Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

It appears that you are browsing the GMAT Club forum unregistered!

Signing up is free, quick, and confidential.
Join other 500,000 members and get the full benefits of GMAT Club

Registration gives you:

Tests

Take 11 tests and quizzes from GMAT Club and leading GMAT prep companies such as Manhattan GMAT,
Knewton, and others. All are free for GMAT Club members.

Applicant Stats

View detailed applicant stats such as GPA, GMAT score, work experience, location, application
status, and more

Books/Downloads

Download thousands of study notes,
question collections, GMAT Club’s
Grammar and Math books.
All are free!

Thank you for using the timer!
We noticed you are actually not timing your practice. Click the START button first next time you use the timer.
There are many benefits to timing your practice, including:

Today, we look at the relative rate concept of work, rate and time – the parallel of relative speed of distance, speed and time.

But before we do that, we will first look at one fundamental principle of work, rate and time (which has a parallel in distance, speed and time).

Say, there is a straight long track with a red flag at one end. Mr A is standing on the track 100 feet away from the flag and Mr B is standing on the track at a distance 700 feet away from the flag. So they have a distance of 600 feet between them. They start walking towards each other. Where will they meet? Is it necessary that they will meet at 400 feet from the red flag – the mid point of the distance between them? Think about it – say Mr A walks very slowly and Mr B is super fast. Of the 600 feet between them, Mr A will cover very little distance and Mr B will cover most of the distance. So where they meet depends on their rate of walking. They will not necessarily meet at the mid point. When do they meet at the mid point? When their rate of walking is the same. When they both cover equal distance.

Now imagine that you have two pools of water. Pool A has 100 gallons of water in it and the Pool B has 700 gallons. Say, water is being pumped into pool A and water is being pumped out of pool B. When will the two pools have equal water level? Is it necessary that they both have to hit the 400 gallons mark to have equal amount of water? Again, it depends on the rate of work on the two pools. If water is being pumped into pool A very slowly but water is being pumped out of pool B very fast, at some point, they both might have 200 gallons of water in them. They will both have 400 gallons at the same time only when their rate of pumping is the same. This case is exactly like the case above.

Now let’s go on to the question from the GMAT Club tests which tests this understanding and the concept of relative rate of work:

Question: Tanks X and Y contain 500 and 200 gallons of water respectively. If water is being pumped out of tank X at a rate of K gallons per minute and water is being added to tank Y at a rate of M gallons per minute, how many hours will elapse before the two tanks contain equal amounts of water?

(A) 5/(M+K) hours

(B) 6/(M+K) hours

(C) 300/(M+K) hours

(D) 300/(M−K) hours

(E) 60/(M−K) hours

Solution: There are two tanks with different water levels. Note that the rate of pumping is given as K gallons per min and M gallons per min i.e. they are different. So we cannot say that they both will have equal amount of water when they have 350 gallons. They could very well have equal amount of water at 300 gallons or 400 gallons etc. So when one expects that water in both tanks will be at 350 gallon level, one is making a mistake. The two tanks are working for the same time to get their level equal but their rates are different. So the work done is different. Note here that equal level does not imply equal work done. The equal level could be achieved at 300 gallons when work done would be different – 200 gallons removed from tank X and 100 gallons added to tank Y. The equal level could be achieved at 400 gallons when work done would be different again – 100 gallons removed from tank X and 200 gallons added to tank Y.

To achieve the ‘equal level,’ tank Y needs to gain water and tank X needs to lose water. Total 300 gallons (500 gallons – 200 gallons) of work needs to be done. Which tank will do how much depends on their respective rates.

Work to be done together = 300 gallons

Relative rate of work = (K + M) gallons/minute

The rates get added because they are working in opposite directions – one is removing water and the other is adding water. So we get relative rate (which is same as relative speed) by adding the individual rates.

Note here that rate is given in gallons per minute. But the options have hours so we must convert the rate to gallons per hour.

Relative rate of work = (K + M) gallons/minute = (K + M) gallons/(1/60) hour = 60*(K + M) gallons/hour

Time taken to complete the work = 300/60(K+M) hours = 5/(K+M) hours

Answer (A)

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Applying to business school is one of the most involved application processes in graduate education. Other programs focus on standardized tests, or your academic record and others your professional accomplishments but business schools evaluate all aspects of a candidate’s profile. With so much on the table for evaluation it can be easy for an applicant to come up short in one or more different areas.

However, often times what many candidates think their shortcomings are differs from the actual reality of how admissions teams view their applications. Applicants tend to obsess over GMAT scores and how senior their recommenders are but overlook a few simple application necessities.

Let’s focus on a few of these common MBA application mistakes that candidates make:

1) School Knowledge

You would think this would be an obvious area a candidate would focus on when committing so much time to an application, but this tends to be an area that is often neglected. The source of this typically comes from a few different places. The most common is time, when a candidate is applying to multiple schools, school research is one of the first areas that is neglected. When applying to business school a one size fits all approach is not the strategy a competitive applicant should take. MBA programs are looking for applicants who make a strong case for why their school is the ideal place to further their business education, so each application should be tailored appropriately from scratch.

2) Fit

A similar application mistake many candidates make is not showing enough fit with their target programs. Breakthrough candidates will not only select programs that make sense given their development goals but also curate an application that makes this fit obvious. If the school selection process is executed properly then the application creation should be much easier. Make sure to identify academic programs, coursework, clubs, and career opportunities that are unique to the target program.

3) Attention to Detail

This key area truly pervades every aspect of the application process and I would argue is one of the easiest ways to make a negative impression with the admissions committee. When creating an application, candidates should strive to make the best impression possible and anything that detracts from this diminishes the chance of admission. Issues like spelling mistakes, not following application directions, typos, and general carelessness create the wrong impression for a candidate in a very competitive process. Even candidates with great profiles can marginalize their chances by showing a lack of attention to detail which can turn an “admit” into a “waitlist” or “ding.”

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Q: Studying for the SAT feels so useless. I know this will help me score higher on this test, but ten years from now I won’t really care about PIN, TAC, WYPAD, misplaced modifiers, or order of difficulty. Why should I even care about any of this? Why is the SAT testing me on things I’ll never actually have to know? Am I the only one who thinks this whole exercise is just a huge waste of time?

Don’t worry, you’re not the only one wondering–I get this question a lot. We all understand that standardized tests are important for college admissions, but the concepts in SAT curricula often seem too test-specific to be applicable to life beyond standardized testing. Fortunately, there’s more to SAT test prep than just test preparation: many of the skills covered are highly applicable to both academic and professional life.

Here are a few of the most useful things you can take away from your SAT prep course besides a higher SAT score.

An eye for grammar. We’ve all joked about grammar nazis, but the reality is that good grammar is a highly valuable skill both in school and in the working world. Every essay, application, resume, cover letter, and professional email you ever write will command more respect and be taken more seriously if it is grammatically correct. I personally don’t think it makes sense that most American students stop studying grammar after middle school; since poor grammar is so common in both school and work, strong grammar can be a great advantage in applying for jobs, making good impressions in letters, and achieving higher grades on written assignments.

Logical and quantitative thinking skills. A basic understanding of math will help you develop the quantitative side of your mind, making it easier to think critically about school subjects like science, economics, and engineering, as well as about useful life skills like budgets, finance, and investment. For example, you may not need to remember the acronyms PIN and TAC, but it’s important to understand that abstract concepts can be expressed concretely, and that working backwards is a perfectly valid way to solve a problem.

Formal prose writing skills. Sure, not everything you write after high school will be in the form of a five-paragraph essay–but introductions, topic sentences, transitions, conclusions, signposting, tone, logical flow, logical structure, and conciseness are essential elements of just about any piece of formal prose. Strong understanding of these elements can make your writing more convincing, interesting, and understandable, which can improve your grades, build your brand, and open up job opportunities.

Reading comprehension skills. SAT Reading passages expose you to and improve your ability to understand more complex and academic writing than many students are used to. Since reading is one of the primary ways we learn, both in school and at work, strong reading comprehension skills can make you a better student and a better learner in almost any field you pursue, either academically or professionally.

