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Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)

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Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves.

(A) they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

(B) the play's characters recognize the facts

(C) these facts are recognized by the play's characters

(D) being recognized by the play's characters

(E) the play's characters themselves do

Originally posted by happy1992 on 20 May 2016, 09:40.
Last edited by hazelnut on 25 Jan 2018, 22:22, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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New post 30 Mar 2019, 19:15
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Quote:
(B) Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters recognize the facts.

(E) Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters themselves do.

warrior1991 wrote:
generis

What's wrong with option B?? I don't think B is wrong in any sort.

I know that E is also correct but we have to discard B on the basis of any reason. I am not able to find that reason.

Please help !!

warrior1991 , nothing is seriously wrong with (B).
We have to eliminate (B) because it is not nearly as good as (E).
This question subtly tests meaning (of irony) and rhetorical effectiveness (at conveying that irony). The question is hard.

•• SHORT ANSWER
The short answer is that reflexive pronouns highlight and emphasize subjects because English does not "repeat" subjects very often,
and in this question the word "irony" signals that we need to emphasize the characters. Their situation is odd.
Emphasizing the characters' ignorance comports with the IRONY mentioned; the characters who are actually living a horror story do not know that fact, while the people watching and not living a horror story -- the audience members -- do know.

Reflexive pronouns tell a reader, "Take note! This subject has something unusual going on—a weird situation, maybe, or a peculiar mindset."
Themselves adds emphasis to the play's characters. Emphasis is part of what reflexive pronouns do.

Option E does a better job of contrasting clueless characters and clued-in audience members, a contrast that, in turn, reinforces the word "irony."

•• ANALYSIS

• Irony = contrary to expectation, opposite, contrast
The key clause is the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony

Generally, irony suggests that something is opposite from or contrary to what we expect.

We need stark contrast between the audience and the characters in the play.

Take this part on faith for a moment:
-- Using the reflexive pronoun themselves as in (E) spotlights the characters' peculiar ignorance and contrasts it with the watchers' insight.
-- Failing to use the reflexive pronoun themselves as in (B) also fails to illuminate the contrast as effectively as (E) does.

• Reflexive pronouns
Also discussed on this site, here


SIMPLER EXAMPLES

-- The necessary case: I gave myself the epinephrine shot, which cured my severe allergic reaction.
We use a reflexive pronoun (myself) as a recipient of the verb (as a direct object) when the subject of the verb and the object are the same (person or thing). I administer the shot as a subject. I receive the shot as an object.

-- The optional case (#2):
1) Correct but not as quick and hence not as effective as #2: Rohan fixes things because he does not trust others to fix the problems correctly.
2) Correct and more effective than #1: Rohan fixes things himself because he does not trust others to fix the problems correctly.

In #1, we must wait until the end of the sentence to learn that Rohan has a particular reason for fixing things.
It's not all that clear that he refuses to let others help him.
Rohan fixes things . . . (We are not aware that he has a mindset we should pay attention to.)

In #2, Rohan fixes things himself. We know immediately that the himself is important.
Himself signals: pay attention to his mindset or situation. English doesn't "repeat" or reinforce subjects without reason.
Rohan fixes things himself ... now his "why" is more easily absorbed because we are ready for it.

In English, one common way to spotlight the particular situation or state of mind of a subject is to use the reflexive pronoun.

We can emphasize that we had no help: I fixed it by myself.
We can emphasize particular attributes: An inanimate thing itself cannot draw a conclusion; only people draw conclusions.
We can emphasize that a particular person did something: Sir Elton John himself sang for Queen Elizabeth's birthday.
We can emphasize oddity, like the oddity in this question: She herself rarely received praise, though she was both accomplished and quick to praise others.
(It is odd and ironic that she both deserves praise and is generous with praise, but that she rarely receives praise.)

"THEMSELVES" IN THIS CASE

The people IN the story do not understand what the audience understands. Can't the characters see all the horrible things that are happening? Weird.
We use themselves to point a spotlight on and to point to those people IN the play who do not understand.

As a matter of convention, themselves emphasizes THE FACT THAT those people are clueless [mindset].

• Compare B to E in order to eliminate

At this level of question, we may well have two grammatical answers. We have to decide which one is more effective.

I see no basis to eliminate (B) on its own, unless we know
that idiomatically, we use reflexive pronouns for this kind of situation.

I would not eliminate (B) on its own regardless. Rhetoric and style issues require comparison.
One answer is better than the other.

We want to highlight our subjects' peculiar or unusual situation or state of mind.

(B) The horrifying plots of dramatic tragedies ... also involve dramatic irony,
where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters recognize the facts.

