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# The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a

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The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Nov 2017, 22:38
1
19
00:00

Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (02:13) correct 46% (02:14) wrong based on 636 sessions

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The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital. Likewise, physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.

Originally posted by bipolarbear on 05 Jun 2009, 19:29.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 07 Nov 2017, 22:38, edited 1 time in total.
formatted
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2009, 21:46
IMO..B
Time taken: 2.5 mins
OA plz?
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2011, 22:06
2
bipolarbear wrote:
The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has
led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical
articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals are usually coauthored by
physicians from each participating hospital.
Likewise, physics papers reporting results from
experiments using subsystems developed at various
laboratories generally have authors from each
laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of
the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several
hospitals are never conducted solely by
physicians from just one hospital. undesirable tone !
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals have multiple authors. most warrants to rethink but lets keep it for the time being
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors,
they are usually from different institutions. no where passage mentions so, reverse the argument
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from
multiple laboratories usually report results
from experiments using subsystems
developed at each laboratory. Damn, so convoluted language but changes the order of argument
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by
the researchers who conducted the

A hard one took 2.28 mins to complete !
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2011, 00:18
I will go with B here. B looks a restatement of the second sentence.

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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2012, 07:18
1
bipolarbear wrote:
The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has
led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical
articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals are usually coauthored by
physicians from each participating hospital.

Likewise, physics papers reporting results from
experiments using subsystems developed at various
laboratories generally have authors from each
laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of
the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several
hospitals are never conducted solely by
physicians from just one hospital.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals have multiple authors.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors,
they are usually from different institutions.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from
multiple laboratories usually report results
from experiments using subsystems
developed at each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by
the researchers who conducted the
experiments these articles report.

B is almost the same as the part of the stimulus shaded in blue.
+1B
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2013, 06:28
1
1
(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital.
Clinical trials from several hospitals are usually co-authored. Never is too strong here.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
The text says that 'Clinical trials from several hospitals are usually co-athored'. Bingo, so most reports are co-authored.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions.
Text does not mention.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
Relationship reversed. Just because the authors are from multiple laboratories doesn't mean that they mainly use sub-sustems from each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.
Multi-authored technical articles have increased lately, according to the text. But we know nothing about the ratio/proportion between single and multiauthored.
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2013, 01:01
1
B. Says MOST. Isnt it extreme?

I like D.
Premise : Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals -> usually coauthored by physicians -> each participating hospital.
Likewise, physics papers reporting (experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories) generally have authors from each laboratory.

Can anyone explain why D is wrong (if it is wrong) ?
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2013, 14:15
Here's how I'd approach this one:

It's a Draw a Conclusion questions type, so only premises are given. The correct answer should not require any assumptions or logical leaps, no matter how probable they might be. The correct answer is likely to be a rephrase of one or more of the premises.

The argument can be diagrammed as follows
Increasing complexity --> More multi-author articles.

Example 1: Clinical trials: Patients from several hospitals --> authors USUALLY from those hospitals.

Example 2: Physics papers: Experiments using systems from various labs--> results GENERALLY reported by authors from those labs.

Now the choices, with key/limiting words emphasized
A. Clinical trials: Patients from several hospitals-->NEVER conducted by physicians from just one hospital. NEVER is too strong, this cannot be proven with the info given.

B. Clinical trianls: Patients from several hospitals --> MOST reporst have several authors. This is a very close restatement of Example 1.

C. Technical article: Multiple authors means various institutions are represented. Technical article too general, too much of a leap to turn the causation around. We are told that multiple institutions --> multiple authors, but you could have multiple authors from one institution, so you can't necessarily conclude that multiple authors -->multiple institutions.

D. Physics papers: Multiple authors from multiple labs -->experiments USUALLY used systems from multiple labs. Like (C), this turns the causation around. We are told that if multiple systems are used in the experiment, the report is written by authors at the lab that developed the system, but multiple authors might contribute to a paper for other reasons, too.

E. Technical articles: MOST authored only by researchers who conducted the experiments. The premise actually was that reports are authored by people who work at the institution where the experiment was done or the system developed, but that doesn't mean the authors were the people who actually ran the experiments.
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2013, 17:31
summer101 wrote:
B. Says MOST. Isnt it extreme?

I like D.
Premise : Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals -> usually coauthored by physicians -> each participating hospital.
Likewise, physics papers reporting (experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories) generally have authors from each laboratory.

Can anyone explain why D is wrong (if it is wrong) ?

It was close between B & D. This is how i eliminated D.

In stimulus,
E2: Physics papers: Experiments using systems from various labs --> Generally reported by authors from those labs.

AC: have authors from each laboratory. Each present a restriction which is not obvious from the "various".

Hope this help!
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2014, 15:09
bipolarbear wrote:
The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has
led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical
articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals are usually coauthored by
physicians from each participating hospital.
Likewise, physics papers reporting results from
experiments using subsystems developed at various
laboratories generally have authors from each
laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of
the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several
hospitals are never conducted solely by
physicians from just one hospital.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients
from several hospitals have multiple authors.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors,
they are usually from different institutions.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from
multiple laboratories usually report results
from experiments using subsystems
developed at each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by
the researchers who conducted the
experiments these articles report.

I'm going with B

Cheers!
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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01 May 2014, 10:35
OA B.