Ability to analyze and criticize written works. SAT Reading passages improve your ability to think critically about things you read by making you more aware of tone, purpose, style, organization, and other elements of writing that clarify authors’ intentions, perspectives, and arguments. By better understanding authors and their goals, you can better analyze their writing and are less likely to take them at face value. For instance, it is extraordinarily useful to be able to identify an newspaper article’s hidden political agenda, or to be able to read the mood of colleagues or business partners through their professional correspondence.

Courtney Tran is a student at UC Berkeley, studying Political Economy and Rhetoric. In high school, she was named a National Merit Finalist and National AP Scholar, and she represented her district two years in a row in Public Forum Debate at the National Forensics League National Tournament.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

So, you got dinged last year from your dream school(s) and instead of settling for your second or third choice (or fourth or fifth as may be the case), you have decided to hold fast to your MBA dream and re-apply to the same school(s) again this year. Recognizing you are likely scarred, but smarter, there are still a few things you should know before diving in.

With a nod to your resiliency, you hopefully have first spent some time formulating a plan B for this go-round. It’s fine to re-apply to your dream school, but you if you happen to get rejected again, you need to have a fallback this time—a program you’d be satisfied attending even if it’s not your top choice. Life is too short to spend three years trying to get into grad school, and if you haven’t been able to impress the committee for two years in a row, it may simply not be in the cards for you to go there.

Often we see clients becoming enamored with a particular school, when in reality, they could receive the same or very similar education and tools (and networks and contacts and jobs) from another school. We are all for dogged determination, but at the end of the day, we want to see you get your MBA and not spend half your career applying to school.

The good news is, many schools show preferential consideration for re-applicants, which at the very least, demonstrates a true commitment to the school. This preferential consideration can be leveraged to your advantage if your application is compelling and most importantly, demonstrates material changes in your candidacy which were not present last year.

With that, I’ll discuss in the next installment on this topic some tips for generating a reapplication strategy.

Bryant Michaels has over 25 years of professional post undergraduate experience in the entertainment industry as well as on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs. He served on the admissions committee at the Fuqua School of Business where he received his MBA and now works part time in retirement for a top tier business school. He has been consulting with Veritas Prep clients for the past six admissions seasons. See more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Before you start, take a look at Part I of this series.

When reapplying, one of the most valuable things you can utilize is feedback on why you didn’t make the cut last time. Some schools will actually provide this information if you ask for it, so don’t be shy about reaching back to them. If you are applying to a school in the top 10, you may not be able to get specifics from the admissions teams on why you didn’t get in due simply to the number of applications they receive, but you can still seek this information from outside sources by confiding in a colleague or contact who has their MBA or perhaps some insight into the process.

At the very least, you should sit down with your application and try as objectively as possible to see where you may have come up short. If you have trouble finding such shortcomings, it may simply be the case that there were too many applicants similar to you in the pool last year, and the resulting mathematical odds did not go your way.

Assessing your weaknesses is critical to a reapplication, since you may find favor with the same admissions committee that rejected you in the past if you can somehow inoculate the concern. Of course there are the obvious weaknesses such as a sub-par GMAT score or low GPA, or perhaps you went to a low-ranked state college (nothing you can do about that now of course except to maybe take a course or two at a better school).

The tricky part comes in the more subtle components of the application. Perhaps your career vision was not clearly connected to what you did in your past, or maybe you failed to convey a passionate, compelling case for why you need the MBA. Often, it comes down to a failure of message. It could be that the overall picture you painted was not articulated in a way that captured the attention of the committee. How was your fit with your target programs? Was there something in your application that communicated a poor match with their culture or curriculum? These are the questions that can truly drive you crazy, since it’s largely guesswork.

Whether or not you can isolate and address a weaknesses in your application, however, is not nearly as important as communicating to the committee what you have done since last year to make you a better candidate this year. This is the number one most important issue to consider when re-applying. In fact, many schools will only require one essay for a re-applicant, which is basically some version of “what has changed to make you a more viable candidate?” This is where you should focus, and hopefully you recognized this task soon enough after your rejection last year so that you have spent the past 12 months making things happen to improve your candidacy. From bettering your GMAT results, to getting a promotion at work, to seeking out new leadership opportunities, there is really no limit to what you can do to improve your profile. If those efforts happen to directly address an identified weakness, even better.

Many schools show favor to re-applicants. Some say your odds go up 30% when you reapply. Maybe schools like the determination they see, or appreciate the demonstration of passion for and commitment to their program. Or perhaps re-applicants simply work harder in the 12 months between seasons to sharpen their attractiveness as a potential MBA candidate. Whether it’s self-fulfilling prophesy or statistical advantage, there are good reasons to try again at your target schools, so long as you give some thoughtful analysis to why you didn’t make it and apply some concerted effort into new achievements to enrich your profile.

Bryant Michaels has over 25 years of professional post undergraduate experience in the entertainment industry as well as on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs. He served on the admissions committee at the Fuqua School of Business where he received his MBA and now works part time in retirement for a top tier business school. He has been consulting with Veritas Prep clients for the past six admissions seasons. See more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Let’s face it. Except for the folks who write the test and prepare you for the test, no one really loves the GMAT. Any anyone who tells you otherwise either scored an 800 with no prep or is lying.

But self-inflicted misery loves company, so in no particular order, let’s take a look at some of the things that suck and more importantly, how to cope:

Integrated Reasoning (IR) : It was introduced a few years ago, and even though multiple surveys and studies show it does correlate well with skills needed to succeed in business and the corporate world, schools still seem to have varying opinions on its value and how best to use it in the admissions process. For now, think of IR as the appetizer or warm-up. It’s tough, but it’s 30 minutes and can serve as a solid warmup before tackling the tougher ‘main course’ of quant and verbal. You wouldn’t start sprinting out of the gates in a race; treat the GMAT the same way, and if you bank some early points, that can’t hurt either.

AWA: Similar to IR, it doesn’t factor into your Total score, and schools differ on how they evaluate the essay. That being said, consider it a pre-pre-warm up, and more importantly, remember that schools can download a copy of your essay when they view your scores. So it’s important to put forth your best effort (now is NOT the time to challenge authority and write what you truly think of the GMAT or B school admissions process) and treat it as another writing sample that schools can use to evaluate your brilliance and creativity under pressure. Also, if English isn’t your first language, it’s absolutely going to be leveraged as an additional writing sample.

Data Sufficiency: This isn’t math, at least not in the sense that you’re used to seeing. What happened to the two trains leaving from separate stations and determining where they’ll meet? While that’s more problem solving, data sufficiency is important for schools to gauge your decision making abilities when you have limited or inaccurate information In a perfect world, you could make informed decisions with an infinite amount of time and all of the necessary details. But the world isn’t ideal, and like the cliché says, time is money. So data sufficiency quantifies what schools want to see: can you discern at what point do you have enough information to make an informed decision or at what point do you not have enough information and need to walk away.

Getting up early/Staying up late/Giving up Happy Hour aka Time Suck: We’ve all heard of FOMO, or “fear of missing out.” You’re likely going to have to make FOMO your new BFF while you’re preparing. In order to get the score you want, it’s important to put forth the effort. Just like training for a marathon or triathlon, you can’t take shortcuts or it’ll show on race day, and only you truly know the full measure of the effort you’re putting forth. So before you even start studying, make sure you’re mapping out a 3-4 month window where you know you can truly carve out time on a daily (regular!) basis to prepare, and more importantly, dedicate quality time to preparation.

Expenses!: The GMAT is expensive! And so is preparation! But if you think about it compared to the investment you’re about to make in your future and your long-term earnings potential, $250 for the test, $20 in bus fare/gas/transportation, and $50 for a celebratory steak after you crush it is a drop in the bucket. In life, there are absolutely times you should clip coupons, look for a better value and skimp on the extras. This is not one of them. Consider the GMAT the first step in a much larger investment in yourself.