(E) The horrifying plots of dramatic tragedies ... also involve dramatic irony,
where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters themselves do.

Which option refers to and illuminates irony better?

If the answer still seems elusive and abstract,
then we memorize this fact: reflexive pronouns emphasize.
If two sentences are almost identical,
but one emphasizes something and the other does not, we should ask:
do we need the emphasis? Why is there emphasis in one of the sentences?

If we are trying to showcase a subject in an odd position, reflexive pronouns work.
Correct: I myself do not understand this book at the moment, and I wrote half of it!
(State of affairs: weird. The author has forgotten what s/he knew enough to write about.)

Another avenue: Google reflexive pronouns English example sentences and read correct examples for 30 minutes. The concept will sink in.

Finally, HERE is a very good Magoosh blog post with examples.

I hope that analysis helps.
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2016, 09:59
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happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

A. they are recognized by the play's characters themselves
B. the play's characters recognize the facts
C. these facts are recognized by the play's characters
D. being recognized by the play's characters
E. the play's characters themselves do


Hi,
PL provide the Q with OA...

The MAIN error here is parallelism issue in terms of voice in portion on either side of BEFORE..
The non-underlined portion - the audience recognizes the facts- has 'the facts' as OBJECT and there is no reason to convert the portion as passive after BEFORE..
It is much better to use SAME voice ..
ONLY B and E are left..

In B, the reflexive pronoun THEMSELVES is missing, while E carries it correctly..
Also DO in E is a much better thing than to repeat the words- the facts- again.. Not something which can alone separate two chopices..

E
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2017, 11:52
chetan2u wrote:
happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

A. they are recognized by the play's characters themselves
B. the play's characters recognize the facts
C. these facts are recognized by the play's characters
D. being recognized by the play's characters
E. the play's characters themselves do


Hi,
PL provide the Q with OA...

The MAIN error here is parallelism issue in terms of voice in portion on either side of BEFORE..
The non-underlined portion - the audience recognizes the facts- has 'the facts' as OBJECT and there is no reason to convert the portion as passive after BEFORE..
It is much better to use SAME voice ..
ONLY B and E are left..

In B, the reflexive pronoun THEMSELVES is missing, while E carries it correctly..
Also DO in E is a much better thing than to repeat the words- the facts- again.. Not something which can alone separate two chopices..

E



Why is themselves necessary? wouldn't "before they are recognized by the play's characters." work?
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2017, 21:15
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Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves.

A. they are recognized by the play's characters themselves
--> "they" and "themselves" must have the same antecedant if they stand in the same clause. Active voice is preferred if available.

B. the play's characters recognize the facts
--> redundant.

C. these facts are recognized by the play's characters
--> redundant. Active voice is preferred if available.

D. being recognized by the play's characters
--> it is implicitly understood that the subject of being recognized is "the audience" --> wrong.

E. the play's characters themselves do
--> correct and concise.
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2017, 03:20
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happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

A. they are recognized by the play's characters themselves
B. the play's characters recognize the facts
C. these facts are recognized by the play's characters
D. being recognized by the play's characters
E. the play's characters themselves do


this is hard question. the points tested here are passive voice and pronoun problem.

passive voice is used when the agent which make the action is not important. only the action and object of action is important. in this context, the agent of action, "play characters" are important. so, passive voice should not be used. choice C is inferior to Choice E. the passtive voice is only incorrect when the active voice is present and is considered better when the agent is important. when agent is important, it should be subject of the sentence. when only action and object of action is important, passive is used. that is all about passive and active difference.

regarding pronoun problem.
I like the apple and my friends also like the apple.
if we do not use pronoun. the sentence become unclear. it is possible that there are two apples. I Like apple A and you like apple B. This is serious meaning problem if you do not use pronoun. so, the use of pronoun make the meaning clear: there is only one apple. for all those reasons, choice B is wrong.
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2017, 05:56
normally, when passive voice is used, agent which makes action is not shown because the speakers is not willing to say about this agent. if passive voice contain agent at the end of sentence, this agent becomes redundant because the speaker at this moment do not want to focus on agent. if agent is the focus of the sentence, this agent should be the grammatical subject of the sentence and the sentence should be an active voice.
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2018, 05:30
daagh
Can you please brief the difference between B and E ?
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New post 24 Nov 2018, 04:53
happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves.

