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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended

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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.


(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed

(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


This question is part of the GMAT Club Sentence Correction : Parallelism" Revision Project.

Originally posted by crejoc on 09 Aug 2009, 10:47.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Feb 2019, 03:21, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Feb 2019, 03:23
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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.


A. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing

B. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

C. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed

D. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

E. attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



The original sentence expresses the main verb “attended” in the past tense and the two subordinate actions in the form of the gerund. This construction correctly indicates that “receiving” and developing” followed as a consequence of Einstein’s attendance of “the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich.”

(A) CORRECT. This answer choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This answer choice breaks the correct parallelism of "receiving" and "developing" present in the original sentence.

(C) This answer choice expresses all the verbs in the underlined portion in the same form: “attended,” “received,” and “developed.” This change alters the original meaning of the sentence by making these actions independent and sequential rather than demonstrating that “receiving” and “developing” occurred as a consequence of the fact that “Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich.” Further, this answer choice introduces the redundant pronoun “he” that unnecessarily repeats the subject of the sentence and breaks parallelism.

(D) This answer choice makes "attended" and "received" parallel, leaving "developing" as a subordinate action. This change alters the meaning of the sentence, as described above in the explanation for choice (C). Moreover, there is no "and" between "attended" and "received," as there should always be between the items in a two-item list.

(E) This answer choice creates an incomplete sentence that lacks the main verb and consists merely of a series of gerunds: “attending,” “receiving,” and “developing.”
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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 19 Feb 2015, 00:50.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Feb 2019, 03:23, edited 2 times in total.
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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 22:56
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crejoc wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

Harshgmat wrote:
minwoswoh wrote:
I believe answer choices A and B are very close...

However, answer choice B is not grammatically incorrect. It just changes the original meaning of the sentence.

Answer choice A says:
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein attended a school in Zurich. There, he did 2 things:
a- received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and
b- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
These 2 things are consequences of Einstein attending that school in Zurich.

This makes sense. This answer is correct grammatically.

Answer choice B says.
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein did 2 things:
1- he attended a school in Zurich. There, he received in-depth training in quantitative analysis (the ING Modifier "receiving in-depth training..." modifies "attended the Swiss Federal...")
2- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
This means that the foundation for his future work was not developed as a consequence of attending the school in Zurich but was indeed developed after moving to Switzerland.

This also makes sense and it is correct grammatically.

So, how you tell the difference?
1- You know the biography of Einstein cold (not required for the GMAT)
2- You refer to the intended meaning of the original sentence. In other words, answer choice A states the correct sequence of events. Answer choice B states a slightly different scenario and thus distorts the intended original meaning.

mikemcgarry, GMATNinja, generis

Is there possibility of having 2 grammatically correct choices on GMAT as in above case?

Can you please guide how to tackle such problems? Your expert insights will be very valuable.

Thanks.

Harshgmat , wow, the post that you quote is probably confusing.

Before I answer your question I will address two errors. They are common and hence understandable, but too significant to leave alone.

Error #1: option A does NOT establish original or intended meaning
Quote:
How do you tell the difference [between A and B]?
. . .You refer to the intended meaning of the original sentence.
In other words, answer choice A states the correct sequence of events.

NO.

MYTH : Option A determines or sets the tone for the meaning of the sentence.
FACT: Option A does NOT determine the meaning of the sentence

Intended or original meaning is not determined or demonstrated by Option A.

If that myth were true, questions in which option (A) creates illogical, nonsensical, or unclear meaning could not exist.
Such questions exist. Below are a few examples.

Official Guide 2012: In this question,
option (A) is illogical. In option A, the bad guys (defendants) attribute their criminal behavior to an allergy.
No. The attorneys argued for that proposition.


Official Guide 2016: In this question,
option (A) is confusing and ambiguous.

Official Guide 2018 SC # 676 In this question,,
option (A) creates nonsensical meaning.