It’s not rocket science (if it was, that might be the MCAT, not the GMAT), but it is important to recognize and embrace the challenges of this process. If it was easy, there would be far more individuals taking the GMAT every year (though nearly 250,000 is some decently sized competition). And one day while you’re studying, you’ll realize that while you don’t necessarily love it, the “studying for the GMAT sucks” factor is not quite as strong as it once was. Take that as your reminder to keep your eye on the end game and keep plugging away. Your former self will thank you down the road.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

I remember when I received my first syllabi during my first week of college, I was amazed to discover that most of my professors would be determining grades based solely on two tests: the mid-term and the final. A few professors also included homework or participation points, but these were negligible compared to the tests; at most, they counted for 15% of the final class grade. And in fact, some of my professors – especially those teaching the large lecture classes, which tended to have 100 + students – didn’t even assign homework. In other words, my professors left it entirely up to us students to figure out how we wanted to learn, memorize, and review new material to prepare for the major tests.

At the time, this style of teaching was completely alien to me. In high-school, my teachers had given daily homework and frequent in-class quizzes that they regularly graded, and that they often counted towards approximately 30% of the final class grade. In other words, I was used to a system in which learning was extremely structured, in which I was given constant feedback about my performance, and in which my grade didn’t depend so heavily on just a few tests. But, as soon as I began college, it was up to me to figure out not only how learn and digest new material, but also to monitor my performance so that I’d know if I was ready for test day.

It takes many freshmen a good deal of time to finally adjust to this new college learning environment. To ease your transition, I’ve broken down the major differences between how to study in high school and how to study in college.

1. Give Yourself Homework

In high-school, teachers assign so many in-class exercises and so much daily homework that students naturally begin to absorb new material. In college, this is rarely the case. Although the classes I attended in college varied in size and structure, a “hands-off” teaching style was the norm, whether the class was large or small. In fact, even in the smaller classes I took as an upperclassmen, my professors tended to assign 2-3 intensive research papers during the semester that we students would be graded on, rather than handing out daily worksheets.

Overtime, one of the most valuable skills I learned in college was to “give myself homework”. After I’d been taught new material in class, I’d do something like review my notes and do a mock-quiz with friends who were also in the class with me. Depending on the class, I’d also do things like work on practice problems in my textbooks on my own time, or re-read assigned reading that the professor had discussed in class.

Although giving yourself extra work in college may sound superfluous or fastidious, it in truth helped me maintain a balanced, healthy schedule when I was in college. Rather than saving all my studying until the night before the mid-term – only to discover that I didn’t remember key concepts I’d been taught weeks ago because I’d never reviewed them, or that I didn’t understand certain material after all – I was aware of what concepts I did and didn’t understand, and I was able to split my studying into manageable chunks.

2. Go to Office Hours

In high school, I was able to ask my teachers for help during class – especially when we were doing in-class exercises. In college, most classes consist of lectures and group discussions, so students aren’t able to ask for extensive help during class. However, almost all professors hold what’s called “office hours”, or a set time every week when professors are in their university office and are available to help. One of the biggest mistakes I made as a freshman was skipping these office hours, simply because I was already very busy with just my class schedule. I thought that I didn’t have time to spend my evenings in office hours, as I already spent most of my mornings and afternoons in class, or studying.

However, just as it’s up to college students to monitor their performance, it’s also up to college students to proactively pursue help when they are struggling. If you don’t do well on your mid-term, your professor will not schedule a personal meeting with you – the way high-school teachers often will. If you aren’t understanding key concepts, and you don’t say anything to your professors during office hours, they won’t take the initiative to work through any concepts you aren’t understanding with you, or to show you how to manage the material they’ve said you need to know by test day. But don’t be scared! Although professors tend to take a hands-off approach, they are extremely willing to help – if you ask.

3. Keep Your Professor Informed About Your Essay Topics and Research Materials

Essays and research papers in college are a much bigger deal than essays in high-school. In high-school, teachers often give you almost all of the material you need to write the essay. However, in college, professors often require you to write longer essays that utilize multiple sources from your university library. This means that professors expect you to find your own materials, but that they do give you several weeks advanced notice before a paper is due, so that you can begin your research. During this preliminary period, it’s crucial that you speak to your professor during office hours about what books you plan on using for your paper, as well as what ideas you have for your paper. That way, if you’ve chosen weak evidence, or haven’t fully thought through your own topic, your professor will be able to point you in a better direction.

In sum, the most important thing you will learn in college is not a set of formulas, or a bunch of theories, but how to learn. I know these differences between studying in college and high-school might seem daunting! However, you will find that the extra work you have to do in college will give you a much better sense of who you are and how you think, which is one of the reasons why college truly is a life-time investment.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

The last thing you want to see on your score report at the end of the GMAT is a small number. Whether that number is in the 300s (total score) or in the single-digits (percentile), your nightmares leading up to the test probably include lots of small numbers flashing on the screen as you finish the test. So what’s one of the most helpful tools you have to keep small numbers from appearing on the screen?

Small numbers on your noteboard.

Have you found yourself on a homework problem or practice test asking yourself “can I just multiply these?”? Have you forgotten a rule and wondered whether you could trust your memory? Small numbers can be hugely valuable in these situations. Consider this example:

For integers x and y, 2^x + 2^y = 2^30. What is the sum x + y?

(A) 30

(B) 40

(C) 50

(D) 58

(E) 64

Every fiber of your being might be saying “can I just add x + y and set that equal to 30?” but you’re probably at least unsure whether you can do that. How do you definitively tell whether you can do that? Test the relationship with small numbers. 2^30 is far too big a number to fathom, but 2^6 is much more convenient. That’s 64, and if you wanted to set the problem up that way:

2^x + 2^y = 2^6

You can see that using combinations of x and y that add to 6 won’t work. 2^3 + 2^3 is 8 + 8 = 16 (so not 64). 2^5 + 2^1 is 32 + 2 = 34, which doesn’t work either. 2^4 + 2^2 is 16 + 4 = 20, so that doesn’t work. And 2^0 + 2^6 is 1 + 64 = 65, which is closer but still doesn’t work. Using small numbers you can prove that that step you’re wondering about – just adding the exponents – isn’t valid math, so you can avoid doing it. Small numbers help you test a rule that you aren’t sure about!

That’s one of two major themes with testing small numbers. 1) Small numbers are great for testing rules. And 2) Small numbers are great for finding patterns that you can apply to bigger numbers. To demonstrate that second point about small numbers, let’s return to the problem. 2^30 again is a number that’s too big to deal with or “play with,” but 2^6 is substantially more manageable. If you want to get to:

2^x + 2^y = 2^6, think about the powers of 2 that are less than 2^6:

2^1 = 2

2^2 = 4

2^3 = 8

2^4 = 16

2^5 = 32

2^6 = 64

Here you can just choose numbers from the list. The only two that you can use to sum to 64 are 32 and 32. So the pairing that works here is 2^5 + 2^5 = 2^6. Try that again with another number (what about getting 2^x + 2^y = 2^5? Add 16 + 16 = 32, so 2^4 + 2^4), and you should start to see the pattern. To get 2^x + 2^y to equal 2^z, x and y should each be one integer less than z. So to get back to the bigger numbers in the problem, you should now see that to get 2^x + 2^y to equal 2^30, you need 2^29 + 2^29 = 2^30. So x + y = 29 + 29 = 58, answer choice D.

The lesson? When problems deal with unfathomably large numbers, it can often be quite helpful to test the relationship using small numbers. That way you can see how the pieces of the puzzle relate to each other, and then apply that knowledge to the larger numbers in the problem. The GMAT thrives on abstraction, presenting you with lots of variables and large numbers (often exponents or factorials), but you can counter that abstraction by using small numbers to make relationships and concepts concrete.

So make sure that small numbers are a part of your toolkit. When you’re unsure about a rule, test it with small numbers; if small numbers don’t spit out the result you’re looking for, then that rule isn’t true. But if multiple sets of small numbers do produce the desired result, you can proceed confidently with that rule. And when you’re presented with a relationship between massive numbers and variables, test that relationship using small numbers so that you can teach yourself more concretely what the concept looks like.

