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700 set - Parallelism - Get the knives out!

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Re: 700 set - Parallelism - Get the knives out!  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2014, 09:52
souvik101990 wrote:
OAs and detailed OE posted :-)

Thanks for participating guys. Please post percentage and how did you like the set!



It was a really good set souvik....Some questions actually made me think a lot...

I got 9/10 correct with an average time of 1min 56 sec ( Got the only question which took me 3 min wrong )
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New post 14 Aug 2014, 20:49
1. With companies spending large parts of their advertising budgets online, the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding rapidly.
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and by individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and individual users, is expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, is expanding

With companies spending large parts of their advertising budgets online,
the market for content such as [prepositional mod. modifies the market.Fine ]
feature articles and opinion essays
created by [ed modifier modifies essays.Fine]
a professional writer,
a blogger,
and by individual users, [List is not ||.Wrong]
are expanding rapidly. [main clause;Verb issue => The market is Sing]
Correct answer is E.Both the issues are fixed in that.
============
2. Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians, surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops among people in their common quest to conquer nature.
• surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing’s appeal is its unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing’s appeal to people is due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and developing camaraderie
• surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, a backdrop that is unpredictable and that is, by turns, gracefully and serenely violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing appeals to people due to their unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops

Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians,
surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s
unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering,
an unpredictable backdrop
that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable,
and the camaraderie
that often develops among people in their common quest to conquer nature.

1.Surfing was originally developed by ancient Hawaiians.So Surfing's is wrong here.
2.Option D:
surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s
unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering,
a backdrop
that is unpredictable and that is, by turns, (adv)gracefully and serenely (adj)violent and formidable, [wordy and adv mod adj is a correct usage but here it changes meaning.Compare it with original sentence]
and the camaraderie that often develops

3.Pronoun "their" is wrong in E.We need surfing in place of people (their).This in turn also changes meaning.
=========================
3. The Federal Reserve announcement said that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few signs of higher energy prices driving up the cost of other goods so far.
• that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few
• growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few
• that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are little
• growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are little
• that growth accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few

The Federal Reserve announcement said
that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and
that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation,
even though there are few signs of higher energy prices driving up the cost of other goods so far.

Few Vs Little:
Little => uncountable and Few => countable.
Therefore, signs => countable.
So C & D out.

Also, C has ||sm issue ["that" connector and clause] and D has "that" missing.

So A,B,E left:
A is correct.
B : ||sm error & "that" missing.
E: FR .. said that growth accelerated [growth accelarated before the FR said.Tense error.]
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Re: 700 set - Parallelism - Get the knives out!  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2014, 10:12
rahul241sinha wrote:
1.E
2.A
3.E (i dont see the need for past perfect 'had accelerated' since we already have the word 'after' unless 'accelerated' is only a past participle here - please help )
4.A
5.D
6.B
7.A
8.B
9.D
10.D

Hope to see the OAs soon


Souvik pls explain...I too have the same doubt as rahul in problem no 3..!!
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New post 29 Aug 2014, 02:34
Are you sure these are 700 level questions?
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Re: 700 set - Parallelism - Get the knives out!  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2014, 20:01
Thanks Souvik for this thread, really good questions...and a lot of learning

I have doubts on 2 questions though,

3. Why do we need 'had accelerated' when we have 'after' to clarify the chronology. Also if we consider 'after', we can clearly see that 'acceleration' happens 'after' the slow growth and not 'before'. So i don't quite get the use of past perfect 'had accelerated' instead of simple past 'accelerated'
6. In this question, when we use 'developing' and 'receiving', aren't we modifying the verb clause 'attended ... University'? Doesn't it mean that we are using the former two words as adverbs to modify the act of 'attending ...University' while our intention is to say 'he attended to develop and receive'? Could you please help me here...

