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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon

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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 11:35
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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, -Phenomenon is not caused by human beings
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, -Phenomenon is not caused by fossil fuels
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, -Correct. Phenomenon is caused by the act of burning of fossil fuels
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, -Phenomenon is not caused by human beings
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, -Phenomenon is not caused by fossil fuels
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New post 23 Aug 2017, 11:38
[quote="souvik101990"]

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 87: Sentence Correction


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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Answer B

global warming, a phenomenon.......correct modifier
caused by fossil fuel.......only correct in B......
hope it serves.....
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Aug 2017, 07:11
1
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,-----"human beings in burning..."does not properly presents the action of human beings. it's an awkward construction

(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,--------this is a passive construction and the use of "burned" signifies that the action happend in the past and is not continuing but that is not correct. the action of burning is continuing, hence it will create problems in future

(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,------Correct. the action of human being's is correctly presented

(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,-----this changes the meaning of the sentence. now instead of a generic effect, the blame is only on human beings who burn fossil fules

(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,-----same error as B

Originally posted by niks18 on 23 Aug 2017, 12:00.
Last edited by niks18 on 24 Aug 2017, 07:11, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 23 Aug 2017, 12:53
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mrittik800 wrote:
Answer B

global warming, a phenomenon.......correct modifier
caused by fossil fuel.......only correct in B......
hope it serves.....



Hello mrittik800,


The original sentence intends to say that global warming has been caused because human beings burn fossil fuels.

However, Choice B suggests that global warming has been caused by fossil fuels. The modifier burned by human beings only provide additional information about fossil fuels. But the main cause for global warming is fossil fuels per Choice B.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 20:31
1
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The correct sentence is c. This is a case of Noun + Noun modifier. A phenomenon is modifying global warning and that clause which immediately follows a phenomenon talks more about the phenomenon.

A is wordy and has a meaning error.
B again has a meaning error, it incorrectly implies that global warming is caused by fossil fuels.
D has the same meaning error. Yes, it is caused by human beings but how it is done by them is not clearly stated.
E is wordy and awkward.

Please comment if my explanation has any error.

Thank you
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2017, 12:07
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To make life simple, the fact is that Global warming is caused individually neither by human beings nor by the fossil fuels, but by a combination of human beings' burning of the fossils. This combination is stated only in C.
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New post 24 Aug 2017, 19:34
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KB04 wrote:
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The correct sentence is c. This is a case of Noun + Noun modifier. A phenomenon is modifying global warning and that clause which immediately follows a phenomenon talks more about the phenomenon.

A is wordy and has a meaning error.
B again has a meaning error, it incorrectly implies that global warming is caused by fossil fuels.
D has the same meaning error. Yes, it is caused by human beings but how it is done by them is not clearly stated.
E is wordy and awkward.

Please comment if my explanation has any error.

Thank you



Hello KB04,

You have done a good job at solving this official sentence.

You have stated correct reasons to reject incorrect answer choices.

I would just like to say that Choice E has the same error as Choice B as this choice also says that that fossil fuels cause global warming.

Rest all is good.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2018, 01:50
How do you read

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

Experts egmat, souvik101990, GMATNinja sayantanc2k - please help
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2018, 14:41
pikolo2510 wrote:
How do you read

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

Experts egmat, souvik101990, GMATNinja sayantanc2k - please help

I have to admit that this made me pause for a moment. I just put more thought into the word "of" than I ever have in my life -- and I've been teaching grammar in some form or another for... ick, too many years. ;)

Here's the issue: you're right that the word "of" can indicate possession, as in your first two examples. But the word "of" can do a ton of other things as well:

  • Indicate membership in a broader category: "the state of Colorado" or "the business of education".
  • Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver."
  • Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel."

And we could go on. Prepositions are a mess in English, and plenty of them have multiple meanings -- and "of" definitely has quite a few.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2018, 01:04
GMATNinja wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:
How do you read

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

Experts egmat, souvik101990, GMATNinja sayantanc2k - please help

I have to admit that this made me pause for a moment. I just put more thought into the word "of" than I ever have in my life -- and I've been teaching grammar in some form or another for... ick, too many years. ;)

Here's the issue: you're right that the word "of" can indicate possession, as in your first two examples. But the word "of" can do a ton of other things as well:

  • Indicate membership in a broader category: "the state of Colorado" or "the business of education".
  • Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver."
  • Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel."

And we could go on. Prepositions are a mess in English, and plenty of them have multiple meanings -- and "of" definitely has quite a few.

I hope this helps!


