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# V03-34

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Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 49320

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16 Sep 2014, 02:00
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Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

34% (00:58) correct 66% (01:21) wrong based on 186 sessions

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Some people believe that gaining wealth is due to luck. However, research from many institutions worldwide indicates a strong correlation between gaining wealth and high educational levels. Thus research supports the view that gaining wealth is largely the result of making informed career and business choices.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument ______________

A. presumes, without providing justification that only highly educated people make informed career and business choices.
B. overlooks the possibility that people who make informed career and business choices may nonetheless belong to a poor family.
C. presumes, without providing justification, that informed career and business choices are available to everyone.
D. overlooks the possibility that the same thing may causally contribute both to education and to gaining wealth.
E. does not acknowledge that some people who fail to make informed career and business choices have gained wealth.

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16 Sep 2014, 02:00
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Official Solution:

Some people believe that gaining wealth is due to luck. However, research from many institutions worldwide indicates a strong correlation between gaining wealth and high educational levels. Thus research supports the view that gaining wealth is largely the result of making informed career and business choices.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument ______________

A. presumes, without providing justification that only highly educated people make informed career and business choices.
B. overlooks the possibility that people who make informed career and business choices may nonetheless belong to a poor family.
C. presumes, without providing justification, that informed career and business choices are available to everyone.
D. overlooks the possibility that the same thing may causally contribute both to education and to gaining wealth.
E. does not acknowledge that some people who fail to make informed career and business choices have gained wealth.

The argument contains a causal conclusion that asserts that good wealth is primarily caused by informed career and business choices (education) the conclusion is that research supports the view that gaining wealth is largely the result of making informed career and business choices. The author makes an error in assuming that the correlation mentioned in the second premise supports a causal conclusion.
1. Does the argument presume that to make an informed lifestyle choice a person must be highly educated? The author certainly believes that high educational levels lead to informed career and business choices, but the answer suggests that the author thinks that the highly educated are the only people able to make an informed career and business choices. The wording is too strong and this answer is incorrect.
2. The author specifically notes that gaining wealth is largely the result of making informed career and business choices. There is no mention of poor family background, nor is needed because the argument focuses on a correlation between gaining wealth and education. Thus, overlooking the possibility mentioned in this answer choice is not an error.
3. The author does not make the presumption that informed career and business choices are available to everyone, just that making good choices generally results in gaining wealth.
4. Correct. Note that one of the errors is assuming that no third element caused both the stated cause and the stated effect. This answer choice indicates that a third element could cause both the conditions described in the argument. Note that, if you know an error of causality occurred in the stimulus, search for the answer choice that uses the words cause or effect. This answer uses the word causally.
5. The author specifically says that the effect is largely the result of the cause, and that statement indirectly allows other causes to lead to the effect, even if one does not make an informed career and business choices.

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07 Nov 2014, 10:16
hello ,

Is there a simpler way to explain this ?
I feel like the question is so hard that the explanations are even harder to understand
Manager
Joined: 11 Feb 2015
Posts: 109
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V38

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20 Oct 2015, 06:23
A very good question. Kudos to the author.
Intern
Joined: 30 Jun 2015
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20 Jan 2016, 18:55
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. The solution doesn't seem very explanatory. Would you mind explaining this a bit more, please?
Intern
Joined: 29 Oct 2014
Posts: 24
Schools: Molson '19
GMAT Date: 12-06-2014

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03 Mar 2016, 18:55
hi experts ,
can someone explain this question

E-gmat
Thanks
Anu
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Joined: 03 Jul 2014
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Concentration: Finance, Strategy
GMAT Date: 10-17-2014
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24 Apr 2016, 03:39
Cause and Effect question: High education (Main Cause) --> Informed career and Business Decision (Intermediate Effect) --> Gaining Wealth (Final Effect).

Not able to go beyond this. The OE is not hepful. chetan2u, will you please give this a try? TIA
Current Student
Joined: 06 Jan 2015
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17 Jun 2016, 15:42
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. It's not "health" is "wealth"
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18 Jun 2016, 11:57
paisaj87 wrote:
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. It's not "health" is "wealth"

Corrected the typographical error .... thank you.
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22 Jun 2016, 23:34
The explanation is quiet simple - author states that scientist found correlation between A and B. Then the author concludes that there is a causal relationship between A and B, meaning that B leads to A, which goes far beyond the scientists' discovery.

However, I felt into the trap of choice A, because for me it was too obvious that there is a flaw, when the author first speaks about education, and then about career and business choices. Because there is no linkage between these things. However, indeed, the choice A uses too strong language, though it points out one possible problem with the reasoning.
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19 Jul 2016, 02:43
What is "the same thing" in option 4? I guess it is a pronoun error in the option 4. :D
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19 Jul 2016, 12:22
I applied the method of "prethinking" and selected answer A.
I can understand from the explanation why D is correct, but I certainly cannot understand why A is wrong?

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20 Jul 2016, 11:35
nikhilbajpai wrote:
I applied the method of "prethinking" and selected answer A.
I can understand from the explanation why D is correct, but I certainly cannot understand why A is wrong?

The argument does not presume that "ONLY highly educated people make informed career and business choices." The argument does not make any claim that less educated people (or uneducated people) CANNOT make informed career and business choices.
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Joined: 12 Oct 2016
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12 Oct 2016, 11:27
Hi could anyone explain the meaning of "Note that, if you know an error of causality occurred in the stimulus, search for the answer choice that uses the words cause or effect. This answer uses the word causally." in the official explanation given above?
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13 Oct 2016, 10:16
Swatipr wrote:
Hi could anyone explain the meaning of "Note that, if you know an error of causality occurred in the stimulus, search for the answer choice that uses the words cause or effect. This answer uses the word causally." in the official explanation given above?

Error of causality can be as follows:
Premise: X and Y happen together.
Conclusion: X causes Y. (error in cause and effect relation)

The correct answer is such cases would indicate another cause and effect relation other than X causes Y. For example here option D indicates that some other factor Z causes both X and Y. (implying X does not cause Y).

Summarily an error is cause and effect conclusion can be weakened / strengthened by another cause and effect relation.
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26 Oct 2016, 00:14
Suppose If option A were -

presumes, without providing justification that highly education levels make informed career and business choices.

would it be one of the correct choices ?
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26 Oct 2016, 10:30
minhaz3333 wrote:
Suppose If option A were -

presumes, without providing justification that highly education levels make informed career and business choices.

would it be one of the correct choices ?

I think there is a typo in your post - levels cannot make choices. Do you mean "people with high education levels"? In that case the choice would be not too different in meaning from the current one. An argument can be weakened by identifying an issue in the logical relation between the premise and the conclusion - that there is no justification for the link between the premise and the conclusion is not a good weakening statement. That said in absence of D, A would be the best.
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21 Nov 2016, 09:46
I think the core hint to solve this problem is 'correlation'. Suppose Event A=mx, Event B=nx, then A and B are highly correlated. However, A and B have no causal relationship.
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26 Dec 2016, 09:38
I think this is a high-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. The word largely on the text makes option A wrong because it states only
Intern
Joined: 23 Jun 2016
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26 Jan 2017, 04:37
I think this is a high-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Can someone please provide a simpler explanation for this question.
Re V03-34 &nbs [#permalink] 26 Jan 2017, 04:37

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# V03-34

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