Thanks in advance
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New post 02 Mar 2015, 09:29
1:E
*2:-E - missed the meaning
*3:-E - missed the tense
4:A
*5:-C - difference between\ rather than and instead of
*6:-A-faulty parallelism, meaning
7:A
*8:-D- overlooked parallelism of verbs.
9:D
*10:-E- missed the meaning error that got introduced in choice E
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New post 19 Jul 2017, 08:22
If any of you can kindly help me out here,, where can I find OA and OE? Thanks!!
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New post 31 Jul 2017, 04:14
souvik101990 wrote:

700 Set - Get your Knives out - Parallelism



Hi,

Please provide OA

Thanks

1. With companies spending large parts of their advertising budgets online, the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding rapidly.

• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and by individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and individual users, is expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, are expanding
• the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, is expanding
E

The list of creators, "by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users” violates the principle of parallelism in two ways. First, while "a professional writer" and "a blogger" are singular, the third element in the list, "individual users," is plural. Second, the word "by" introduces the first and third elements in the list ("by a professional writer . . . by individual users") but not the second element in the list ("a blogger"). To create a parallel sentence, the word "by" should introduce the entire list and should not be repeated. In addition to the parallelism problem, the subject of the underlined portion is the singular "market" which does not agree with the plural verb phrase "is expanding."

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice fails to resolve the subject-verb agreement issue, as the singular "market" does not agree with the plural verb phrase "are expanding." In addition, this- 24 -choice fails to maintain parallel structure because the word "by" introduces the first and third elements in the list of creators ("by professional writers . . . by individual users") but not the second element ("bloggers"). To create a parallel sentence, the word "by" should introduce the entire list and should not be repeated.
(C) This choice has proper subject-verb agreement since the singular "market "agrees with the singular verb phrase "is expanding." However, the list of 3 types of creators is not written in parallel form. While "a professional writer" and "a blogger" are singular, the third element in the list, "individual users," is plural.
(D) The phrase "created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users" lists elements in parallel form. However, this choice fails to resolve the subject-verb agreement issue, as the singular "market" does not agree with the plural verb phrase" are expanding."
(E) CORRECT. The phrase "created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users" lists elements in parallel form. Each element in the list is plural and the entire list is introduced by the word "by" which is correctly not repeated. In addition, the singular subject "market,” agrees with the singular verb phrase "is expanding."


2. Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians, surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops among people in their common quest to conquer nature.

• surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing’s appeal is its unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing’s appeal to people is due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and developing camaraderie
• surfing appeals to people due to the sport’s unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, a backdrop that is unpredictable and that is, by turns, gracefully and
serenely violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
• surfing appeals to people due to their unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops

A

This sentence contains three parallel elements: “the unusual confluence,” “an unpredictable backdrop,” and “the camaraderie.” Additionally, the introductory modifying phrase “originally developed by ancient Hawaiians” correctly modifies the noun “surfing.”
(A) CORRECT. This choice properly follows rules of parallel construction and uses the introductory phrase to correctly modify the noun “surfing.”
(B) The introductory modifying phrase “originally developed by ancient Hawaiians” incorrectly describes “surfing’s appeal” rather than surfing itself. Additionally, the pronoun “its” has no clear antecedent to refer to.
(C) The introductory modifying phrase “originally developed by ancient Hawaiians” incorrectly describes “surfing’s appeal” rather than surfing itself. Furthermore, the third element of the sentence, “developing camaraderie among people,” is not parallel to the other two elements.
(D) This choice lacks clarity of meaning by stating “a backdrop that is unpredictable and that is, by turns, gracefully and serenely violent and formidable.” The original intent of the sentence is to use the adjectives graceful, serene, violent, and formidable to describe surfing’s “unpredictable backdrop”; this choice improperly separates this into two distinct ideas. Additionally, this choice incorrectly changes the adjectives “graceful” and “serene” to adverbs “gracefully” and “serenely”; thus, the adverbs incorrectly modify the adjectives “violent” and “formidable” rather than the noun “backdrop.”
(E) The plural pronoun “their” incorrectly refers to the plural noun “people,” making it seem that people, rather than surfing, contain the three parallel elements found in the sentence.