Hey GMATNinja

Unfortunately, i didn't get what you are trying to convey here. I even asked a couple of my friends and even they didnt get what you are trying to convey.

Sorry :cry: , but can you explain in some other way?
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New post 20 May 2018, 19:55
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pikolo2510 wrote:

Hey GMATNinja

Unfortunately, i didn't get what you are trying to convey here. I even asked a couple of my friends and even they didnt get what you are trying to convey.

Sorry :cry: , but can you explain in some other way?

Ha, sorry for the confusion! Let me give it another shot.

Here are your examples again:

pikolo2510 wrote:
Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

In all three of these examples, the word "of" indicates possession. Here, have another example: "the delicious crust of my pizza" = "my pizza's delicious crust." (Mmm... pizza.)

Here's the problem: in your examples, you're assuming that the word "of" ALWAYS indicates possession. And that certainly isn't always the case. "Of" can do far more than indicate possession. There are more uses of "of" than I could possibly list here, but here are a few examples again of alternate meanings for the word "of":

  • Indicate membership in a broader category: "the state of Colorado" or "the business of education". These do not indicate possession -- Colorado doesn't possess the state, and education doesn't possess the business. But Colorado is an example of a state, and education is a category of business.
  • Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver." This doesn't indicate possession, either: Denver does not possess "west" or Golden. The word "of" just helps us understand where two places are in relation to each other.
  • Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel." Again, the meat doesn't possess the hat, stone doesn't possess the building, and fuel does not possess the burning. The word "of" just tells us something about the materials being used for a task.

Notice that the last use of the word "of" is consistent with the version in answer choice (C): in the phrase "human beings' burning of fossil fuel", "of fossil fuel" just indicates the materials used for the human beings' act of burning things.

Does that help at all?
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 22:41
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sandeep86 wrote:
Tks mate. I've read the link, but it doesn't get me through my doubt,
my question is about grammar issue (not meaning).

Why bother to put 'that most scientists agree' in C while all we can say is
'a phenomenon (that most scientists agree) is caused by....', most scientists
agree what ?? it's not a complete clause.

Does 'a phenomenon that most scientist agree to be caused by...' make more sense
and grammatically correct ?

Meaning wise, i agree C is the best, but grammatically i doubt about it. What i am missing ?


Dear sandeep86,

To address your query, we need to look at the answer options at our disposal.
The question at hand in our answer option C uses "that most scientists agree" as the modifier that correctly modifies "a phenomenon".
If we put your chosen words in the same sentence, let's see what it makes:
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

The modifier "a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels" is a non-essential modifier. if we take off "that most scientists agree". If not grammar in particular, it would distort the meaning of the sentence. The original sentence intents to take the consent of scientists on that particular phenomena.
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New post 11 Oct 2018, 10:16
Hi,

I chose E and I still don't understand what is wrong with "agree to be". It seems correct in everyday English:

I agree to be a fireman for Halloween.

They agree to be quiet in the museum.
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New post 11 Oct 2018, 17:34
human being's burning of fuels

I understood this phrase as "burning of fossil fuels of human being".

Where am I wrong? Please help me with explanation.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 21:17
I took quite some time to have a good takeaway and eliminate the options for the right reasons
and I am sharing the same. Hope it helps !!

A ..agree to be is incorrect here...
X is caused by Y...In place of Y would prefer a direct activity..
pollution is caused by vehicles emitting of smoke
pollution is caused by vehicle's smoke(preferred)

B.
1. phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by[b] fossil fuels

again meaning issue..phenomenon is not caused by fossil fuels..Its caused by the act of human being burning fossil fuels.

2. that is a gameplay for gmat..
It tries to make sentences verbose also with that..

most scientists agree [b]that
is caused by fossil fuel

most scientists agree is caused (with that omitted its more direct and concise)..

C. Perfect.

D. agree on is incorrect..which usage is wrong...meaning error same as above

E.which usage is wrong...meaning error same as above


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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 11:26
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! To begin, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings

After taking a quick glance over the options, a few key differences popped out:

1. How to start the modifier: "a phenomenon" vs. "which" (Clarity/Meaning)
2. agree to be / agree that is / agree is / agree on (Idiom/Verbs)
3. What is global warming caused by? (Clarity/Meaning)


Let's start with #1 on our list because it will eliminate 2-3 options in one round. This is a matter of clarity.

First, we need to ask ourselves what exactly the scientists are agreeing on in this sentence. Are they agreeing that global warming is a phenomenon? Or do they agree on what causes it? It makes more sense for this sentence to say that scientists agree on what causes the phenomenon! The phrase "a phenomenon" is merely giving us more details about the antecedent "global warming," which is fine. So let's see how our options hold up:

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

We can eliminate options D & E because they slightly change the meaning and focus. The phrase should focus on scientists agreeing on what causes global warming, NOT that it's a phenomenon.

Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let's move on to #2 & #3 on our list: verbs and meaning. We need to make sure that each option is using the correct verb tense (to be caused/is caused) and that it clearly states what scientists believe causes global warming! Let's see how they break down:

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,

This is INCORRECT for two reasons. First, the verb "to be" implies that scientists will agree on this in the future, and not in the present, which is more likely. Second, it states that global warming is caused by "human beings in burning fossil fuels." This literally means that global warming is caused by human beings who are sitting inside burning fossil fuels. Sounds odd, right? That's because it is! Global warming is caused by burning fossil fuels, not by human beings who are somehow swimming around in burning fossil fuels. So let's rule this out for verb tense and meaning problems.

(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

While this option does get things mostly right, it is still INCORRECT. The word "that" is misplaced here. It is meant to be used as a modifier for the word "phenomenon," so it needs to be placed before "most scientists agree" and not after it. It also just sounds awkward. So let's eliminate this one because of word placement issues.

(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,

This is CORRECT! Everything is written clearly and concisely. It uses the present tense "is" to convey that scientists currently agree on this, and what they agree on is stated clearly (global warming is caused by the action of humans burning fossil fuels).


There you have it - option C is the correct choice!


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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2019, 12:37
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,

So if you’re a regular visitor to the verbal forums, you might have noticed that we’re banging away at a theme: if you aren’t strict and literal with the meaning of these sentences, you’re toast. We said a lot about that in our beginners’ guide to SC, and it’s also been a theme in our QOTDs (all of which are available here).

And this is another example of it! The phrase “human beings in burning fossil fuels” sounds like the human beings are... um, in a fiery tank of coal or oil? That sounds unpleasant. Plus, I’m not sold on the phrase “most scientists agree to be caused.” Seems like “is” would be better than “to be” here. Either way, (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Hm, the modifier “that is caused by fossil fuels” seems misplaced. It could be OK to say “scientists agree that X is true”, but we’re trying to modify the phenomenon here: “a phenomenon that is caused by fossil fuels” seems fine, but I can’t make sense of this one.

If you wanted to be conservative, you could hang onto (B) for now, but we’ll have a better option in a moment.

Quote:
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels,

Pardon my language, but this sounds awkward AF. That’s not a crime, though. (See beginners’ guide to SC, for more on why “awkwardness” shouldn’t be your first worry.) And I can’t see any DEFINITE errors here. The “that” modifier is OK, and I guess I’m cool with the possessive “human beings’ burning of fossil fuels.” I don’t like it. But the GMAT doesn’t care what I like. The meaning makes sense: human beings’ act of burning fossil fuels is indeed the thing that causes global warming.

(C) isn’t wrong. Keep it, perhaps while holding your nose.

Quote:
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,

(D) arguably sounds better than (C), but (D) messes up the meaning. Rearranging slightly, (D) is saying that “scientists agree on global warming as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuel.” First, it would make sense to say that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon caused by human beings, but scientists agree on it as a phenomenon isn’t right: that’s basically saying that scientists agree that it’s a phenomenon, but that’s pretty meaningless.

Second, it’s awfully weird to say that global warming is “caused by human beings who burn fossil fuel.” The act of burning fossil fuels causes global warming – not “human beings” who happen to burn fossil fuels.

I can’t totally fault you if you picked (D) over (C), but the meaning is much clearer in (C). I’d cross out (D).

Quote:
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The argument is similar for (E) as for (D), except that “agree to be a phenomenon” is a completely wacky phrase that makes even less sense than “agree on as a phenomenon.” And in (E), global warming is caused by the fossil fuels themselves, and that’s not quite right: it’s caused by human beings’ act of burning fossil fuels. So (E) warps the meaning, too.

We’re left with (C). I don’t like it, either. But it does a better, clearer job of conveying the meaning than any of the others.



Ans C, I still feel that 'human beings’ burning of fossil fuels' is an incorrect statement. Its awkward and I would have never guessed the right answer :/ :(
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2019, 21:12
sthakur24 wrote:
Ans C, I still feel that 'human beings’ burning of fossil fuels' is an incorrect statement. Its awkward and I would have never guessed the right answer :/ :(
You may already know this, but "awkward" does not necessarily mean "incorrect". :)

Attack the more "sure" decision points before moving on to awkwardness.
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Re: The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon   [#permalink] 02 Jun 2019, 21:12

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The world wildlife fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon

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