The best way to make sure that your GMAT score report contains big numbers? Use lots of small numbers in your scratchwork.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Today let’s discuss the concept of ‘product of the factors of a number’.

From the two posts above, we know that the factors equidistant from the centre multiply to give the number. We also know that the behaviour is a little different for perfect squares. Let’s take two examples to understand this.

Example 1: Say N = 6

Factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, 6

1*6 = 6 (first factor * last factor)

2*3 = 6 (second factor and second last factor)

Product of the four factors of 6 is given by 1*6 * 2*3 = 6*6 = 6^2 = [Sqrt(N)]^4

Example 2: Say N = 25 (a perfect square)

Factors of 25 are 1, 5, 25

1*25 = 25 (first factor * last factor)

5*5 = 25 (middle factor multiplied by itself)

Product of the three factors of 25 is given by 1*25 * 5 = 5^3 = [Sqrt(N)]^3

If a number, N, can be expressed as: 2^a * 3^b * 5^c *…

The total number of factors f = (a+1)*(b+1)*(c+1)…

The product of all factors of N is given by [Sqrt(N)]^f i.e. N^(f/2)

Let’s look at a couple of questions based on this principle:

Question 1: If the product of all the factors of a positive integer, N, is

2^(18) * 3^(12), how many values can N take?

(A) None

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 3

(E) 4

Solution: Since the product of all factors of N has only 2 and 3 as prime factors, N must have two prime factors only: 2 and 3.

Let N = 2^a * 3^b

Given that N^(f/2) = 2^(18) * 3^(12)

(2^a * 3^b)^[(a+1)(b+1)/2] = 2^(18) * 3^(12)

a*(a+1)*(b+1)/2 = 18

b*(a+1)*(b+1)/2 = 12

Dividing the two equations, we get a/b = 3/2

Smallest values: a = 3, b = 2. It satisfies our two equations.

Can we have more values for a and b? Can a = 6 and b = 4? No. Then the product a*(a+1)*(b+1)/2 would be much larger than 18.

So N = 2^3 * 3^2

There is only one such value of N.

Answer (B)

Question 2: If the product of all the factors of a positive integer, N, is 2^9 * 3^9, how many values can N take?

(A) None

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 3

(E) 4

Solution: Since the product of all factors of N has only 2 and 3 as prime factors, N must have two prime factors only: 2 and 3.

Let N = 2^a * 3^b

Given that N^(f/2) = 2^(9) * 3^(9)

(2^a * 3^b)^[(a+1)(b+1)/2] = 2^(9) * 3^(9)

a*(a+1)*(b+1)/2 = 9

b*(a+1)*(b+1)/2 = 9

Dividing the two equations, we get a/b = 1/1

Smallest values: a = 1, b = 1 – Does not satisfy our equation

Next set of values: a = 2, b = 2 – Satisfies our equations

All larger values will not satisfy our equations.

Answer (B)

Note that we can easily use hit and trial in these questions without actually working through the equations.

This is how we will do it:

N^(f/2) = 2^(18) * 3^(12)

Case 1: Assume values of f/2 from common factors of 18 and 12 – say 2

[2^9 * 3^6]^2

Can f/2 = 2 i.e. can f = 4?

If N = 2^9 * 3^6, total number of factors f = (9+1)*(6+1) = 70

This doesn’t work.

Case 2: Assume f/2 is 6

[2^3 * 3^2]^6

Can f/2 = 6 i.e. can f = 12?

If N = 2^3 * 3^2, total number of factors f = (3+1)*(2+1) = 12

This works.

The reason hit and trial isn’t a bad idea is that there will be only one such set of values. If we can quickly find it, we are done.

Why should we then bother to find it at all. Shouldn’t we just answer with option ‘B’ in both cases? Think of a case in which the product of all factors is given as 2^(16) * 3^(14). Will there be any value of N in such a case?

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Application season at the NYU Stern School of Business is officially underway with the release of the school’s 2015-2016 essay questions.

Let’s discuss from a high level some early thoughts on how best to approach these new essay prompts.

Essay 1: Professional Aspirations

Why pursue an MBA (or dual degree) at this point in your life? What actions have you taken to determine that Stern is the best fit for your MBA experience? What do you see yourself doing professionally upon graduation? (750 words)

This is a very multi-layered essay coming from Stern that provides the candidate a great opportunity to share their professional game plan and why Stern is a key element to this game plan. The two essays are naturally structured to give candidates a chance to touch on both the professional and the personal side of their application. The way this prompt is worded signals that applicants should touch on the past a bit to provide context to what has brought the applicant to this point in their professional journey.

Stern is looking for a few things in this essay. First, it must be apparent that you have a clear understanding of where you come from and where you are going professionally. Stern is looking for self-reflective applicants who are clear on their professional aspirations. Addressing the concept of “Why Now” is a critical element in drafting a successful essay. Second, it must not only be clear of the candidate’s interest in the Stern MBA, but also what steps the candidate has taken to identify and realize this fit. Stern is looking for specifics here, so don’t shy away from the details about your primary and secondary research.

The rationale and the likelihood of success in reaching these identified career goals, given matriculation to Stern, is also a key aspect of how the school will evaluate candidates. Connecting these uniquely personal development goals to the unique offerings of the Stern MBA is critical to showcasing fit with the program.

Essay 2: Personal Expression

Please describe yourself to your MBA classmates. You may use almost any method to convey your message (e.g. words, illustrations). Feel free to be creative.

Similar to open-ended essay prompts at other elite programs, Stern wants to know who you are. Stern provides a bit of an alternative approach to this new trend by allowing applicants the chance to respond to the question across various multi-media options. If some of the alternative options work better for the narrative you are trying to communicate, then this could be a unique and creative approach to answering the question.

This essay feels like an obvious area to focus on more personal elements that would be relevant to someone whom you are about spend a lot of time with over the next two years. This essay is a natural area to show off your interpersonal skills and how you plan to utilize them while working closely with your classmates.

Think creatively about how you plan to share your response even if you are only using words. Creativity is not only limited to the medium – how you structure and organize your response could be another interesting way to stand out.

Just a few thoughts on the new essays from Stern, hopefully this will help you get started.

If you are considering applying to NYU Stern, download our Essential Guide to NYU Stern, one of our 14 guides to the world’s top business schools. Ready to start building your applications for Stern and other top MBA programs? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today. As always, be sure to find us on Facebook and Google+, and follow us on Twitter!

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

We often get asked by clients how many times they should take the GMAT before they move on to other components of the application. Of course this largely depends on your score, but if you find yourself disappointed with your initial test results, you will generally want to try again.

Broadly speaking, schools don’t really care how many times you take the test, and will only consider your highest score. Know that they won’t combine separate components into one score, but will consider your best overall score from one sitting as your “application score.”

Having said that, it is also generally agreed upon that schools don’t want to see applicants taking the exam a dozen times. This can communicate negative qualities to the admissions committee such as poor time management skills, slow learner syndrome, or good old fashioned poor judgment or misalignment of priorities.

So how many times? Three is the number we hear most often as acceptable or reasonable. Schools tend to think that if you haven’t achieved your max or close to it in three tries, you may be left behind in a typical b-school curriculum. Now, don’t panic if you have already taken the test four or five times. This is not the kind of thing that will get you rejected. If a candidate who has taken the GMAT five times is not admitted, I can almost guarantee it was for other reasons. Still, schools like to see folks practicing within conventions, just like they want to see that you can craft a one page resume or stay within the word count on an essay.

While the most common question on this topic is about how many times are too many, there can also be a big question around whether or not taking the exam only once is enough. This question must focus a bit more on one’s score. If you exceeded the average for the school to which you are applying, you’re “done with one.” But if your score came in under the average, or you felt you did worse than your true potential, you should consider re-taking. We don’t like to tell clients that the average GMAT score at a particular school is a mandatory hurdle, and actually point most often to the 80% range of scores at the schools as a better measure, but if you only take the test once and score noticeably below the average, it may be sending the message that you are not up for the challenge, or cannot manage your time well enough to prepare to do better.