3. The Federal Reserve announcement said that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few signs of higher energy prices driving up the cost of other goods so far.

• that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few
• growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few
• that growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are little
• growth had accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are little
• that growth accelerated after slowing in the second quarter and that the policy makers remain concerned about the prospects of inflation, even though there are few

A

The original is correct. The equivalent elements, “that growth had accelerated...” and “that the policy makers remain...” are parallel clauses beginning with "that." The verb tenses are also correct; the action that occurred in the most distant past (“had picked up pace”) uses the past perfect; the later past event (“statement also said”) uses the simple past. Also, “few” is correct, since it modifies the quantifiable noun "signs."

(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice is not parallel; "that" is required before “growth had accelerated...” to make it parallel to “that the policy makers remain..."
(C) This choice is not parallel; “that growth had accelerated...” is not parallel to “the policy makers remain...” Moreover, “little” is incorrect; since “signs” are countable, “few” is required.
(D) This choice is parallel, but the syntax is incorrect. "That" can be colloquially omitted after the verb "said," but not in formal writing. Also, "little" should be replaced by "few."
(E) This choice is parallel, but incorrectly uses the simple past, “accelerated.” This action is the earlier past event, as it must have occurred before the Fed commented on the trend. The earlier of multiple past events must use the past perfect.


4. Unbiased third-party "clean" teams can protect sensitive data while assessing the business rationale of a deal, helping to develop an integrated business plan, and supporting
negotiations.

• while assessing the business rationale of a deal, helping to develop an integrated business plan, and supporting
• while also assessing the business concerns for a deal, as well as helping the development of an integrated business plan, and to support the
• and assess the rationale of a deal from a business perspective, help the development of an integrated business plan, and supporting relevant
• while facilitating the assessment of a business rationale of a deal, help to develop a business plan of integration, and supporting the
• and assist the assessment of the deal’s business rationale, helping to develop an integrated plan for the business, and support

A

The original sentence begins with a simple present tense statement, “clean teams can protect sensitive data” that is followed by three verb phrases that are logically parallel in the sentence, and so should be structurally parallel as well. The sentence maintains a parallel construction, using the “-ing” form of each verb (assessing, helping, supporting). Finally, the sentence is clear and concise.

(A) CORRECT. The first choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This sentence unnecessarily introduces the connecting phrases “while also” and “as well as”; these phrases are wordy, not grammatically required, and do not improve the clarity of the sentence. The concluding phrase “to support the negotiations” is not parallel with the earlier verb phrases, and incorrectly uses the article “the,” which is unclear given that negotiations were not referenced earlier.
(C) The conjunction “and” joins the first verb phrase with the original statement, which changes the original meaning of the sentence; the correct “while" indicating that the teams can protect sensitive data even while using it. The first and second verb phrases use the simple present tense (“assess" and “help"). However, the last phrase “and supporting relevant negotiations” completely breaks the parallelism and is thus incorrect. Also, this choice is unnecessarily wordy in two ways: It uses the phrase “the rationale of a deal from a business perspective “as opposed to “business rationale” in earlier choices, and it introduces the word “relevant” which adds no meaning, as clearly only relevant negotiations are to be supported.
(D) The second verb phrase, “help to develop a business plan of integration” is structurally not parallel to the equivalent phrases that begin with "facilitating" and “supporting." Also, that phrase is wordier without making the meaning clearer. In addition, this choice incorrectly uses the article “the,” which is unclear given that negotiations were not referenced earlier. Finally, this choice is unnecessarily wordy in its use of “facilitating the assessment” in place of simply “assessing.”
(E) Here, “helping to develop an integrated plan for the business” is not parallel to “assist" and "support," as it must be. Also, the first verb phrase is awkward in its use of “assist the assessment” and “the deal’s business rationale” where no particular deal is being discussed.


