are not parallel.

E gmat pls help.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2012, 19:36
Thanks a lot Payal..
These kinds of questions arise only when solving OG questions. I don't remember having read about active and passive voices that can be parallel in any of the strategy guides I have read so far!
Guess a more comprehensive guide on SC is needed.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 00:12
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.

Shraddha, if you can help on the below usage :

1) either from X or from Y

2) from either X or Y

3) either from X or Y.

How they differ? which one is correct to convey the intended meaning above.?
Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India   [#permalink] 16 Dec 2012, 00:12

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