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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a

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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2009, 16:14
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 119
Page: 696

The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by souvik101990 on 23 Aug 2017, 11:30, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2009, 16:33
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2009, 10:47
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city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2009, 21:13
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Thank you for the explanation.

With so many exceptions and special cases, I feel like my basic grammar understanding never seems to apply in SC. When i first started GMAT prep, I thought SC was the easiest section in verbal. While my CR and RC skills have improved a lot since the beginning of study, my SC skills seem to go nowhere. no matter how much I study, i always stumble on yet another new special cases, which I am not familiar with.

(Is it because I am simply a non-english native? or do english natives find SC difficult as much as non-natives do?)

Anyway, this is great forum. Thanks again for the reply.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2009, 16:55
Why I removed choice E

I don't think "which" works here. "Which" makes it sound like it is describing the entire previous phrase (The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming); however, it is only describing "global warming," thus "A phenom....." makes more sense

just my guess
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2009, 05:53
Minheequang wrote:
city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause

hi there! I have searched a lot and this post seems the only one that asks my question. I have read all the replies. But I am still confused.
In the rewritten sentence: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels, there are two verbs: agree and is caused. this is obviously unacceptable. Even though we see it as most scientist agree that..., two problems remain:
1. agree that appears to not be an idiom, compared to agree with or agree on;
2. even though "agree that" IS an idiom, on GMAT, such "that" can not be omitted and "a phenomenon" can no longer be the object of "agree" so that "a phenomenon" cannot be modified by "that" clause.
Okay, totally confused, plz help me explain it!!! thx!
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2011, 19:26
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tonebeeze,

I'd take two lessons from this problem.

1. The plural possessive. C refers to the entire collection of human beings and their burning of fossil fuels, so you need to use the plural possessive. Consider some other examples:

"My three brothers' favorite game growing up was making fun of me." --> Here, the game belongs to all three of my brothers.
"Will you please go to the Smiths' house and ask for a cup of sugar?" --> Here, the house belongs to all of the Smiths, so you need that plural possessive.

2. "Sounds awkward" is less reliable then "is grammatically incorrect."

I agree that C) is written in a way that is not ordinary in everyday speech, but when I'm reading and I notice that, I make only a mental note that it might be wrong. I then go to E) and see the incorrect idiom "agree to be" and then unnecessarily passive tense. The problems with E are therefore worse than the "problems" with C even though C isn't the best sentence in the world.

Does that help?

Brett
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2011, 22:40

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2011, 06:46
StefanoYoung wrote:
Minheequang wrote:
city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause

hi there! I have searched a lot and this post seems the only one that asks my question. I have read all the replies. But I am still confused.
In the rewritten sentence: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels, there are two verbs: agree and is caused. this is obviously unacceptable. Even though we see it as most scientist agree that..., two problems remain:
1. agree that appears to not be an idiom, compared to agree with or agree on;
2. even though "agree that" IS an idiom, on GMAT, such "that" can not be omitted and "a phenomenon" can no longer be the object of "agree" so that "a phenomenon" cannot be modified by "that" clause.
Okay, totally confused, plz help me explain it!!! thx!

Bro, think it that way:
A book that I read is written by....
A phenomenon that most agree is caused by...

Did you see the analogy ?
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2011, 06:54
Sorry, internal contradiction, then it will not be an appositive
There is a huge controversy here
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 03:47
I was indecided between C and D and wrongly chose D. Now I can see that C makes more sense hence the meaning is conversed (it is the burning of the fuels that causes...). The last part of the senctence appears a little bit wordy to me as well compared to answer choice D. However, the biggest impediment for me as a non-native speaker was the part "that most scientist agree is caused", which sounded odd to me.
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2012, 15:50
I have chosen C for the answer choice:

A. "to be" and "human beings in burning..." is very wordy. Grammatically, I couldn't see anything incorrect, but this sentence could definitely be more concise.