5. Rather than accept the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus was sent by the king and queen of Spain to see if he could reach India by traveling west.

• Rather than accept the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus was sent by the king and queen of Spain to see if he could reach India by traveling west.
• Rather than accepting the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus was sent by the king and queen of Spain to see if he could reach India by sailing west.
• Instead of accepting the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus sailed west to see whether he could reach India, having been sent by the king and queen of Spain.
• Rather than accept the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus sailed west to see whether he could reach India, having been sent by the king and queen of Spain.
• Instead of accepting the conventional wisdom that the earth was flat, Christopher Columbus was sent by the king and queen of Spain to sail west to see if he could reach India.

D

The original sentence contains several errors. First, the construction "X rather than requires parallelism between X and Y, but the original sentence pairs an active verb ("accept") with a passive one ("was sent"). Second, the use of "if" in this context is incorrect. On the GMAT, "if" is used only to introduce conditional clauses (e.g. “if Then Y”). Here, "whether" should be used instead of “if” to indicate uncertainty about reaching India by traveling west.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) The construction "X rather than Y" requires parallelism between X and Y, but this choice pairs an active verb ("accepting") with a passive one ("was sent"). Second, these of "if" in this context is incorrect. On the GMAT, "if" is used only to introduce conditional clauses (e.g. “if X, then Y”). Here, "whether" should be used instead of “if “to indicate uncertainty about reaching India by traveling west.
(C) This choice begins with "instead of," which is incorrectly used to compare the verbs “accepting” and “sailed.” When comparing verbs, “rather than” is the correct choice.
(D) CORRECT. This choice uses the construction “X rather than Y” to correctly compare the parallel active verbs “accept” and “sailed.” The uncertainty about reaching India by traveling west is correctly indicated by the word “whether.”
(E) This choice begins with "instead of," which is incorrectly used to compare the verbs “accepting” and “sailed.” When comparing verbs, “rather than” is the correct choice. Even if “instead of” were correct, the construction "X instead of Y" requires parallelism between X and Y, but this choice pairs an active verb ("accepting") with a passive one ("was sent"). Finally, the use of "if" in this context is incorrect. On the GMAT, "if" issued only to introduce conditional clauses (e.g. “if X, then Y”). Here, "whether" should be used instead of “if” to indicate uncertainty about reaching India by traveling west.


6. After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
• attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

A

The original sentence expresses the main verb “attended” in the past tense and the two subordinate actions in the form of the gerund. This construction correctly indicates that “receiving” and developing” followed as a consequence of Einstein’s attendance of “the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich.”

(A) CORRECT. This answer choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence. (B) This answer choice breaks the correct parallelism of "receiving" and "developing “present in the original sentence.
(C) This answer choice expresses all the verbs in the underlined portion in the same form: “attended,” “received,” and “developed.” This change alters the original meaning of the sentence by making these actions independent and sequential rather than demonstrating that “receiving” and “developing” occurred as a consequence of the fact that “Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich. “Further, this answer choice introduces the redundant pronoun “he” that unnecessarily repeats the subject of the sentence and breaks parallelism.
(D) This answer choice makes "attended" and "received" parallel, leaving “developing" as a subordinate action. This change alters the meaning of the sentence, as described above in the explanation for choice (C). Moreover, there is no “and" between "attended" and "received," as there should always be between the items in a two-item list.
(E) This answer choice creates an incomplete sentence that lacks the main verb and consists merely of a series of gerunds: “attending,” “receiving,” and “developing.”


7. Unsolicited electronic junk mail, also termed spam, has hurt companies by both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity.

