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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 119
Page: 696

The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels
(D) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2009, 16:33
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....


Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....


Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2009, 21:13
Thank you for the explanation.

With so many exceptions and special cases, I feel like my basic grammar understanding never seems to apply in SC. When i first started GMAT prep, I thought SC was the easiest section in verbal. While my CR and RC skills have improved a lot since the beginning of study, my SC skills seem to go nowhere. no matter how much I study, i always stumble on yet another new special cases, which I am not familiar with. :evil:

(Is it because I am simply a non-english native? or do english natives find SC difficult as much as non-natives do?)

Anyway, this is great forum. Thanks again for the reply.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2009, 16:55
Why I removed choice E

I don't think "which" works here. "Which" makes it sound like it is describing the entire previous phrase (The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming); however, it is only describing "global warming," thus "A phenom....." makes more sense

just my guess
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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tonebeeze,

I'd take two lessons from this problem.

1. The plural possessive. C refers to the entire collection of human beings and their burning of fossil fuels, so you need to use the plural possessive. Consider some other examples:

"My three brothers' favorite game growing up was making fun of me." --> Here, the game belongs to all three of my brothers.
"Will you please go to the Smiths' house and ask for a cup of sugar?" --> Here, the house belongs to all of the Smiths, so you need that plural possessive.

2. "Sounds awkward" is less reliable then "is grammatically incorrect."

I agree that C) is written in a way that is not ordinary in everyday speech, but when I'm reading and I notice that, I make only a mental note that it might be wrong. I then go to E) and see the incorrect idiom "agree to be" and then unnecessarily passive tense. The problems with E are therefore worse than the "problems" with C even though C isn't the best sentence in the world.

Does that help?

Brett
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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A) a phenomenon...............caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels = Does this make any sense, Does it not sound similar to : X caused by people in boiling pots ? People IN BURNING FUELS ? : Eliminated

The intent : X was caused by burning of fossil fuels

(B) a phenomenon ...........caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings :

(E) a phenomenon..............caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

B n E implies : X was caused by fossil fuels in isolation : Eliminated

Left with C n D ,

(D) a phenomenon.............caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels : Implies X was caused by human beings, the emphasis is missing of 'burning fossil fuels ' , seems to convey some descriptive of what human beings do viz who burn fuels, who enjoys partying, who loves to write gmat etc : Eliminated

C) a phenomenon .............caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels : Perfect , human being's burning of fuels givesthe desired emphatic flavour

Leading to C, my take.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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metallicafan wrote:
The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.

a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings



a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels
issues:
1. caused by fossil fuels not by human beings so eliminate A,D
2. Looking at answer choices we'll notice, use of "which" is unnecessary. An appositive is better than a which clause here. "Global warming,a phenomenon " is much better. eliminate D, E.
3. a phenomenon most scientists agree that is - "that" modifies the preceding noun. In this case "that" is modifying the word agree. This is incorrect usage. So eliminate B.

Correct answer C.

Also there is another logic for C looking at the end of the sentence.
global warming is caused by an act not by substance or a person.
B says - global warming is caused by "those fossil fuels" that were burned by humans.
I hope it makes sense :)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2012, 03:50
Though we know OA is C, i still can't figure out what kind of structure of
'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by...' ?
It appears 'that most scientists agree' is non-essential in this structure and therefore meaning of the sentence
is altered from the original one. Can somebody explain ?

Also, pls clarify what the differences among below are:

1. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. ....global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. ....global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. ...global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by... (original sentence)

Tks!
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2012, 04:36
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2012, 05:04
sandeep86 wrote:
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?


Choice C is grammatically correct. "that most scientists agree" is a modifier used to describe the phenomenon and it is correctly placed next to the noun it describes.

As the first line of Manhattan Sc says -Ideal answer is not the right answer. We need to pick the best among the options given.

Going by this ideology - clause after "caused by" is correct only in C. Then why bother about the sentence formation before "caused by".

2 points to note here -

1. the sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

concision - third round of elimination is only required if we have more than one choice here

hope this helps.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2012, 09:40
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Thanks yashii9.
Quote:
1. there sentence structure in C might sound awkward but isn't incorrect
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Can you articulate what make sentence structure in C sound awkward?