In short, you should take the GMAT at least twice if your score is below your target school’s average, but no more than three times unless there are extenuating circumstances. If your score still falls short in your mind, it’s time to move on to other ways you can offset it in your application.

Bryant Michaels has over 25 years of professional post undergraduate experience in the entertainment industry as well as on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs. He served on the admissions committee at the Fuqua School of Business where he received his MBA and now works part time in retirement for a top tier business school. He has been consulting with Veritas Prep clients for the past six admissions seasons. See more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

In many of the great business school application essays, candidates who are able to leverage creative writing tactics as the baseline for their essay responses create breakthrough essays. Now business school essays should remain polished and professional, but breakthrough essays tend to create a compelling and visual portrait of the situation and circumstances addressed with a response to an essay prompt.

Mini-stories are a great way to ensure you are capturing all of the most interesting and engaging aspects of your profile. The thought behind these mini-stories is that they should be designed to be independent of the essay questions asked by schools. Select stories that reflect the four dimensions of Leadership, Innovation, Teamwork and Maturity emphasized by many MBA programs that you can later apply to the specific essay questions asked from each school. The focus should be on highlighting your strongest and most in-depth personal, professional, and extra-curricular life experiences.

One of the most valuable aspects of creating mini-stories is that you don’t necessarily need any external information. The process is entirely about you and your background, so whether it is in the heart of application season or during a quieter period like the springtime, a candidate can create these valuable anecdotes.

When identifying these stories, don’t limit them to only one aspect of your profile. Include anecdotes from undergrad, extra-curricular activities, work experience, and personal life to develop a diverse array of talking points for potential essay responses. Aim for 5-8 mini-stories covering a diverse set of experiences.

With each story, include a short description and some supporting bullets describing some of the players involved and why the situation was transformative to you, focusing especially on its impact and what you learned from the experience. Remember, what is most important in these mini-stories is the “how” and not just the “what”. Think critically about your thought process in each scenario and the impact of your decisions.

The best essays combine multiple personal elements and touch on different characteristics and skills developed. For the sake of this exercise you want to briefly summarize how the main takeaways and characteristics are represented in the story. Once these mini-stories are completed and the essay topics are available, the next step is to match relevant stories to essay topics.

Utilize this structured and creative approach to most effectively tackle those daunting business school essays and create breakthrough essays that will stand out in the application process.

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Triangles are one of the first shapes that we learn in elementary school, and yet they are often the source of much consternation on the SAT. Though there is much to know about trigonometry that can require complex and intricate calculations, the knowledge of triangles required for the SAT is actually quite concise. Here is a quick review of the basics of triangles and how they might be used on the SAT.

The Basics:

A triangle has three sides and three angles. All the interior angles of a triangle add up to 180 degrees. In math speak : A + B + C = 180. This means if you have two angles of any triangle, you can always find the third (something that comes up frequently on the SAT). The largest side is opposite the largest angle and the smallest side is opposite the smallest angle.

Pythagorean Theorem:

This is only useful for right triangles, but right triangles are great on the SAT because they give you all the information needed to find the area of a triangle (which, of course, is ½ A *B, or ½ base * height). The pythagorean theorem states: A² + B² = C², which means if you have two sides of a right triangle, you can always find the third. Common right triangles that have easy to remember side ratios are triangles with a 3x-4x-5x relationship, and a 5x-12x-13x relationship. These Pythagorean triples are useful because if two of the sides of a right triangle have this side relationship, the third must follow suit. For example if two sides of a right triangle are 10 and 8, then the third side must be 6 {6-8-10 is the same as 3(2) – 4(2) – 5(2), hence the “x” in the paragraph above}.

Special Triangles:

Identifying these special triangles saves a step when doing the work of the Pythagorean theorem. An equilateral triangle, when split in half, becomes a 30 – 60 – 90 triangle, which has the side relationship shown above of X – X √3 – 2X, where X is the side opposite the 30 degree angle.

If you cut a square in half you get an isosceles, right triangle or a 45 – 45 – 90 triangle. This has the side relationship S – S – S√2, where is one of the sides opposite the 45 degree angle. These special triangles are given on the formula sheet of the SAT but it is very useful to commit them to memory, as it is quite time consuming to constantly refer to the formula sheet when you think you have encountered a special triangle.

An interesting characteristic of the sides of triangles is as follows:

If A=5 and B= 8, then 3 < C < 13. C must be between 3 and 13.In triangle ABC, |B-C| < A < |B+C|. This is to say, any side on a triangle must be between the absolute value of the sum and the difference of the other sides of the triangle.

Here is an example question that will use some triangle knowledge:

“A rectangular pasture has twelve equally spaced poles on its southern border, and sixteen equally spaced poles on its eastern border. A diagonal pathway from the eastern corner of the pasture to the center of the pasture is 40 ft. How many feet of fencing would be required to build a fence around the entire pasture?”

The first step is always to draw and label what is given. We are given a rectangular pasture that has twelve equally spaced poles on its southern border, and sixteen equally spaced poles on its eastern border. We label the distance between poles as X and we notice that we now have two sides of a triangle, one 12x and one 16x.

We remember the rules of Pythagorean triples and deduce that the diagonal of this triangle would have to be 20x. We then look for what the problem is asking us to find. We have to find the perimeter of the pasture, but all that is given is the length of a pathway from the eastern corner of the pasture to the center of the pasture.

AHA! We now know the length of HALF of the distance of the diagonal of the rectangular pasture! We also know that the FULL diagonal is 20x. We set up a simple equation to solve for X, remembering to double the length given from the center to the corner of the field.

2(40) = 20x

80 = 20x

x = 4

We then use our answer for X to find the length and width of the pasture and add everything together, remembering to multiply the length and width by two, to find the perimeter.

16 (4) = L = 64

12 (4) = W = 48

2W +2L = 2(64) + 2(48) = 224

Voila! The perimeter of the whole field is 224ft, so that is how much fencing will be needed.

Triangles are a very useful tool that is often used in tandem with other math shapes and concepts on the SAT. Through an understanding of triangles, one can develop a greater understanding of many difficult problems on the SAT.

David Greenslade is a Veritas Prep SAT instructor based in New York. His passion for education began while tutoring students in underrepresented areas during his time at the University of North Carolina. After receiving a degree in Biology, he studied language in China and then moved to New York where he teaches SAT prep and participates in improv comedy. Read more of his articles here, including How I Scored in the 99th Percentile and How to Effectively Study for the SAT.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Application season at the University of Michigan’s Ross MBA program is officially underway with the release of the school’s 2015-2016 essay questions. Let’s discuss from a high level some early thoughts on how best to approach these new essay prompts.

Essay 1:

What are you most proud of and why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words)

This is a typical “accomplishment” essay, and with the limited word count it would be wise to focus on one accomplishment in the most direct fashion possible.

Dig deep as you identify what topic to discuss as these types of open-ended questions give applicants an opportunity to really differentiate themselves from the competition. Breakthrough applicants will align their personal, professional, or academic stories around some of the relevant values expressed by the Ross MBA.

Don’t be afraid to select a topic that extends outside of your professional career. Many candidates will opt to go the professional route, so consider “zigging” when the rest “zag.” Remember admissions committees will be reading a lot of essays so stand out by allowing them to explore a topic a bit more unique then the mundane. Also, keep in mind that you will have time to talk about your professional career and highlight some of your past accomplishments via the second essay.

Finally, don’t think if your accomplishment does not involve $100 million in savings or climbing Mount Kilimanjaro that your response will not be well received. What makes your response to this question relevant is the impact this accomplishment had to YOU.

Essay 2:

What is your desired career path and why? (400 words)

This is a traditional “career goals” essay. This type of question should come as no surprise to any candidate applying to business school. In fact, your response to this question should involve what initially drove your interest in business school to begin with, so Ross will be expecting a pretty polished essay here.