Some "official explanations" from NON-GMAC sources have contributed to the confusion.

As late as 2017 , on the Economist blog, the official Economist explanation for this SC question about Iceland and global warming stated that
Options C and E could be eliminated because both changed the meaning as expressed in (A). WRONG

See also this post.
The official explanation in full can be found here.

Marty Murry — an expert who earned a perfect score of 800 — highlighted one part of that official explanation by the Economist:
"Notice how answer option C changes the meaning of the original sentence. 'Likely' is not the same as 'most likely'. So, you can eliminate C."
Quote:
The highlighted portion of the above official explanation for this question is based on a myth. The myth is that the meaning conveyed by the sentence created via the use of the correct answer to a GMAT Sentence Correction question has to match the meaning conveyed by the original sentence, i.e., the version created via the use of choice A.

There is no such rule.

The correct answer to a Sentence Correction question is the one the use of which results in a sentence that makes sense - end of story.

My emphasis. That post can be found here.

Another issue needs to be addressed.

Error #2: option B is NOT correct grammatically
Double negatives coming . . .
In reply to the statement that "answer choice B is not grammatically incorrect" (= B is grammatically correct). NO.

B is grammatically incorrect

We have an "and" after the "receiving" phrase, i.e. "and developed."

Developed is not parallel to receiving.

Could it be that developed belongs with attended?
NO. Option B is missing a crucial comma that would make the two past tense verbs parallel.

Specifically, option (B) lacks a comma after analysis and before and

-- If attended and developed are parallel, we have a compound verb ("compound predicate")
-- Any intervening phrase in a compound predicate must be set off with commas*

"Receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis" is now an intervening phrase in a compound verb
That participial phrase needs a comma before and after it. See the footnote.

If (B) were a viable option, it would state:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis[,] and developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

In the original B, I see one comma only, right before receiving. I do not see two commas.

What if the intervening phrase does not have TWO commas to set it off?
Fatal. Option B is not grammatical.
If there is not a second comma to set off the "receiving" phrase, then

attended and developed cannot be parallel, a fact that means

receiving and developed are now paired. They cannot be paired. They are not parallel.

Option B is ungrammatical.

Answer A

*********
STRATEGIES: if two options seem equally correct
Okay, let's discuss your good question.
In hindsight we know that Option B is grammatically incorrect.
What should we do if we cannot see that fact?

Quote:
Is there possibility of having 2 grammatically correct choices on GMAT as in above case?

Yes, two grammatically correct choices are possible.
That said, more than 90 percent of the time, the other grammatically correct option is a stylistic disaster.

In this case, plenty of people believed that (B) was grammatically correct.
The meanings of A and B are different. We have to choose.
Neither A nor B is a stylistic disaster, so we cannot use that property to eliminate one of them.

PURELY HYPOTHETICAL EXERCISE
Suppose option (B) were grammatically correct (WHICH, just for the broken record, is it NOT)?

Then option (B) would be:
After moving to Switzerland in 1910, Einstein attended a school in Zurich, receiving XYZ, and developed the foundation for ABC.

What should we do we if we think there are two grammatically correct answers, neither of which is a stylistic disaster?
That phenomenon is fairly rare. I am tallying, which will take awhile.

Original prompt with B: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

WHAT TO DO?
• Read the non-underlined part again for clues in the context of whatever problem you face. Find key words and then compare the two options.

(The issue could be direct causation, for example. In that case you would look for clues that implied "A therefore B.")

Options A and B present time sequence issues. Look for words related to time, timing, segments of time, etc.
In the non-underlined part is the word future.

Hold on here a minute.
Why does the author separate "the development of the foundation" in time from the future work in physics?

In option B, "developed the foundation" came after his time at school.
Well, that's one future.
Why is this author talking about a second future in the non-underlined portion (as an adjective)?
Aren't there now a lot of confusing time periods? YES.