(A) they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

(B) the play's characters recognize the facts

(C) these facts are recognized by the play's characters

(D) being recognized by the play's characters

(E) the play's characters themselves do


choice D, being refers to audience . this is illogic clearly
in choice A, "they" is unclear..
look at choice B and C.
we use passive if we want to emphasis not the agent making the action but the action/fact performed by the agent. inhere, we want to emphasis agent not what agent do, so, active is better than passive, C is gone/

we dont repeat a noun but we have to use pronoun. B is gone

two problems with choice B and C is subtle and will not tested on gmat frequently. this make this question hard
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New post 24 Nov 2018, 05:02
daagh AjiteshArun
Can you please brief the difference between option B and E ?
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New post 24 Nov 2018, 05:20
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teasarbae
In B, where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters recognize the facts -- the repetition of 'recognize the facts' is redundant and awkward
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New post 19 Feb 2019, 09:46
daagh wrote:
teasarbae
In B, where the audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters recognize the facts -- the repetition of 'recognize the facts' is redundant and awkward


I find it hard to understand this because Kaplan has similar questions that seem to use these repetitions.
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New post 30 Mar 2019, 06:06
generis

What's wrong with option B?? I don't think B is wrong in any sort.

I know that E is also correct but we have to discard B on the basis of any reason. I am not able to find that reason.

Please help !!
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New post 05 Oct 2019, 13:11
happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves.

(A) they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

(B) the play's characters recognize the facts

(C) these facts are recognized by the play's characters

(D) being recognized by the play's characters

(E) the play's characters themselves do


GMATNinja daagh egmat EducationAisle I would really appreciate if someone could help me clear my doubt regarding ellipsis. Thanks!

I understand why E is superior to all other choices but I ruled it out due to one issue: ellipsis.

The audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters themselves do (recognize)

"recognize" is missing since "recognizes" != "recognize". I know that there's a rule that all words in ellipsis should be present somewhere else in the sentence. How can we get away without the exact verb present somewhere else?

In contrast, for example (Ellipsis with sentences without DO), in this Q: https://gmatclub.com/forum/inflation-ha ... ml?kudos=1, we do need the exact verb tense.
Wrong: They still expect to live better than their parents have (Missing: "lived". Need "did (live)" instead of "have")

Another example (Ellipsis with sentences with DO):
Wrong: She went to school before all children do (Missing: "go". Need "did (go)" instead of "do" but no "go"????)
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New post 05 Oct 2019, 23:53
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dabaobao wrote:
happy1992 wrote:
Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved) and agonizing moral dilemmas, the plots of tragedies also involve dramatic irony, where the audience recognizes the facts before they are recognized by the play's characters themselves.

(A) they are recognized by the play's characters themselves

(B) the play's characters recognize the facts

(C) these facts are recognized by the play's characters

(D) being recognized by the play's characters

(E) the play's characters themselves do


GMATNinja daagh egmat EducationAisle I would really appreciate if someone could help me clear my doubt regarding ellipsis. Thanks!

I understand why E is superior to all other choices but I ruled it out due to one issue: ellipsis.

The audience recognizes the facts before the play's characters themselves do (recognize)

"recognize" is missing since "recognizes" != "recognize". I know that there's a rule that all words in ellipsis should be present somewhere else in the sentence. How can we get away without the exact verb present somewhere else?

In contrast, for example (Ellipsis with sentences without DO), in this Q: https://gmatclub.com/forum/inflation-ha ... ml?kudos=1, we do need the exact verb tense.
Wrong: They still expect to live better than their parents have (Missing: "lived". Need "did (live)" instead of "have")

Another example (Ellipsis with sentences with DO):
Wrong: She went to school before all children do (Missing: "go". Need "did (go)" instead of "do" but no "go"????)


dabaobao , I will let the experts you have tagged reply about this question.
But you are a little mixed up about my post that you cite.
It's easy to get mixed up about ellipsis and substitution.

When verbs shift tenses in a sentence, we have two choices.
We can write out both verbs in their entirety, this way:
Marisol works harder in college than Reva worked when Reva was in college.

Or we can use the appropriate form of to do because that verb can stand in for almost any verb. (Exceptions are below.)
We write the "to do" substitute verb in the tense that we need.
Marisol works harder in college than Reva did.
DID = WORKED

Don't test correctness by seeing whether you can write did (works).
Just ask whether did equals worked. Are both verbs past tense so that they refer properly to Reva, who is finished with college?
Yes, did and worked are both past tense.

The one verb that you can use when verb tenses shift is some form of TO DO (do, does, or did, usually).

When we use do, does, and did, we do not need exactly the same verb tense.
This situation is precisely the one in which we use do, does, or did.
The only verb that will work to express a verb shift is some form of TO DO.

Quote:
I know that there's a rule that all words in ellipsis should be present somewhere else in the sentence.