Many candidates will write generic essays outlining their career goals that could be relevant to any MBA program. What will separate breakthrough candidates from the masses is how personalized the essay reads. Ross will be looking for you to combine your well thought out career goals with specifics on how you plan to utilize their program to reach these goals. Also, if relevant, connect your goals to an underlying passion you have for the role or industry. This will make your interest more tangible and highlight underlying elements of your personal story.

Just a few thoughts on the new batch of essays from Ross that should help you get started.

If you are considering applying to NYU Stern, download our Essential Guide to NYU Stern, one of our 14 guides to the world’s top business schools. Ready to start building your applications for Stern and other top MBA programs? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today. As always, be sure to find us on Facebook and Google+, and follow us on Twitter!

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

I currently work at a top business school and am therefore able to keep my finger right on the pulse of b-school trends. Earlier this week, I had a discussion with our Director of Admissions about the GRE. It seems that over the past several years, there has been a subtle migration away from GMAT exclusivity among the top b-schools for several reasons.

Firstly, there has been overall a pretty remarkable downward trend in application volume. This drop in number of applications has put a dent on revenues for schools as well as in the overall quality of the application pool. It makes sense: fewer applicants generally will mean fewer top applicants (not always true, but in this case, the percentage of good, better and best applicants seems to hold pretty constant no matter how many applicants there are in total). Neither result is attractive to these top schools.

One way to combat the drop in application volume is to try and reach outside the normal circles for folks who might think of applying to b-school who perhaps would not have in the past. Accepting the GRE instead of the GMAT is one way top schools have broadened their search. Because the GRE is widely considered a more “accessible” test for the general graduate school population, it has never in the past been given serious consideration by the b-schools, who are in agreement that the GMAT is a better indicator of b-school success. Granted, the GRE does not have a large enough statistical base to test its predictability for b-school success yet, but old traditions die hard.

Enter Harvard, Stanford and Wharton, the first and last bastion of high quality business school reputations. Certainly if you are Harvard, Stanford or Wharton, your reputation will not be dampened using any test for admission (even “guess how many fingers I am holding up behind my back?”) — the point is, no matter what these super elite schools do, their rankings will likely not suffer. So, they started accepting GRE scores in lieu of GMATs. This did indeed give them a broader look at those interested in graduate school and has enticed more students to choose b-school as their graduate education path. As could probably have been predicted, so goes H/S/W, so goes the rest of the b-school world, and sure enough, over the past several years, more and more schools have been quietly accepting GRE scores.

So which test should you use as part of your application package? If your target school accepts the GRE, should you use that instead of the (some argue more difficult) GMAT? This is indeed the question. In some respects, the GRE is a tempting alternative. For starters, it’s about $100 cheaper to take the test, which for some post-college, recession-damaged applicants, is real money. Additionally, the test is not quite as rigorous on the quantitative side, making it for some, a less punishing preparation process.

There is also the argument that it could help you stand out in the crowd, since with fewer applicants submitting GRE scores, you force yourself out of the general application pool and into a category which will require the admissions committee to consider you separately from the crowd. Is this true? The Admissions Director I spoke with said it makes no difference whether someone submits the GMAT or the GRE, but I argued that simply due to the new nature of the discussion, there will naturally be more attention drawn to applicants with GREs.

This could be simply a psychological phenomenon, and of course the risk is that the lack of reliable data out there with which to compare scores could put applicants in a no-man’s land without any real evidence of aptitude. At least with the GMAT, the scores are very well established and everyone knows what a 550 means vs. a 650 or 750. As more GRE scores show up in admissions committee evaluations, we will begin to establish some better standards for exactly what a good score is as compared to the GMAT, but as for now, it’s really anybody’s guess what that score should be.

The other challenge for b-schools who are now accepting the GRE is what to do with the scores when the time comes to tally statistics for rankings. The GMAC as well as the BW and US News rankings boards have indicated that schools need only list whether or not they accept the GRE, and are presently not required to report their average scores (which in the case of some schools, could be the average of as few as one or two applicants’ scores).

Again, as more data comes online, we may start seeing a dual category, with schools listing both their GMAT average and their GRE average. I wouldn’t bet on this, however. The same b-school traditions and history which established the GMAT in the first place will be hard to sway in another direction. The computer adaptability of the GMAT test and other technological advances it has made vs. the GRE is keeping it in a position of superiority for now.

In the final analysis, I would say that if the GMAT is kicking your tail, you might at least try your hand at the GRE, just to see if perhaps the test better meets with your abilities. If your target schools accept the GRE for admission and your score on the GRE is impressive, who knows? You might just be able to “slip in through the back door” while other applicants who are relying on mediocre GMAT scores get lost in the proverbial shuffle.

Bryant Michaels has over 25 years of professional post undergraduate experience in the entertainment industry as well as on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs. He served on the admissions committee at the Fuqua School of Business where he received his MBA and now works part time in retirement for a top tier business school. He has been consulting with Veritas Prep clients for the past six admissions seasons. See more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Obtaining an MBA degree is one of the most transformative experiences that a businessperson can undertake. Many articles are written that tout the value of this degree, with current MBA students and alums reflecting on the beneficial impact business school has had on both their professional and personal lives and all of the good reasons one should pursue an MBA. But is this degree for everyone?

I’d like to take a look at the other side of this equation and discuss some bad reasons for getting an MBA. Pursuing an MBA can be one of the toughest decisions a young professional has to make, so it is even more important to make it for the right reasons in order to avoid other potentially negative implications.

Consider the three aspects listed below as you decide whether you are at risk of pursuing an MBA for all of the wrong reasons:

1) Money

Is the only reason you are applying to business school to make more money? Now, there is nothing wrong with wanting to make more money – this is a legitimate goal for all working professionals – but if that is your primary goal, you may be setting yourself up for disappointment. This goal can be problematic because with business recruiting, there are no guarantees that you will actually make more money in the end. Often times, MBAs who solely focus on making more money target high paying industries such as management consulting and investment banking that may not necessarily fit with their true career development goals or personalities. Not reaching salary goals after business school is a common complaint from alums that pursue MBA degrees for non-holistic reasons.

2) Prestige

MBA programs are looking for the best and the brightest young professionals, and many applicants are pursuing the MBA programs with the best reputations. Of course, there is nothing wrong with pursuing top-tier programs, but when interest is more about prestige and arrogance and less about fit, potential issues can arise. My advice here is to focus on the highest ranked programs that align best to your development needs and represent a numerical and cultural fit.

3) Boredom

Are you just bored with your current job? This is a very common scenario for many applicants who see business school as a way out. MBA programs are looking for candidates who are running towards something, not away from something. If your interest in truly pursuing an MBA is not honest, no matter the program you attend you will continue to search for “what’s next.”

Utilize the tips above to help you decide if right now is the best time for you to apply to business school.

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

You clicked, didn’t you? You’re helpless when presented with an enumerated list and a teaser that at least one of the items is advertised to be – but probably won’t be – mind-blowing. (In this case it kind of is…if not mind-blowing, it’s at least very powerful). So in this case, let’s use click bait for good and enumerated lists to talk about numbers. Here are 10 important (and “BuzzFeedy”) divisibility rules you should know heading into the GMAT:

1) 1

1 may be the loneliest number but it’s also a very important number for divisibility! Every integer is divisible by 1, and the result of any integer x divided by 1 is just x (when you divide an integer by 1, it stays the same). On the GMAT, the fact that every integer is divisible by 1 can be quite important. For example, a question might ask (as at least one official problem does): Does integer x have any factors y such that 1 < y < x?

Because every integer is divisible by itself and 1, that question is really just asking, “Is x prime or not?” because if there is a factor y that’s between 1 and x, x is not prime, and there is not such a factor, then x is prime. That “> 1″ caveat in the problem may seem obtuse, but when you understand divisibility by 1, you can see that the abstract question stem is really just asking you about prime vs. not-prime as a number property. The concept that all integers are divisible by 1 may seem basic, but keeping it top of mind on the GMAT can be extremely helpful.