Now compare to (A). There is a before [moving to Switzerland], a during [school], and a future [work in physics]. Simple. Conclude that:
This author is not talking about a second future as option B suggests --
because the development of the foundation happens while Einstein is in school.

I suspect that the simple act of considering time as an issue a bit more carefully than the first time around would often lead quickly to option A.

What happens while we attend school? We get training and we develop foundations (for later use).
The latter sentence contains the temporal logic that drives the core of this question.

• ask questions about "larger" sentence structure IF you happen to notice

(Thinking about B): Why would one sentence try to jam together all that happened
AFTER he moved, WHILE he attended school, and AFTER he left school?
(It wouldn't, not compared to the simplicity of answer A.)

Why is the prompt talking about some vague "future," given that
the prompt began with a very particular time period?

One answer that may strike: Because the sentence is focused on a specific time period, namely, the period in which he attended school.
That period is "framed" by a past without content and a future whose content is hazy.

We know the future work is in physics, but not when or where.
In addition, the introductory phrase chops off a chunk of time ("before").

Both a non-existent past and a vague future serve as a sort of background picture frame, bringing into focus what must be . . .
what happened while Einstein attended school.
In that context, option A makes more sense.

• Read the two options in quick succession one more time.

Take a breath. I'm serious. We have seen dozens or hundreds or thousands of sentences. This is doable.
Neither (A) nor (B) has more style than the other. After you take a breath and exhale, pick one and move on.

Hope that helps. :)

*• If a sentence contains compound verbs and no intervening phrases, the coordinating conjunction is not preceded by a comma
She studied the subject thoroughly and performed well on the test.
Same subject, two verbs
If a sentence contains a compound verb and an intervening phrase, however, the
intervening phrase must be set off by commas
Same subject, two verbs, intervening phrase:
She studied the subject thoroughly, making hundreds of note cards, and performed well on the test.
The intervening phrase modifies only the previous clause. She was not making hundreds of note cards during the test.


With gratitude to Harshgmat , whose advice about this edited answer I both sought and took. :thumbup:

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2012, 08:34
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I see a lot of complicated explanations involving the use of grammatical terms. While most of these explanations are accurate , i believe that when we prioritize grammar over
the meaning, we may miss the sky for the stars. We have 3 verbs in the sentence. If we recognize the correct sequence of the actions, then the keys to the kingdom will be ours.

The 3 verbs in the sentence are

- Attend
- Receive
- Develop

a) We need to understand the importance and sequence of EACH OF these verbs. The actions which are parallel need to be in same tense.
b) "AND" is usually a parallelism marker. The word "AND" can either indicate a set of events that happen AT THE SAME TIME, or indicate a SEQUENCE of events that happen one after the other.
c) Remember for a list of 3 or more items that are described using the word "AND", GMAT always uses a ,comma to separate the last item.
E.g: red, blue ,and green.
E.g : John, jane, jacob ,and Chris

A detour :-
Let's look at a few examples. Full Disclosure : These examples are based on a couple of examples that i have seen Ron Purewal (MGMAT fame) use. Somehow, examples that require one to visualize someone else eating, burping and slurping turn out to be the ones that kinda burn concepts into our memory :-).

John ate the pizza, slurping loudly and burping regularly - IMPLIES THAT JOHN ATE THE PIZZA AND WHILE EATING, JOHN MADE SLURPING AND BURPING SOUNDS.
John ate the pizza, slurped loudly and ,burped regularly - IMPLIES THAT JOHN FINISHED EATING THE PIZZA FIRST AND THEN AFTER EATING , HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS (second) AND AFTER HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS, HE MADE BURPING SOUNDS(third).
John ate the pizza, slurping loudly and burped regularly- IMPLIES THAT JOHN ATE THE PIZZA AND WHILE EATING THE PIZZA, HE MADE SLURPING SOUNDS and AFTER HE FINISHED EATING(and slurping), he MADE BURPING SOUNDS.