Explanation:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the ... t7121.html
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2017, 12:34
1
the studies, only who authors the reports. Thus, there is no proof for this
answer choice and it fails the Fact Test. Even if you mistook “conducted” for
“reported,” the answer choice is still incorrect because the stimulus indicates
that reports involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored
physicians from each hospital. Although “usually” could mean “always,” it
does not have to, and hence it is possible that a clinical trial could be
reported by physicians from just one hospital.
answer choice is a direct paraphrase of the second sentence. The second
sentence states, “Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several
hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating
hospital.” Answer choice (B) translates “usually” into “most,” and “coauthored
by physicians from each participating hospital” into “multiple authors.” Thus,
the answer choice passes the Fact Test and is correct. Answer choice (C):
This is a Shell Game answer choice. Although the stimulus says there has
been a proliferation of multi-authored technical articles, no comment is made
about the frequency of multi-authored technical articles. In the next sentence,
a frequency—“usually”—is given, but only for multi-authored clinical trial
reports. The test makers give you hard data about the clinical trial reports,
and then try to entice you into picking a broader answer involving technical
reports. Answer choice (C) shows how the Shell Game can occur in the
stimulus as well as in the answer choices. The stimulus of this problem
switches from “technical articles” to “reports of clinical trials.” Answer choice
(C) plays on that substitution. Answer choice (D): This is a Reverse answer
that contains a complex pair of reversed elements when matched against the
stimulus. Let us compare the stimulus and the answer choice, using italics to
indicate the reversed parts: The stimulus states, “physics papers reporting
results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories
generally have authors from each laboratory.” Answer choice (D) states,
“Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually
report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each
laboratory.” The reversed pair has two notable features: 1. The numbers are
reversed—authors from each laboratory have become researchers (authors)
from multiple laboratories, and subsystems from various laboratories have
become subsystems from each laboratory. In a nutshell, the “various” and
“each” elements have been reversed in the sentences. 2. The pair also
reverses logical position within the argument, as the stimulus states that the
experiments generally have authors from each laboratory and the answer
choice states that the researchers usually report experiments from each
laboratory. Answer choice (E): As with answer choice (C), we do not know
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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09 May 2017, 18:40
Fact 1: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a proliferation of multi-authored technical articles.
Fact 2: Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital.
Fact 3: Likewise, physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory.

Must be true questions need to pass the Fact Test. Hence Test each choice against the Facts is the stimulus

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital. - Fact 2 states usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital. Besides this option is too extreme (Never), it is possible that a clinical trial could have been reported by only 1 hospital (Stimulus uses the word Usually indicating such a possibility).

(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.- Correct. Usually can be replaced with Most can still indicate the same.

(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions. - This is an assumption based on the arrived at based on Fact 2, however this may not be true and since this question is on Must be true this fails the fact test

(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory- This changes the order of words in Fact 3 and thus changes the meaning (Misplaced Modifiers)

Fact 3 states "Physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory. ("

E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.-Not explicitly mentioned hence not correct
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The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2018, 12:26
this question comes from CR bible powerscore.

My question is how B is an inference if B restates a claim in the argument?
I understand that A is wrong b/c of extreme word "never" and A is opposite to C which is also incorrect.
D changes the meaning b/c it is not about research papers with reporting system but about authors and various locations.
E is certainly wrong.
B seems a detail.
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The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2018, 16:31
1
The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital. Likewise, physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.

HUM-AM Methodology:

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.
There are not mention of researchers in the argument. It only mentions authors. Furthermore, "solely" is a flag. Easily eliminate this

Step 4
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
This can be hard to digest upon further reading. If you get right away and you are confident its the wrong answer, good for you and move on. If you are not quiet sure what the choice says, park it and come back to it. Bottom line is don't try to half understand it; either skip it and come back to it later or take the time to understand it

Step 5
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions.
This generalizes a statement that is not even in the argument. It also reverses the argument. The argument says "IF Reports/papers involving different patients/labs from several hospitals/labs then generally authors from each lab/hospital are involved. Equivalent yet simple example: IF dog then animal. is true however if animal then dog is false.

Step 5
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
This restates the argument. The argument says "IF Reports/papers involving different patients/labs from several hospitals/labs then generally authors from each lab/hospital are involved. Note that "MOST" here is okay because the words "usually" and "generally" are used

Step 6
(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital.
We don't know whether this is true or not. The argument says Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are "USUALLY" coauthored by authors from each participating hospital. If it said "ALL" instead of usually then "A" would be worth considering

Step 7
See how many choices you are left with
Maybe you are left with D and B. If you are crunched for time and you are pretty confident about B then go for B, if its 50/50 then read D again.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
"Researchers" here is a flag since its not mentioned anywhere in the argument. However, its not enough to eliminate the answer. the word "each laboratory" here is the other flag. We know from the argument that physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory but we don't know whether these authors report results from each lab. Maybe they do maybe don't

Champion: B
Contender and Master Time Waster: D
Reverse Logic: C
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2019, 04:51
bipolarbear wrote:
The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a proliferation of multiauthored technical articles. Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital. Likewise, physics papers reporting results from experiments using subsystems developed at various laboratories generally have authors from each laboratory.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?

(A) Clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are never conducted solely by physicians from just one hospital.
(B) Most reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
(C) When a technical article has multiple authors, they are usually from different institutions.
(D) Physics papers authored by researchers from multiple laboratories usually report results from experiments using subsystems developed at each laboratory.
(E) Most technical articles are authored solely by the researchers who conducted the experiments these articles report.

Responding to a pm:

From the argument:
Reports of clinical trials involving patients from several hospitals are usually coauthored by physicians from each participating hospital.

"usually coauthored" implies this is what happens in the usual case, barring a few cases. Hence it will be correct to say that most reports of trials involving patients from several hospitals have multiple authors.
So (B) is correct
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Re: The increasing complexity of scientific inquiry has led to a   [#permalink] 01 Aug 2019, 04:51
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