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After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended

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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 04:28
GMATGuruNY wrote:
One purpose of a COMMA + VERBing modifier is to express an action that is a COMPONENT of the preceding action or state-of-being.
SC30 in the OG12:
Animal-hide shields were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
Here, COMMA + PROTECTING WARRIORS is a component of the preceding state-of-being (the shields WERE ESSENTIAL).
In other words, when the shields WERE ESSENTIAL, they were -- as a part of being essential -- PROTECTING WARRIORS.


Does the above kind of 'COMMA + VERBing' describe 'HOW the preceding action acts or is'? Is like the following example:

He killed the snake, using a stick. (Here: 'using stick describes HOW the action of killing was done)


Quote:
The SC above intends to convey that receiving training and developing a foundation were components of the main action (Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich).
In other words, when Einstein ATTENDED SCHOOL, he was -- as a part of this action -- RECEIVING TRAINING and DEVELOPING A FOUNDATION.
The original sentence conveys this meaning by expressing the two actions in blue not as regular verbs but as COMMA + VERBing modifiers:
After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, receiving in-depth training in quantitative analysis and developing a foundation for his future work in mathematical physics.


As you always explained, Any COMMA + VERBing must be CONCURRENT with the preceding clause/ action . However, I'm not convinced that 'developing' is something that happens CONCURRENTLY with 'attending the school'. Rather,I think 'developing' happens after the attending the school or at least after a while not on the same time of attendance.

Can you help please?
Thanks in advance
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 07:10
Mo2men wrote:
[As you always explained, Any COMMA + VERBing must be CONCURRENT with the preceding clause/ action . However, I'm not convinced that 'developing' is something that happens CONCURRENTLY with 'attending the school'. Rather,I think 'developing' happens after the attending the school or at least after a while not on the same time of attendance.

Can you help please?
Thanks in advance


The OA conveys that -- while Einstein attended school -- he was at the same time developing A FOUNDATION FOR HIS FUTURE WORK.
A foundation = the most basic part of something.
Implication:
During his time in school, Einstein was developing the most basic part of his work -- work that he would complete in the FUTURE.
This meaning seems logical.
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Re: After moving to Switzerland in the 1890’s, Albert Einstein attended   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2018, 07:10

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