The verb tense needs to be present, yes, if we want to use pure omission (ellipsis).
If the second verb tense is not present, we either write out both verbs entirely or, using substitution, we write the "to do" verb that matches the tense we need.

IF we need a present tense verb (for the verb whose tense has shifted), then we use DO and DOES.
If we need a past tense verb (for the verb whose tense has shifted), then we use DID.

You seem confused about this part of the post:
Quote:
When verbs shift [tense] in a sentence, only some form of "to do" (almost always do, does, or did) will allow us to imply the verb in a tense that is different from the one explicitly mentioned.


DO stands in for a present tense verb.
DOES stands in for a present tense verb.
DID stands in for a past tense verb.

You wrote:
Quote:
Wrong: They still expect to live better than their parents have (Missing: "lived". Need "did (live)" instead of "have")

Not quite. Yes, "lived" is "missing."
Yes, we use did to stand in for lived because both did and lived are past tense verbs.

We are not writing did in order to say "did live."
We are writing did in order to say "lived."
We are allowed to use did when the verb changes tenses and we do not want to write the whole verb out again.
Did is past tense.

You wrote
Quote:
Wrong: She went to school before all children do (Missing: "go". Need "did (go)" instead of "do" but no "go"????)

↓↓↓
Correct: She went to school before all the other children DID.
Correct: She went to school before all the other children went to school.
DID = WENT TO SCHOOL

Both are past tense.
We are allowed to use did as shorthand for "went to school."
Just as is the case in this question, there is no verb tense shift in this example.
That fact is okay; we can still see how a "to do" verb stands in and makes a "short" version of the verb phrase "went to school."

We can use a TO DO verb when there is not a tense shift and we do not want to write out the second verb.
We can use a TO DO verb when there is a tense shift and we do not want to write out the second verb.

Finally, there are two big exceptions to the "do can stand in for almost any verb" guideline.

A TO DO verb cannot substitute for
-- TO BE verbs, or
-- HAVE, if HAVE is an auxiliary verb.
If have means own, possess, or experience, then have is a "main" verb and can be replaced with do, does, or did.

• TO DO verbs cannot substitute for TO BE verbs
Wrong: She was hungry and he did, too.
Correct: She was hungry and he was [hungry], too.

• TO DO verbs cannot substitute for HAVE when HAVE is a helping/auxiliary verb
Wrong: He had finished his wine and I did, too.
Correct: He had finished his wine and I had, too.

• TO DO verbs can substitute for HAVE when HAVE is a main verb that means own, possess, or experience.
Correct: Artem has ten pennies and Misha has ten pennies.
Correct: Artem has ten pennies and Misha does, too.
Correct: Artem has ten pennies just as Misha does.
does = has [ten pennies]

Correct (did can substitute for main verb had):
Artem had ten pennies and Misha had ten pennies.
Artem had ten pennies and Misha did, too.
Artem had ten pennies just as Misha did.
did = had [ten pennies]

I've added these exceptions to the post you cited.

I'll let the other experts you tagged take on this question.
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New post 06 Oct 2019, 00:41
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Daba,
I am afraid you are getting confused between ellipsis and replacement. Both are different. Ellipsis is when you totally avoid some feature, it need not be restated and the omission is easily understood. On the contrary in replacement, you don't omit anything. You only replace the earlier verb with another verb namely do or does or did or some such form in order to the clumsiness of repetition.

Your problem with E arose because you mistook the second verb 'do' as an ellipsis.
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Re: Replete with bloody revenge, disasters (both deserved and undeserved)  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2019, 07:23
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dabaobao wrote:
"recognize" is missing since "recognizes" != "recognize".

I know that there's a rule that all words in ellipsis should be present somewhere else in the sentence. How can we get away without the exact verb present somewhere else?

Hi, actually recognizes is equal to recognize, from an ellipsis perspective.

For example, following sentence is correct:

My parents recognize the signs of disease better than she.

This is equivalent to:

My parents recognize the signs of disease better than she (recognizes).

So, while change in tense is generally an issue with ellipsis, change from a plural to a singularsubject (or vice-versa) is not.

Quote:
In contrast, for example (Ellipsis with sentences without DO), in this Q: https://gmatclub.com/forum/inflation-ha ... ml?kudos=1, we do need the exact verb tense.

Correct for the most part; but the question under consideration in this thread isn't really changing the tense; it is just a question of singular subject in the first part vs plural subject in the second part.

Quote:
Another example (Ellipsis with sentences with DO):
Wrong: She went to school before all children do (Missing: "go". Need "did (go)" instead of "do" but no "go"????)

This sentence is not using ellipsis. do is an actual verb that will substitute for go.

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this aspect of “to do” verbs. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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