B. The placement of "that" is incorrect" - it should be placed right after "a phenomenon" and not "agree."

C. The use of the appositive to describe global warming makes sense. Also, the placement of "that" is correct which describes what scientists are agreeing on.

D. The use of "which" makes things a bit more confusing. Also, the use of "who" is not necessary.

E. Again, the use of "which" is a bit wordy here. The meaning is also slightly changed because it sounds like the phenomenon is caused by fossil fuels rather than the burning of fossil fuels.
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Re: OG 12th SC, 118 The world wildlife fund has declared that [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2012, 11:26
C is the correct answer in my opinion
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2012, 12:12
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A) a phenomenon...............caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels = Does this make any sense, Does it not sound similar to : X caused by people in boiling pots ? People IN BURNING FUELS ? : Eliminated

The intent : X was caused by burning of fossil fuels

(B) a phenomenon ...........caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings :

(E) a phenomenon..............caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

B n E implies : X was caused by fossil fuels in isolation : Eliminated

Left with C n D ,

(D) a phenomenon.............caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels : Implies X was caused by human beings, the emphasis is missing of 'burning fossil fuels ' , seems to convey some descriptive of what human beings do viz who burn fuels, who enjoys partying, who loves to write gmat etc : Eliminated

C) a phenomenon .............caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels : Perfect , human being's burning of fuels givesthe desired emphatic flavour

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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2012, 00:10
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metallicafan wrote:
The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings

a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels
issues:
1. caused by fossil fuels not by human beings so eliminate A,D
2. Looking at answer choices we'll notice, use of "which" is unnecessary. An appositive is better than a which clause here. "Global warming,a phenomenon " is much better. eliminate D, E.
3. a phenomenon most scientists agree that is - "that" modifies the preceding noun. In this case "that" is modifying the word agree. This is incorrect usage. So eliminate B.

Also there is another logic for C looking at the end of the sentence.
global warming is caused by an act not by substance or a person.
B says - global warming is caused by "those fossil fuels" that were burned by humans.
I hope it makes sense
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 03:50
Though we know OA is C, i still can't figure out what kind of structure of
'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by...' ?
It appears 'that most scientists agree' is non-essential in this structure and therefore meaning of the sentence
is altered from the original one. Can somebody explain ?

Also, pls clarify what the differences among below are:

1. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. ....global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. ...global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by... (original sentence)

Tks!
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 04:36
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 05:04
sandeep86 wrote:
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?

Choice C is grammatically correct. "that most scientists agree" is a modifier used to describe the phenomenon and it is correctly placed next to the noun it describes.

As the first line of Manhattan Sc says -Ideal answer is not the right answer. We need to pick the best among the options given.

Going by this ideology - clause after "caused by" is correct only in C. Then why bother about the sentence formation before "caused by".

2 points to note here -

1. the sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

concision - third round of elimination is only required if we have more than one choice here

hope this helps.
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Last edited by yashii9 on 15 Oct 2012, 23:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 09:40
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Thanks yashii9.
Quote:
1. there sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
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Can you articulate what make sentence structure in C sound awkward?

Quote:
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

Don't we go by reverse order, namely - meaning first - then grammar, in this case to make POE and find the answer ?

Also, can you check my previous question, what are the differences among below strutures
and whether all of them are correct:

1. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by...
(original sentence)

I am still not convinced that 'The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming,
a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...' in C is grammatically correct.

Any comments/explanations from others are appreciated.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 23:59
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Sandeep - you obviously can not work on grammar unless you understand the meaning of the sentence. (logically how will you know which tense to stick to..)

Meaning refers to - checking any changes in the original meaning of the statement. It should not happen that Grammar has been corrected but the original intent of the statement has been altered. You will be able to search several questions on this forum to help clear this point.

I would suggest you go through modifiers chapter from Manhattan SC before solving these questions. That should help.

It's not as difficult a question as it looks.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a   [#permalink] 15 Oct 2012, 23:59

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