2) 2

It takes 2 to make a thing go right…in relationships and on the GMAT! A number is divisible by 2 if that number is even (and a number is even if it’s divisible by 2). That means that if an integer ends in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8, you know that it’s divisible by 2. And here’s a somewhat-surprising fact: the number 0 is even! 0 is divisible by 2 with no remainder (0/2 = 0), so although 0 is neither positive nor negative it fits the definition of even and should therefore be something you keep in mind because 0 is such a unique number.

The GMAT frequently tests even/odd number properties, so you should make a point to get to know them. Because any even number is divisible by 2 (which also means that it can be written as 2 times an integer), an even number multiplied by any integer will keep 2 as a factor and remain even. So even x even = even and even x odd = even.

3) 3

It’s been said that good things come in 3s, and divisibility rules are no exception! The divisibility rule for 3 works much like a magic trick and is one that you should make sure is top of mind on test day to save you time and help you unravel tricky numbers. The rule: if you sum the digits of an integer and that sum is divisible by 3, then that integer is divisible by 3. For example, consider the integer 219. 2 + 1 + 9 = 12 which is divisible by 3, so you know that 219 is divisible by 3 (it’s 3 x 73).

This rule can help you in many ways. If you were asked to determine whether a number is prime, for example, and you can see that the sum of the digits is a multiple of 3, you know immediately that it’s not prime without having to do the long division to prove it. Or if you had a messy fraction to reduce and noticed that both the numerator and denominator are divisible by 3, you can use that rule to begin reducing the fraction quickly. The GMAT tests factors, multiples, and divisibility quite a bit, so this is a critical rule to have at your disposal to quickly assess divisibility. And since 1 out of every 3 integers is divisible by 3, this rule will help you out frequently!

4) 4

Presidential Election and Summer Olympics enthusiasts, be four-warned! You already know the divisibility rule for 4: take the last two digits of an integer and treat them as a two-digit number, and if that’s divisible by 4 so is the whole number. So for 2016 – next year and that of the next presidential election and Brazil Olympics – the last two-digit number, 16, is divisible by 4, so you know that 2016 is also divisible by 4.

If you fail to see immediately that a number is divisible by 4 given that rule, fear not! Being divisible by 4 just means that a number is divisible by 2 twice. So if you didn’t immediately see that you could factor a 4 out of 2016 (it’s 504 x 4), you could divide by 2 (2 x 1008) and then divide by 2 again (2 x 2 x 504) and end up in the same place without too much more work.

5) 5

Who needs only 5 fingers to divide by 5? All of us – divisibility by 5 is so easy you should be able to do it with one hand tied behind your back! If an integer ends in 5 or 0 you know that it’s divisible by 5 (and we’ll talk more about what extra fact 0 tells you in just a bit…).

6) 6

Your favorite character from the hit 1990’s NBC sitcom “Blossom” is also an easy-to-use divisibility rule! Since 6 is just the product of 2 and 3 (2 x 3 = 6), if a number meets the divisibility rules for both 2 (it’s even) and 3 (the sum of the digits is divisible by 3) it’s divisible by 6. So if you need to reduce a number like 324, you might want to start by dividing by 6, instead of by 2 or 3, so that you can factor it in fewer steps.

7) 7

Ah, magnificent 7. While there is a “trick” for divisibility by 7, 7 occurs much less frequently in divisibility-based problems (as do other primes like 11, 13, 17, etc.), so 7 is a good place to begin to think about a strategy that works for all numbers, rather than memorizing limited-use tricks for each number. To test whether a large number, such as 231, is divisible by 7, find an obvious multiple of 7 nearby and then add or subtract multiples of 7 to see whether doing so will land on that number. For 231, you should recognize that a nearby multiple of 7 is 210 (you know 21 is 7 x 3, so putting a 0 on the end of it just means that 210 is 7 x 30). Then as you add 7s to get there, you go to 217, then to 224, then to 231. So in your head you can see that 231 is 3 more 7s than 7 x 30 (which you know is 210), so 231 = 7 x 33.

8) 8

8 is enough! As you saw above with 4s and 6s, when you start working with non-prime factors it’s often easier to just divide out the smaller prime factors one at a time than to try to determine divisibility by a larger composite number in one fell swoop. Since 8 = 2 x 2 x 2, you’ll likely find more success testing for divisibility by 8 by just dividing by 2, then dividing by 2 again, then dividing by 2 a third time. So for a number like 312, rather than working through long division to divide by 8, just divide it in half (156) then in half again (78) then in half again (39), and you’ll know that 312 = 39 x 8.

9) 9

While “nein” may be German for “no,” you should be saying “yes” to divisibility by nine! 9 shares a big similarity with 3 in that a sum-of-the-digits rule applies here too. If you sum the digits of an integer and that sum is a multiple of 9, the integer is also divisible by 9. So, for example, with the number 729, because 7 + 2 + 9 = 18, you know that 729 is divisible by 9 (it’s 81 x 9, which actually is 9 to the 3rd power).

10) 10

We’ve saved the best for last! If a number ends in 0, it’s divisible by 10, giving you a great opportunity to make the math easy. For example, a number like 210 (which you saw above) lets you pull the 0 aside and say that it’s 21 x 10, which means that it’s 3 x 7 x 10.

Working with 10s makes mental (or pencil-and-paper) math quick and convenient, so you should seek out opportunities to use such numbers in your calculations. For example, look at 693: If you add 7, you get to a number that ends in two 0s (so it’s 7 x 10 x 10), meaning that you know that 693 is divisible by 7 (it’s 7 away from an easy multiple of 7) *and* that it’s 7 x 99 because it’s one less 7 than 7 x 100. Because the GMAT rewards quick mental math, it’s a good idea to quickly check for, “If I have to add x to get to the nearest 0, then does that give me a multiple of x?” (297 is 3 away from 300, so you know that 297 = 99 x 3). And since 10 = 2 x 5, it’s also helpful sometimes to double a number that ends in 5 (try 215, which times 2 = 430) to see how many 10s you have (43). That tells you that 215 = 43 x 5 because 215 x 2 = 43 x (2 x 5). Working with 10s can make mental math extremely quick – we’d rate numbers that end in 0 a perfect 10!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Application season at Stanford GSB is officially underway with the release of the school’s 2015-2016 essay questions. Let’s discuss from a high level some early thoughts on how best to approach these new essay prompts.

Essay 1:

What matters most to you, and why? (750 words)

The dreaded Stanford open-ended essay prompt has been one of the most feared parts of the school’s application process for years. For many students the more open the prompt the higher the anxiety – couple this with the inherent pressure that results from applying to Stanford, and many students derail their chances of success before they even put pen to paper. Many students struggle with how to tackle this type of essay question and with Stanford, it’s best to follow the direction provided by the Admissions Committee.

The “what” of your essay is less important than the “why.” Stanford GSB, as much as any other program, truly wants to know who you are. So give them the chance by offering up some direct insight into who you are as a person. Introspection is key in this essay, and walking the AdComm through the “what” of the question, as well as why you are uniquely motivates by this “what”, will serve to humanize your candidacy and make your response more personal. Stanford strives to admit people, not just GMAT scores or GPAs, so make sure you let them into your world. Breakthrough candidates will utilize structured storytelling effects to craft a compelling narrative that brings the Stanford AdComm deep into the candidate’s world.

This essay honestly at its core is about getting to know you, so don’t miss the opportunity by trying to craft the perfect answer for what you feel the AdComm wants to read.

Essay 2:

Why Stanford? (400 words)

This is a typical “Why School X Question,” however, you will want to avoid the typical boilerplate response with Stanford and dive a bit deeper here. Think of this prompt in two parts: “Why MBA?” and “Why Specifically a Stanford MBA?” Be specific and connect your personal and professional development goals to the unique programs at Stanford that are relevant to your success. Breakthrough candidates will not only select clear, well-aligned goals, but will connect these goals with a personal passion that makes their candidacy feel bigger than just business. Now do not reach here, the more authentic this personal passion is the better it will connect with the AdComm, but for years Stanford has maintained a track record of looking for something a bit different in their candidates.

