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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended

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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed

(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

Originally posted by crejoc on 09 Aug 2009, 10:47.
Last edited by hazelnut on 14 May 2018, 06:04, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2012, 08:34
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I see a lot of complicated explanations involving the use of grammatical terms. While most of these explanations are accurate , i believe that when we prioritize grammar over
the meaning, we may miss the sky for the stars. We have 3 verbs in the sentence. If we recognize the correct sequence of the actions, then the keys to the kingdom will be ours.

The 3 verbs in the sentence are

- Attend
- Receive
- Develop

a) We need to understand the importance and sequence of EACH OF these verbs. The actions which are parallel need to be in same tense.
b) "AND" is usually a parallelism marker. The word "AND" can either indicate a set of events that happen AT THE SAME TIME, or indicate a SEQUENCE of events that happen one after the other.
c) Remember for a list of 3 or more items that are described using the word "AND", GMAT always uses a ,comma to separate the last item.
E.g: red, blue ,and green.
E.g : John, jane, jacob ,and Chris

A detour :-
Let's look at a few examples. Full Disclosure : These examples are based on a couple of examples that i have seen Ron Purewal (MGMAT fame) use. Somehow, examples that require one to visualize someone else eating, burping and slurping turn out to be the ones that kinda burn concepts into our memory :-).

John ate the pizza, slurping loudly and burping regularly - IMPLIES THAT JOHN ATE THE PIZZA AND WHILE EATING, JOHN MADE SLURPING AND BURPING SOUNDS.
John ate the pizza, slurped loudly and ,burped regularly - IMPLIES THAT JOHN FINISHED EATING THE PIZZA FIRST AND THEN AFTER EATING , HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS (second) AND AFTER HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS, HE MADE BURPING SOUNDS(third).
John ate the pizza, slurping loudly and burped regularly- IMPLIES THAT JOHN ATE THE PIZZA AND WHILE EATING THE PIZZA, HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS and AFTER HE FINISHED EATING(and slurping), he MADE BURPING SOUNDS.

Typically -
[*]A ,COMMA VERB-ing modifier (E.g : burping and slurping in the above examples) tends to describe the main verb in the preceding clause.
[*]A VERB - ING-modifier WITHOUT A COMMA is attached to the preceding noun.

A couple of Examples :-
[*]John watched Sam running around a tree. (Meaning - Sam was running around a tree and John saw him. Note the absence of a COMMA)
[*]John watched Sam,using a pair of binoculars.(Meaning - John used a pair of binoculars to watch Same)

Back to the question :-
MEANING OF THE GIVEN SENTENCE :
Albert Einstein attended some college and during his period of attendance, he received training and developed something. The main verb of the sentence is is "Attended" and the other terms "Receive" and "develop" are VERB-ing modifiers that describe the how Albert Einstein attended college.


CORRECT ANSWER :-
(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 10:31
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Quote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
-correct
- gerunds are correct here as 'receiving' and 'developing' happened while he attended the school. 'Gerunds' correctly modifying the preceding clause.
B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
it changes the meaning.

D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 10:45
2
This one is a classic parallelism list vs modifier problem. The 'receiving' part apparently appears to be a modifier, a reason for AE attending the school. And if it were one, it must have been modifying the nearest noun (subject or object, whatever be it) the school. But, evidently it is not and therefore, it's a parallelism issue. And as the formula for parallelism goes, every 2+ in the list should follow exactly the structure and style of 2 in the list. Obviously, A wins!!!!
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 11:18
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This Q requires knowledge in ||ism, comma splice and participle modifier



A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
- correct 'receiving... and developing ...' acts as participle phrase for the main clause, 'attended the swiss ...'



B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

here attended , receiving and developed are not ||.

If I were to correct this option it would have read either


attended the swiss ..., received ... and developed - making the sentence ||

or

attended ... ;receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, he developed... - This case,puntuated with a comma , has 'receiving in-depth training' as participle modifier



C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed - note the comman before and .


The correct form for this option is either

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

or

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich and received in-depth training, and he developed.. - in this case 'and he developed' is a conjunctive clause preceded by a comma, avoiding a comman splice .




D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing - not ||

The correct form would have been

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich and received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing... - in this case 'developing..' acts as a participle phrase . I am not sure whether this would become a dangling modifier.


E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

- there is no verb and the sentence structure is seriously flawed in this option
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2010, 09:04
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the correct option should be either

Einstein attended the school, received in-depth training, and developed a foundation.

OR

Einstein attended the school, receiving in-depth training and developing a foundation --> here the modifier 'receiving' and 'developing' are modifying the entire preceding clause and 'receiving' and 'developing' are parallel

Lets look at the options.

After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing - CORRECT

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed - not parallel

(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed - not parallel

(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing - not parallel

(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing - awkward

Hope this helps!
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2010, 16:43
To me it's no so much about the paralelism as about grammatical rules and structure of the sentence.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
This sentence is correct
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
Comma should be here before and.
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he
developed
He is redundant - without comma and he - I would incline to such answer.
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
This could be correct, but only with and before received. Without and I makes you to expect something more with -ed form, but modifier comes instead.
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing
Comma is redundant here.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2011, 07:57
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing[b][/b] a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
Recieving ..... and developing ...... are the actions/results/consequences Albert's attended the class...thus Recieving...and developing should be II to each other...correct :)
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, ]received[] in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and [b]he developed[/b] he is not required(independent clause)
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing IS he still attending?thus incorrect
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2013, 02:33
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manimgoindowndown wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A lot of the approaches for this question revolved about elimating the wrong answer choice-which is fine. What I didn't get was how a noun modifier could be so far away from the noun it modifies. It seems as if receiving is modifying school (or Zurich?) rather than Albert Einstein. To me that is incorrect

Could someone explain how we are to know that it modifies Albert Einstein grammatically?