Quote:
2. we should always follow the rules in order while eliminating answers - Grammar first - then meaning -then concision

Don't we go by reverse order, namely - meaning first - then grammar, in this case to make POE and find the answer ?



Also, can you check my previous question, what are the differences among below strutures
and whether all of them are correct:

1. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...
2. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon that most scientsts agree to be caused by...
3. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree that it is caused by....
4. The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by...
(original sentence)

I am still not convinced that 'The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming,
a phenomenon that most scientsts agree is caused by...' in C is grammatically correct.

Any comments/explanations from others are appreciated.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2012, 23:59
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Sandeep - you obviously can not work on grammar unless you understand the meaning of the sentence. (logically how will you know which tense to stick to..)

Meaning refers to - checking any changes in the original meaning of the statement. It should not happen that Grammar has been corrected but the original intent of the statement has been altered. You will be able to search several questions on this forum to help clear this point. :)

I would suggest you go through modifiers chapter from Manhattan SC before solving these questions. That should help.

It's not as difficult a question as it looks. :)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2012, 02:16
Quote:
Sandeep - you obviously can not work on grammar unless you understand the meaning of the sentence. (logically how will you know which tense to stick to..)

Meaning refers to - checking any changes in the original meaning of the statement. It should not happen that Grammar has been corrected but the original intent of the statement has been altered. You will be able to search several questions on this forum to help clear this point.

I would suggest you go through modifiers chapter from Manhattan SC before solving these questions. That should help.

It's not as difficult a question as it looks.


I am feeling i ask about chicken and you keep telling me about duck :-D
Anyway, i found one helpful post (in red) in this forum. One guy posted the same question like mine and was replied as below:

Quote:
Minheequang wrote:

city92 wrote:
You can all get the answer and explanation from OG, but one thing is not clear to me. I would appreciate if someone can explain:

if you look at the choice c:
C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels.

'is caused' make this a full clause isn't it?
a phenomenon "that most scientists agree" is caused by human...

If inserted into the main setnese above, it should be connected by the conjuncion because it is a independent clause, otherwise it looks like this:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....


Obviously, since the answer is C, I suppose i should have interpreted it as
a phenomenon that "most scientists agree" is caused by human...

Then, this will make better sense in main sentense as whole:
A World Wilfe fund has declard that global warming, a phenomenon that is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc.....

If so, what is the grammatical function(or name) for this, yet another clause "most scientists agree" in between? (another full clause with no conjunction)

I think it's simple, mate
c) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings's burning of fossil fuels -->that here is a relative pronoun modifies for a phenomenon

As if we commonly think, it can be written as: a phenomenon that is caused by human .... where that here modifies for a phenomenon and stands at the subject position of the new clause

But this clause offered by the choice (C) here is written as: a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused ... where a phenomenon here is still modified by that but it plays a role of an object in the clause modifying for it, and therefore, most scientists will be the subject of such clause
More clearly, we can re-write it as: most scientist agree global warming (a phenomenon) is caused by human being's burning of fossil fuels --> you can see the object role of a phenomenon, or global warming, in this re-written clause
Such structure is still called a clause modifying for a Noun, and they are connected by a relative pronoun, whatsoever the role of such Noun (Subject or Object) in the modifying clause. Maybe I can't remember its official name, but as I mentioned, lets simply call Noun-modifying clause


To this end, i am sure relative pronouns or modifiers as explained above are no strangers at all to us.
What make this OG question awkward is the way GMAC accept 'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by'.
Because this phrase grammatically is correct, but its meaning has been altered from intended meaning of original sentence,
which mentioned as 'a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by .

Meaning of 'a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by' itself sounds very odd, let alone the meaning
is different from original intended meaning. As rule of thump, this normally is not accepted by GMAC.