Typically -
[*]A ,COMMA VERB-ing modifier (E.g : burping and slurping in the above examples) tends to describe the main verb in the preceding clause.
[*]A VERB - ING-modifier WITHOUT A COMMA is attached to the preceding noun.

A couple of Examples :-
[*]John watched Sam running around a tree. (Meaning - Sam was running around a tree and John saw him. Note the absence of a COMMA)
[*]John watched Sam,using a pair of binoculars.(Meaning - John used a pair of binoculars to watch Same)

Back to the question :-
MEANING OF THE GIVEN SENTENCE :
Albert Einstein attended some college and during his period of attendance, he received training and developed something. The main verb of the sentence is is "Attended" and the other terms "Receive" and "develop" are VERB-ing modifiers that describe the how Albert Einstein attended college.


CORRECT ANSWER :-
(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 10:31
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Quote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
-correct
- gerunds are correct here as 'receiving' and 'developing' happened while he attended the school. 'Gerunds' correctly modifying the preceding clause.
B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
it changes the meaning.

D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 10:45
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This one is a classic parallelism list vs modifier problem. The 'receiving' part apparently appears to be a modifier, a reason for AE attending the school. And if it were one, it must have been modifying the nearest noun (subject or object, whatever be it) the school. But, evidently it is not and therefore, it's a parallelism issue. And as the formula for parallelism goes, every 2+ in the list should follow exactly the structure and style of 2 in the list. Obviously, A wins!!!!
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2009, 11:18
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This Q requires knowledge in ||ism, comma splice and participle modifier



A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
- correct 'receiving... and developing ...' acts as participle phrase for the main clause, 'attended the swiss ...'



B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

here attended , receiving and developed are not ||.

If I were to correct this option it would have read either


attended the swiss ..., received ... and developed - making the sentence ||

or

attended ... ;receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, he developed... - This case,puntuated with a comma , has 'receiving in-depth training' as participle modifier



C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed - note the comman before and .


The correct form for this option is either

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

or

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich and received in-depth training, and he developed.. - in this case 'and he developed' is a conjunctive clause preceded by a comma, avoiding a comman splice .




D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing - not ||

The correct form would have been

attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich and received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing... - in this case 'developing..' acts as a participle phrase . I am not sure whether this would become a dangling modifier.


E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

- there is no verb and the sentence structure is seriously flawed in this option
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2010, 09:04
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the correct option should be either

Einstein attended the school, received in-depth training, and developed a foundation.

OR

Einstein attended the school, receiving in-depth training and developing a foundation --> here the modifier 'receiving' and 'developing' are modifying the entire preceding clause and 'receiving' and 'developing' are parallel

Lets look at the options.

After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing - CORRECT

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed - not parallel

(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed - not parallel

(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing - not parallel

(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing - awkward

Hope this helps!
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2010, 16:43
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To me it's no so much about the paralelism as about grammatical rules and structure of the sentence.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
This sentence is correct
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
Comma should be here before and.
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he
developed
He is redundant - without comma and he - I would incline to such answer.
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
This could be correct, but only with and before received. Without and I makes you to expect something more with -ed form, but modifier comes instead.
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing
Comma is redundant here.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2013, 02:33
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manimgoindowndown wrote:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A lot of the approaches for this question revolved about elimating the wrong answer choice-which is fine. What I didn't get was how a noun modifier could be so far away from the noun it modifies. It seems as if receiving is modifying school (or Zurich?) rather than Albert Einstein. To me that is incorrect

Could someone explain how we are to know that it modifies Albert Einstein grammatically?


Hi manimgoindowndown,

Comma followed by an -ing word generally does not modify the noun right before the comma. i.e. , a "comma -ing" set-up is not a traditional noun modifier; it is an adverbial modifier (modifying things other than nouns).

The phrase "receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing..." is not a noun modifier but and adverbial or ing-modifier which is modifying the complete clause "Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich"

Anything that modifies a noun should have the effect of an adjective.