Hi manimgoindowndown,

Comma followed by an -ing word generally does not modify the noun right before the comma. i.e. , a "comma -ing" set-up is not a traditional noun modifier; it is an adverbial modifier (modifying things other than nouns).

The phrase "receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing..." is not a noun modifier but and adverbial or ing-modifier which is modifying the complete clause "Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich"

Anything that modifies a noun should have the effect of an adjective.

Tired from cleaning the whole apartment, John took a nap. --> the phrase "Tired from cleaning the whole apartment" is modifying the noun John.

Using the mop, John cleaned the apartment --> here "using the mop" is adverbial modifier which modifies the whole clause, whose subject is John.

Hope that helps,

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2013, 04:20
crejoc wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

EXPLAIN the correct answer as well as why other options are wrong..


Option A: Einstein attended the ....in Zurich, (subordinate phrase starts) receiving A and developing B (subordinate phrase ends). This is correct usage.
Option B: Einstein attended the ....in Zurich, (subordinate phrase starts) receiving A and developed B (subordinate phrase ends). If there was a comma after "receiving A", then this statement would have been correct. Because then A would act as a subordinate phrase and B would be a continuation of the original sentence and should be in simple past.
Option C: The pronoun "he" is not needed.
Option D: "developing" is wrong. It should be "and developed".
Option E: This is entirely wrong. Continuous form should be complemented with simple past.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2013, 10:17
sayansarkar wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

a.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
b.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
c.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
d.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
e.attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


Aside answer choice A all the others lack of parallellism.

Hope this helps you


PS: is not a 700 level. Maybe 600
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Dec 2014, 09:16
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I believe answer choices A and B are very close...

However, answer choice B is not grammatically incorrect. It just changes the original meaning of the sentence.

Answer choice A says:
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein attended a school in Zurich. There, he did 2 things:
a- received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and
b- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
These 2 things are consequences of Einstein attending that school in Zurich.

This makes sense. This answer is correct grammatically.


Answer choice B says.
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein did 2 things:
1- he attended a school in Zurich. There, he received in-depth training in quantitative analysis (the ING Modifier "receiving in-depth training..." modifies "attended the Swiss Federal...")
2- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
This means that the foundation for his future work was not developed as a consequence of attending the school in Zurich but was indeed developed after moving to Switzerland.

This also makes sense and it is correct grammatically.



So, how you tell the difference?
1- You know the biography of Einstein cold (not required for the GMAT)
2- You refer to the intended meaning of the original sentence. In other words, answer choice A states the correct sequence of events. Answer choice B states a slightly different scenario and thus distorts the intended original meaning.


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Originally posted by minwoswoh on 21 Dec 2014, 12:56.
Last edited by minwoswoh on 24 Dec 2014, 09:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2016, 07:06
sayansarkar wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

a.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
b.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
c.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
d.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
e.attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


Only A makes perfect sense here...
he attended Uni, and as a result, he received training + developed...

B is incorrect, as it puts attended and developed on the same level of timing. + improperly connected.
C this one has few errors. it should either be A, B, and C, or present all 3 elements as clauses. Nonetheless, it makes the same error as B does, putting everything on the same level on timeline.
D improperly connected the first modifier.
E classic no verb error :)

A is the correct answer.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2016, 23:22
sukeshap, C breaks parallelism: Einstein attended school, received training, and he developed a foundation. We can have just one subject, or we can have a subject for all the verbs, but we can't mix and match!

"Receiving and training" in A serves as a modifier. Those are not present tense verbs. In fact, they're not verbs at all! They are present participles, and this use of present participles as modifiers is extremely common.

1) She dominated the Olympics, earning top scores in every event.
2) A rumor circulating when I was in school was that Pop Rocks and Coke together could kill you.


In both the above cases, we're talking about the past, but the present participles serves as a modifier. In 1), "earning top scores" is an adverbial modifier that adds information to the previous clause. In 2), "circulating" is a noun modifier describing "rumor." This modifier is in turn modified by "when I was in school." Neither of these "-ing" words is a verb, so we don't have to worry about a clash of tenses.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2017, 09:39
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing -Correct
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed -receiving and developed aren't parallel
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed -meaning is altered. He attended the school and at the same time received training so we need verb+ing
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing -receiving and developed aren't parallel
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing -attending is wrong
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2018, 21:09
It is important to understand the meaning of this sentence. "Albert attended a school, receiving something and developing something else." The first part indicates that Albert attended a school and that after he attended the school two other events occurred (It is important to keep the order in mind.) The participle form of the verbs in choice A) correctly indicate this structure.
For example: "I heard someone playing the piano." This sentence correctly indicates that at a past time I heard something and that this something was someone playing the piano. Let us re-write this sentence. "I heard someone played the piano." This sentence changes the meaning by creating two events that occurred at some point in the past but don't have to be related to each

I hope this explanation helps.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2018, 12:21
nachobioteck wrote:
carcass wrote:
sayansarkar wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

a.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
b.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
c.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
d.attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
e.attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


Aside answer choice A all the others lack of parallellism.

Hope this helps you


PS: is not a 700 level. Maybe 600


If in B, there had been a coma before developed would that have been correct? I thought developed was parallel with attended.

Thanks!


egmat ; if the meaning does not strike us during an exam time scenario is there a mechanical provision available to discern between option A and B.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2018, 12:45
Poo 53% now suk at SC
Only A, E are parallel
E has weird comma
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended &nbs [#permalink] 16 Jul 2018, 12:45
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