• both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity
• draining both company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity
• draining both company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing how productive its employees are
• both draining company resources used to combat the problem and the productivity of employees is diminished
• both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing how productive its employees are

A

The original sentence correctly employs parallel structure in the expression "both x and y." The two items are logically parallel in that both "draining resources" and “diminishing productivity" are direct ways in which spam has hurt companies. The two items are also structurally parallel in that both phrases begin with a gerund ("draining “and "diminishing") followed by objects ("company resources" and "employee productivity").

(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice incorrectly places "both" after the word "draining" such that the two elements in the expression "both x and y" are not logically parallel. The expression “both x and y" now reads "both company resources . . . and diminishing employee productivity." The second element ("diminishing employee productivity"), unlike the first element ("company resources"), is a way in which spam has hurt companies. The “draining" of company resources, not the "company resources" themselves, has hurt companies. Moreover, the two items in the expression are no longer structurally parallel: the first element is a noun phrase ("company resources") whereas the second element is a gerund followed by an object ("diminishing employee productivity").
(C) This choice incorrectly places "both" after the word "draining" such that the two elements in the expression "both x and y" are not logically parallel. The expression “both x and y" now reads "both company resources . . . and diminishing employee productivity." The second element ("diminishing employee productivity"), unlike the first element ("company resources"), is a way in which spam has hurt companies. The “draining" of company resources, not the "company resources" themselves, has hurt companies. Moreover, the two items in the expression are no longer structurally parallel: the first element is a noun phrase ("company resources") whereas the second element is a gerund ("diminishing") followed by a somewhat awkward and wordy clause ("how productive its employees are").
(D) In this choice, the two items in the expression "both x and y" are not structurally parallel: the first element is a gerund followed by an object ("draining company resources") whereas the second element is a clause consisting of a noun ("the productivity) and passive verb construction ("is diminished").
(E) In this choice, the two items in the expression "both x and y" are not structurally parallel: the first element is a gerund ("draining") followed by an object ("company resources") whereas the second element is a gerund ("diminishing") followed by somewhat awkward and wordy clause ("how productive its employees are"). Additionally, the antecedent to the pronoun "its" is unclear, as "its" structurally could refer to "the problem" or "junk mail" as well as the more logical “company."


8. Researchers have discovered a new species of sparrow that lives only in cypress groves, almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees and whose coloring is completely different from all other sparrows.

• that lives only in cypress groves, almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees and whose coloring is completely different from
• that lives only in cypress groves, is almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and has coloring completely different from that of
• living only in cypress groves, is almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and whose coloring is completely different from
• that lives only in cypress groves, almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and whose coloring is completely different from that of
• living only in cypress groves, depending almost wholly on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and having coloring completely different than

B

The original sentence intends to identify a sparrow by the fact that it lives in cypress groves, eats certain berries, and has certain coloring. All these facts about the sparrow must be presented in parallel form. However, in the original sentence, these facts are presented in different forms. We need to find a choice that presents them all-in parallel fashion. Moreover, "whose coloring is different from all other sparrows" is incorrect. The sparrow's coloring is different from the coloring of other sparrows, not from the sparrows themselves. We need to find a choice that makes this clear.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) CORRECT. This choice remedies the parallelism issue: "lives only in.... is almost wholly... and has coloring..." The comparison issue is also remedied: "has coloring different from that of all other sparrows." The comparison is now logically drawn between the coloring of the new species and the coloring ("that") of other species.
(C) This answer choice remedies neither the parallelism issue ("living... is almost...and whose coloring") nor the illogical comparison (coloring and sparrows).
(D) While this answer choice remedies the comparison, the parallelism issue persists from the original sentence.
(E) This parallelism issue has been remedied in this answer choice, but the illogical comparison has not. In addition, the correct idiomatic expression is "different from, “not "different than."


9. Art experts have attributed the enduring intrigue of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa to everything from having an enigmatic smile, which was never explained, to her association with the rich and powerful families of Europe.