Tired from cleaning the whole apartment, John took a nap. --> the phrase "Tired from cleaning the whole apartment" is modifying the noun John.

Using the mop, John cleaned the apartment --> here "using the mop" is adverbial modifier which modifies the whole clause, whose subject is John.

Hope that helps,

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Dec 2014, 09:16
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I believe answer choices A and B are very close...

However, answer choice B is not grammatically incorrect. It just changes the original meaning of the sentence.

Answer choice A says:
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein attended a school in Zurich. There, he did 2 things:
a- received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and
b- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
These 2 things are consequences of Einstein attending that school in Zurich.

This makes sense. This answer is correct grammatically.


Answer choice B says.
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein did 2 things:
1- he attended a school in Zurich. There, he received in-depth training in quantitative analysis (the ING Modifier "receiving in-depth training..." modifies "attended the Swiss Federal...")
2- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
This means that the foundation for his future work was not developed as a consequence of attending the school in Zurich but was indeed developed after moving to Switzerland.

This also makes sense and it is correct grammatically.



So, how you tell the difference?
1- You know the biography of Einstein cold (not required for the GMAT)
2- You refer to the intended meaning of the original sentence. In other words, answer choice A states the correct sequence of events. Answer choice B states a slightly different scenario and thus distorts the intended original meaning.


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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2015, 04:33
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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing - Correct

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing

OA please...
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2015, 14:36
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souvik101990 wrote:
This question is part of the GMAT Club Sentence Correction : Parallelism" Revision Project.

After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

A. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing

• attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing


A. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing
The gerunds, receiving and developing, modify the phrase, "Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich"

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed
developed is not parallel to "receiving"

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed
The "he" is not parallel

• attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing
Not parallel

• attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing
This answer choice makes the whole sentence into a fragment
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2015, 06:06
Hello

In this type of a sentence even if we see option B, the meaning clarity is maintained, saying that Albert Einstein did two things after moving to Zurich:
a. Attended the school
b. Developed the foundation for his mathematical work

I was confused here: Though I agree that A in itself is very clear but I was not able to reject B because of meaning. Can someone shed some light on this

Thanks in advance
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2015, 07:42
Quote:
Rsaahil90 wrote

In this type of a sentence even if we see option B, the meaning clarity is maintained, saying that Albert Einstein did two things after moving to Zurich:
a. Attended the school
b. Developed the foundation for his mathematical work

I was confused here: Though I agree that A in itself is very clear but I was not able to reject B because of meaning. Can someone shed some light on this.


B. attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed

First, let me state that B is perfectly grammatical but not in line with intention. There are three events that happened after the Scientist moved to Switzerland. Did those three happen independently or relative to one other? One will agree that the joining the school was the core action and the other two were an outcome of the core. In that light even ‘developing’ happened as a result of the scientist’s stint in the school and therefore is a corollary of the core. That is the reason one cannot verb it but has to participle it. “and developed” in B is faulty.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2016, 23:22
sukeshap, C breaks parallelism: Einstein attended school, received training, and he developed a foundation. We can have just one subject, or we can have a subject for all the verbs, but we can't mix and match!

"Receiving and training" in A serves as a modifier. Those are not present tense verbs. In fact, they're not verbs at all! They are present participles, and this use of present participles as modifiers is extremely common.

1) She dominated the Olympics, earning top scores in every event.
2) A rumor circulating when I was in school was that Pop Rocks and Coke together could kill you.


In both the above cases, we're talking about the past, but the present participles serves as a modifier. In 1), "earning top scores" is an adverbial modifier that adds information to the previous clause. In 2), "circulating" is a noun modifier describing "rumor." This modifier is in turn modified by "when I was in school." Neither of these "-ing" words is a verb, so we don't have to worry about a clash of tenses.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2017, 09:39
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing -Correct
(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed -receiving and developed aren't parallel
(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed -meaning is altered. He attended the school and at the same time received training so we need verb+ing
(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing -receiving and developed aren't parallel
(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing -attending is wrong
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 05:28
minwoswoh wrote:
I believe answer choices A and B are very close...

