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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from

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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

(A) empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
(B) empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
(C) empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
(D) empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
(E) empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 13 Jun 2017, 17:29, edited 3 times in total.
Underlined the question & formatted

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2010, 23:35
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Answer is E.

Given : Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan
grey schist.

Simplifying the given sentence:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire, fashioned either from A or B.

If we understand basic meaning of the sentence, we will realize that not the kushan empire but the deities are fashioned from something.

So, the right sentence is:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire and fashioned either from A or from B.

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - Correct

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2010, 16:55
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or - 'fashioned either from the.....' incorrectly modifying 'Kushan empire'
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - same as A
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or - same as A
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - awkward. also incorrect idiom
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2011, 13:47
E it is. ||lism b/w either or.
to know why D is wrong ask urself what fashioned here means? sculpted.
now D says either sculpted from... or...which is incorrect because both stones have to be sculpted. it is not like we can sculpt one stone and paint another.
so usage should be sculpted either from...or from
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2011, 08:11
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look for these structures and you will choose the correct answer.

images of Hindu deities in India .... date from the time ... and were fashioned

either from the spotted sandstone ... or from Gandharan grey schist

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

There are at least two things wrong with D

1. The biggest error is the non-adherence to symmetricl parallelism in the second part of the two-part clause.

The first un-underlined part uses a clause with a verb ‘date from’ while the second part misses the verb and uses a phrase. It must be noted that fashioned from is not a verb but a past participle.

This malady is set right by using the verb ‘were’ in E.

Secondly, ‘either fashioned from’ is not parallel with ‘or from’ – It should be ‘fashioned either from or from’ in order to be parallel.

Looking at it differently, the question can be solved by the correctness of correlative parallelism alone, because E is the only one that depicts correlative parallelism.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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D says something like 'images fashioned ...', which does not make any sense and is grammatically incorrect, whereas E says something like 'images were fashioned ...', which makes sense and is grammatically correct.

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2012, 21:33
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan
grey schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from


i agree with the logic of the answer. However, am confused with the tenses. "date from the time" is present tens. option E is past.. I dint opt for E just for this 1 reason. Can anybody explain this? Thanks

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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Here the sentence demands the use of both the present and past tense .The first part of the sentence(Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire) denotes a fact which hold true even in the present,hence it requires the use of present tense .The 2nd part(images where fashioned in the past and it denotes a past action )
Hope it helps !!
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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I have chosen E for the answer:

A. The use of the verb-ed modifier "fashioned" is incorrect because it seems to modify "the Kushan Empire" or maybe the noun phrase "the time of the Kushan Empire." In either case, this is incorrect because we want to modify the word "images." Also, we have parallelism issues here - "either from...or" is incorrect. It should be "either from...or from."

B. The verb-ed modifier is wrong here again because it describes "the Kushan Empire." Parallelism issues are present in this answer choice as well - "from either...or from." Although this may appear to be correct, think of the parallel phrase starting at "from." Therefore, the correct version would actually be "from either...or."

C. Again, is "fashioned" describing Empire? I'm not sure what it is supposed to modify. Again, parallelism issues are present - "either fashioned from...or" should actually be "either fashioned from...or from."

D. There are 2 sets of parallelism in this sentence. The first set is to describe the earliest known images and the second set is to describe what the images were fashioned from. This answer choice fails to maintain parallelism of the first part.

Many of the earliest know images:

- date from...
- and fashioned:

- either from...
- or from...

E. This answer choice maintains parallelism of both parts. Notice how the verb "were" and "date" are now parallel to describe the images.

Many of the earliest know images:

- date from...
- and were fashioned:

- either from...
- or from...

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2012, 09:25
All else later. First, we must appreciate that D is a fragment without a verb in the second arm of the compound sentence conjoined by ‘and’. ‘Either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from’ is nothing but a phrase. ‘Fashioned’ per se is a past participle in the context,

The inclusion of the verb ‘were’ in E is the amendment to this fatal error in D

Of course A, B, C suffer from classical correlative conjunction non//ism.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2012, 09:50
Many of the earliest known images of hindu dieties in india date from the time of the kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of mathura or gandharan grey schist.

Does the participial phrase "fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of mathura or gandharan grey schist"
modify kushan empire ???

Because what i understand about ending participial phrases is that if the antecedent is not next to the modifier we can just put a comma.

Please correct me if i am wrong....
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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Hi, there. I'm happy to help with this. :)

You're right --- as the sentence currently is written, the participial phrase "fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of mathura or gandharan grey schist" modifies "Kushan Empire," which is incorrect. This is a misplaced modifier.

Adding a comma does not eliminate the glaring mistake of a misplaced modifier. The only way to get rid of a misplaced modifier problem is to reconstruct the sentence. Commas do not work magic. Commas do not make bad grammar go away.

You will notice, with this particular question (SC #56 in the OG 12e), the OA of E transforms this participial phrase into a full-fledged verb that is parallel to the first verb ---- the structure of the sentence has been entirely altered, to eliminate the misplaced modifier problem.

Does all this make sense?

Here's another SC question drawing on the modifier touch rule.
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/1174
When you submit your answer, the next page will have a full video explanation.

Let me know if you have any further questions.

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2012, 21:07
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha



Hi Shradha,

Great explanation. Please correct me if my reasoning was right.

In the original sentence, fashioned is working as a verb-ed modifier. Since the original sentence has two clauses combined by "and" , we need parallelism.

Many of the earliest known images of India DATE should be parallel with the second clause WERE FASHIONED. in this case were fashioned is working as a verb.

I did not think the way you explained above, but let me know if my reasoning is in the right direction.

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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sachindia wrote:
isnt E also technically wrong

. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

date and were fashioned are not parallel.

E gmat pls help.


Hi Sachindia,

I have seen this question many a times. And really speaking, this is one of those misconceptions - If we have active voice and and passive voice in a list, then that list cannot be parallel. But as I said, this is a misconception.

The cricket match started in the morning and was aired live across the country.
As you can see in this sentence - the two verbs - are in different voices. But this sentence is absolutely correct. The context of the verbs is such that they need to be in the specific voice to communicate the intended meaning.

Now if I were to change this sentence so as to force the verbs to have same voice, then I will end up making the sentence too long and imprecise.
The cricket match started in the morning and many leading TV networks aired it live across the country.
As you can see in this sentence, I have made the two verbs in same voice but to do that I had to add additional information - many leading TV networks. The focus on my original sentence was not on who aired the match live. The focus was only on the FACT that it WAS AIRED LIVE.

So both sentences are correct. The noteworthy thing is that - Your can have active voice parallel to passive voice - if the context allows.
In fact check out OG12#36. Analyze that sentence and see it in the light of this discussion here.

Do let me know if you have any other questions.

Thanks,

Payal
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2012, 19:36
Thanks a lot Payal..
These kinds of questions arise only when solving OG questions. I don't remember having read about active and passive voices that can be parallel in any of the strategy guides I have read so far!
Guess a more comprehensive guide on SC is needed.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2012, 00:12
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha


Shraddha, if you can help on the below usage :

1) either from X or from Y

2) from either X or Y

3) either from X or Y.

How they differ? which one is correct to convey the intended meaning above.?

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2013, 17:40
1) either from X or from Y

2) from either X or Y

3) either from X or Y.

I think any of these could be correct depending on the structure of the sentence

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2013, 06:53
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha


Hi shraddha.....this is what i was searching for......
great explanation..............
although i got the question right....but now it is clear.

thanks
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from   [#permalink] 03 May 2013, 06:53

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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from

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