• having an enigmatic smile, which was never explained
• having an enigmatic smile, which has never been explained
• her enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an explanation
• her enigmatic smile, which has never been explained
• having an enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an explanation

D

The original sentence contains two errors. First, the expression "from X to Y" requires that X and Y be in parallel form. Here, however, "having an enigmatic smile" and "her association with the rich and powerful families of Europe" are not parallel. The first Isa verb construction while the second is a noun construction. Since the second construction is not underlined, the first construction must be altered. Second, the clause "which was never explained" incorrectly uses the simple past "was never explained." Instead, it should be in the present perfect ("has never been explained") because the potential for an explanation began in the past and continues to the present.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) The parallelism error is not corrected here: "from having an enigmatic smile" is the same as in the original sentence. However, the present perfect tense ("has never been explained") is correctly used here.
(C) The parallelism error is corrected here: "her enigmatic smile" is parallel with "her association with the rich and powerful families of Europe." However, "for which there has never been an explanation" is wordy.
(D) CORRECT. Here, "her enigmatic smile" is parallel with "her association with the rich and powerful families of Europe." Moreover, "which has never been explained" is concise and properly in the present perfect tense.
(E) The parallelism error is not corrected here: "having an enigmatic smile" is the same as in the original sentence. Moreover, "for which there has never been an explanation" is wordy.


10. Foods high in tryptophan, an amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin, can help people to fall asleep by reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and in regulating the sleep cycle.

• reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and in regulating
• means of reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and in the regulation of
• reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and regulation of
• reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and regulating
• means of reducing anxiety, relaxing the brain, and regulating

D

A list of three things is underlined in the original sentence, indicating the need to test the sentence for parallelism. According to the non-underlined portion of the sentence, the three verbs starting each item in the list indicate how the substance (tryptophan) helps people to fall asleep: by "reducing", "relaxing" and "regulating." At first glance, it appears that these 3 verbs - each ending in "ing" - are nicely parallel. However, consider that the list is introduced by the preposition "by." It should read "by x, y, ands" where x, y, and z are parallel. Instead, the list reads "by x, y, and in z." The use of the word "in" to introduce the third element in the list throws off the parallelism and creates a nonsensical phrase: "by . . .in regulating."

(A) This choice is incorrect because it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice does not correct the original parallelism error; it still uses "in" to introduce the third item in the list. Moreover, that third item--"the regulation of"--is no longer in the "ing" form, further distorting the parallel structure. Finally, the choice creates a new problem. "By" is sufficient to introduce the three items in the list; "by means of" is redundant.
(C) This choice correctly omits the word "in" when introducing the third item on theist. However, the phrase "regulation of" is no longer parallel with the "ing" endings of the first two items on the list.
(D) CORRECT. This choice corrects the original error by omitting the word "in" when introducing the third item on the list. The three items now follow the parallel structure “by x, y, and z."
(E) This choice corrects the original error by omitting the word "in" when introducing the third item on the list. The three items now follow the parallel structure "by x, y, and- z." The choice creates a new problem, however. "By" is sufficient to introduce the three items in the list; "by means of" is redundant.
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New post 31 Jul 2017, 04:23
Hi please do mention OA for these Answers . Please mention " OA " as well so that we all know thats the answer rather than assuming its posted by some one.
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New post 31 Jul 2017, 04:32
OA please/
It seems you havent mentioned keyword " OA" before posting OA. Its confusing in the above thread to find out the OA's
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New post 13 Sep 2018, 21:53
8. B . Researchers have discovered a new species of sparrow that lives only in cypress groves, is almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and has coloring completely different from that of other sparrows.

????????????????? 1. Researchers have discovered that
2.a new species of sparrow that lives only in cypress groves is ...

this is the way this sentence could make sense

Researchers have discovered THAT a new species of sparrow that lives only in cypress groves is almost wholly dependent on the berries of a certain type of vine that grows on cypress trees, and has coloring completely different from that of other sparrows.

please help ... i don;t think we will need a , before is


haha now i understand the sentence ..haha it's a do ,do and do parallel structure
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