However, answer choice B is not grammatically incorrect. It just changes the original meaning of the sentence.

Answer choice A says:
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein attended a school in Zurich. There, he did 2 things:
a- received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and
b- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
These 2 things are consequences of Einstein attending that school in Zurich.

This makes sense. This answer is correct grammatically.


Answer choice B says.
After moving to Switzerland, Einstein did 2 things:
1- he attended a school in Zurich. There, he received in-depth training in quantitative analysis (the ING Modifier "receiving in-depth training..." modifies "attended the Swiss Federal...")
2- developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.
This means that the foundation for his future work was not developed as a consequence of attending the school in Zurich but was indeed developed after moving to Switzerland.

This also makes sense and it is correct grammatically.



So, how you tell the difference?
1- You know the biography of Einstein cold (not required for the GMAT)
2- You refer to the intended meaning of the original sentence. In other words, answer choice A states the correct sequence of events. Answer choice B states a slightly different scenario and thus distorts the intended original meaning.


Kudos if it helped :)


mikemcgarry, GMATNinja, generis

Is there possibility of having 2 grammatically correct choices on GMAT as in above case?

Can you please guide how to tackle such problems? Your expert insights will be very valuable.

Thanks.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 04:56
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

(A) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing - Correct

(B) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed - Parallelism issue - receiving is not parallel to developed

(C) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and he developed - Parallelism issue -- the subject he in the third part causes parallelism issue

(D) attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis, developing - Parallelism issue

(E) attending the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developing - no verb

Answer A

1. After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics. - In this case, Verb-ing modifier receiving modifies the previous clause, providing more information and the 2 verbs attended and developed are parallel.

In B, if a comma is added the phrase after receiving i.e, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, will the option be grammatically correct?
Also, in such a scenario should we select option A even if B is grammatically correct to retain the original intent if both options sound logical?


2. A) After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics. (This option is same as option A) - here receiving and developing are subordinate to the preceding action attended and also show simultaneity

B) After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis, and developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics. - here attended and developed are independent actions and receiving modifies attended and shows simultaneity with attended
.

C) After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, received in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developed a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics. -- Here all the three actions(attended, received and developed) are verbs and thus are equal in priority.

Is there an order defined above (unless I explicitly use then) i.e Einstein first attended, then received and finally developed?
Also, C here is incorrect because the actions (attended, received and developed) ARE NOT independent?


AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , egmat , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , ChiranjeevSingh, GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , daagh, mcelroytutoring , other experts-- please enlighten
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2018, 05:38
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One purpose of a COMMA + VERBing modifier is to express an action that is a COMPONENT of the preceding action or state-of-being.
SC30 in the OG12:
Animal-hide shields were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
Here, COMMA + PROTECTING WARRIORS is a component of the preceding state-of-being (the shields WERE ESSENTIAL).
In other words, when the shields WERE ESSENTIAL, they were -- as a part of being essential -- PROTECTING WARRIORS.

The SC above intends to convey that receiving training and developing a foundation were components of the main action (Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich).
In other words, when Einstein ATTENDED SCHOOL, he was -- as a part of this action -- RECEIVING TRAINING and DEVELOPING A FOUNDATION.
The original sentence conveys this meaning by expressing the two actions in blue not as regular verbs but as COMMA + VERBing modifiers:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.

B and C replace COMMA + developing with a simple past tense verb -- developed -- implying that Einstein DEVELOPED a foundation independently of his attendance at the Zurich school.
As a result, B and C distort the intended meaning of the original sentence.
Since the original sentence conveys a logical meaning, any answer choice that distorts this meaning can be eliminated.
Eliminate B and C.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended   [#permalink] 12 Oct 2018, 05:38

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