Originally i didnt choose C because of this issue.
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New post 17 Oct 2012, 03:56
Let us split it

The world wildlife fund has declared
that global warming,
a phenomenon most scientsts agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the enviroment in ways harmful to their habitats.



error:
a phenomenon(that)most scientsts- that can not be ommited as it is going to work as a subject
to be caused - wrong



a) A phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
b) a phenomenon most scientists agree
that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
it should be of the format noun+ noun modifier- I can't craete appositive with
verb


c) a phenomenon
that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels
noun+noun modfier
d) which most scientists agree on as phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
meaning modified , its the fossil not human beings, also we non essential which should be avoided here
e) which most scientsts agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings
meaning modified , its a phenomenon - no issue on that , only scientists differ on reason
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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A- This sentence is saying that the human beings are in the fossil fuels, and because they are in the fossil fuels global warming occurs.
B- The presence of ‘that’ is unnecessary. It is clear that the phenomenon referred to is global warming. ‘Burned’ is also in the past tense, which is incorrect. Global warming is a current event. It should read either WAS caused with BURNED or IS caused with BURNING (prefereably the later because of the phenomenom exists today)
C- Correct
D- This answer changes the meaning slightly to say that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon. The original sentence establishes this as fact, but the debate is around the cause. It also put the emphasis on the specific humans who do the burning which takes away from the intention of the sentence which is to associate the activity of humans with global warming.
E- Again, this sentence suggests that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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Expert's post
pretzel wrote:
Why is D incorrect?

(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,





Hi Pretzel,

Before we move on to option D, let’s first understand the meaning of the original sentence:
The World Wildlife Fund has declared (Clause-I)
o that global warming, (Clause-II)
 a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, (Clause-III)
o will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats. (Clause II Contd.)

MEANING

The author tells us about a declaration made by the World Wildlife Fund. According to this declaration the global warming will change the environment and make it harmful to the living places of the migratory birds.
The author also tells us that majority of the scientists agree that global warming is caused by the humans by burning fossil fuels.

Now, let’s move on to option D:
D.) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,

Now, this sentence has a meaning error. It states that the phenomenon is caused by human beings. These human beings burn fossil fuels is presented only as additional information. This is incorrect. Global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels not by the human beings.


Hope this helps! :)
Deepak

However this is not the only error in answer choice D. The word "which" is not necessary right?
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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Expert's post
asagraw wrote:

Won't C create a run on sentence in the stem?

Regards,
Ashish



Hi Ashish,
I don't know whether you are still looking for a reply, but here it is anyways. :)

Let’s take a look at the structure of this sentence with option C:

The World Wildlife Fund has declared (Clause I)
o that global warming, (Clause II)
 a phenomenon
that (Clause III)
o most scientists agree (Clause IV)
is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels, (Clause III Contd.)
o will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats. (Clause II Contd. )

Now, as we can see all the clauses in this sentence are properly connected. The structure “a phenomenon that….fossil fuels” is a Noun + Noun modifier, in which "a phenomenon" refers to "global warming" and the part that follows it is the noun modifier. So, option C is the correct answer and it does not create a run-on sentence.

Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 18:38
BrainLab wrote:
can someone please write down the analysis for all answer choices and not only for some of them.

Thanks !


The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

Quote:
(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,


--> in burning fossil fuels is incorrect here. Humans beings in burning fossil fuels? What would that even mean?

Quote:
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,


some intense passive voice going on here. Caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings? Z is caused by Y being done by X? Not by itself incorrect, but highly suspect.

Quote:
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels,


Similar to B, but a bit better (even if it sounds strange). It is clear that the act of human beings burning fossil fuels is causing the phenomenon.

Quote:
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,


who burn fossil fuels is misplaced. This one makes it sound like global warming is caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, and the main cause is HUMAN BEINGS, not the act of burning fossil fuels.

Quote:
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,


passive voice, and "agree to be" is very awkward.

C is the best.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2015, 10:48
jhabib wrote:
In what version of the English language is "human beings's" even remotely acceptable?

Indeed sounds very strange. I think the other options are incorrect because this phenomenon is neither cause by fossil fuels, nor by human beings; this phenomenon is actually caused by the act of burning of fossil fuels.

So, if we think along these lines, then there is no other option that is close. After reading your response though, I think following would have been better: a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by burning of fossil fuels by human beings.

However, since this option is not there, we just have to choose the best among the given choices. So, I feel C indeed is the best of the given choices.
Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2015, 10:48

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