Just a few thoughts on the new essays from Stanford, hopefully this will help you get started. For more thoughts on Stanfords’s deadlines and essays, check out another post here.

If you are considering applying to Stanford GSB, download our Essential Guide to Stanford, one of our 14 guides to the world’s top business schools. Ready to start building your applications for Stern and other top MBA programs? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today. As always, be sure to find us on Facebook and Google+, and follow us on Twitter!

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more of his articles here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

A lot of GMAT test takers complain about insufficient time. This is understandable as far as the Verbal section is concerned. We all have different reading speeds and that itself accounts for a lot of time issues in the Verbal section. Obviously then there are other factors – your comfort with the language, your comprehension skills, your conceptual understanding of the Verbal question types, etc.

However, timing issues should not arise in the Quant section. Your reading speed has very little effect on the overall timing scheme because most of the time during the Quant section is spent in solving the question. So if you are falling short on time, it means the methods you are using are not appropriate. We have said it before and will say it again – most GMAT Quant questions can be done in under one minute if you just look for the right thing.

For example, of the four listed numbers below, which number is the greatest and which is the least?

2/3

2^2/3^2

2^3/3^3

Sqrt(2)/Sqrt(3)

Now, how much time you take to solve this depends on how you approach this problem. If you get into ugly calculations, you will end up wasting a ton of time.

2/3 = .667

2^2/3^2 = 4/9 = .444

2^3/3^3 = 8/27 = .296

Sqrt(2)/Sqrt(3) = 1.414/1.732 = .816

So we know that the greatest is Sqrt(2)/Sqrt(3) and the least is 2^3/3^3. We got the answer but we wasted at least 2-3 mins in getting it.

We can do the same thing very quickly. We know that the squares/cubes/roots etc of numbers vary according to where the numbers lie on the number line.

2/3 lies in between 0 and 1, as does 1/4.

The Sqrt(1/4) = 1/2, which is greater than 1/4, so we know that the Sqrt(2/3) will be greater than 2/3 as well.

Also, the square and cube of 1/4 is less than 1/4, so the square and cube of 2/3 will also be less than 2/3. So the comparison will look like this:

(2/3)^3 < (2/3)^2 < 2/3 < Sqrt(2/3)

That is all you need to do! We arrived at the same answer using less than 30 secs.

Using this technique, let’s solve a question:

Which of the following represents the greatest value?

Such a question can baffle someone who believes in calculating everything. We know better than that!

Note that the base values in all the options are 3/5, 5/7 and 7/9. This should hint that we need to compare term to term and not the entire expressions. Also, all values lie between 0 and 1 so they will behave the same way.

Sqrt(3)/Sqrt(5) is the same as Sqrt(3/5). The square root of a number between 0 and 1 is greater than the number itself.

3^2/5^2 is the same as (3/5)^2. The square (and cube) of a number between 0 and 1 is less than the number itself.

So, the comparison will look like this:

(3/5)^3 < (3/5)^2 < 3/5 < Sqrt(3/5)

(5/7)^3 < (5/7)^2 < 5/7 < Sqrt(5/7)

(7/9)^3 < (7/9)^2 < 7/9 < Sqrt(7/9)

This means that out of (A), (B), (C) and (D), the greatest one is (A).

Now we just need to analyse (E) and compare it with (B).

The first term is the same, 3/5.

The last term is the same, 7/9.

The only difference is that (B) has 5/7 in the middle and (E) has 1 – 5/7 = 2/7 in the middle. So (E) is certainly less than (B).

We already know that (A) is greater than (B), so we can say that (A) must be the greatest value.

A quick recap of important number properties:

Case 1: N > 1

N^2, N^3, etc. will be greater than N.

The Sqrt(N) and the CubeRoot(N) will be less than N.

The relation will look like this:

… CubeRoot(N) < Sqrt(N) < N < N^2 < N^3 …

Case II: 0 < N < 1

N^2, N^3 etc will be less than N.

The Sqrt(N) and the CubeRoot(N) will be greater than N.

The relation will look like this:

… N^3 < N^2 < N < Sqrt(N) < CubeRoot(N) …

Case III: -1 < N < 0

Even powers will be greater than N and positive; Odd powers will be greater than N but negative.

The square root will not be defined, and the cube root of N will be less than N.

CubeRoot(N) < N < N^3 < 0 < N^2

Case IV: N < -1

Even powers will be greater than N and positive; Odd powers will be less than N.

The square root will not be defined, and the cube root of N will be greater than N.

N^3 < N < CubeRoot(N) < 0 < N^2

Note that you don’t need to actually remember these relations, just take a value in each range and you will know how all the numbers in that range behave.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

One of my favorite topics to teach is remainders. We learn about remainders in grade school and when I introduce the topic in class, the response is often amused incredulity. It isn’t hard to see that when 16 is divided by 7, the remainder is 2. How can it possibly be the case that something we learned in fifth grade is included on a test that helps determine where we go to graduate school?

But in mathematics, seemingly basic topics often have broader applications. So let’s consider both simple and complex applications of remainders on the GMAT. The most straightforward scenario is for the question to ask what the remainder is in a given context. We’ll start by looking at an official Data Sufficiency question of moderate difficulty:

What is the remainder when x is divided by 3?

1) The sum of the digits of x is 5

2) When x is divided by 9, the remainder is 2

Pretty straightforward question. In Statement 1, we could approach by simply picking numbers. If the sum of the digits of x is 5, x could be 14. When 14 is divided by 3, the remainder is 2. Similarly, x could be 32. When 32 is divided by 3, the remainder will again be 2. Or x could be 50, and still, the remainder when x is divided by 3 will be 2. So no matter what number we pick, the remainder will always be 2. Statement 1 alone is sufficient.

Note that if we know the rule for divisibility by 3 – if the digits of a number sum to a multiple of 3, the number itself is a multiple of 3 – we can reason this out without picking numbers. If the sum of the digits of x were exactly 3, the remainder would be 0. If the sum of the digits of x were 4, then logically, the remainder would be 1. Consequently, if the sum of the digits of x were 5, the remainder would have to be 2.

Again, in Statement 2, we can pick numbers. We’re told that when x is divided by 9, the remainder is 2. To quickly generate a list of numbers that we might test, we can start with multiples of 9: 9, 18, 27, 36, etc. Then, we can add two to each of those multiples of 9 to get the following list of numbers: 11, 20, 29, 38, etc. All of these numbers will give us a remainder of 2 when divided by 9. Now we can test them. If x is 11, when x is divided by 3, the remainder will be 2. If x is 20, when x is divided by 3, the remainder will be 2. We’ll quickly see that the remainder will always be 2, so Statement 2 is also sufficient on its own. The answer to this question is D, either statement alone is sufficient. That’s not too bad.

But the GMAT won’t always be so conspicuous about what category of math it’s testing. Take this more challenging question, for example:

June 25, 1982 fell on a Friday. On which day of the week did June 25, 1987 fall. (Note: 1984 was a leap year.)

A) Sunday

B) Monday

C) Tuesday

D) Wednesday

E) Thursday

If you’re anything like my students, it’s not blindingly obvious that this is a remainder question in disguise. But that is precisely what we’re dealing with. Consider a very simple case. Say that June 1 is a Monday, and I want to know what day of the week it will be 14 days later. Clearly, that would also be a Monday. And if I asked you what day of the week it would be 16 days later, you’d know that it would be a Wednesday – two days after Monday. Put another way – because we’re dealing with weeks, or increments of 7 – all we need to do is divide the number of days elapsed by 7 and then find the remainder in order to determine the day of the week. 16 divided by 7 gives a remainder of 2, so if June 1 is a Monday, 16 days later must be 2 days after Monday.

Suddenly the aforementioned question is considerably more approachable. From June 25, 1982 to June 25, 1983 a total of 365 days will pass. 365/7 gives a remainder of 1, so if June 25, 1982 was a Friday, June 25 1983 will be a Saturday. From June 25, 1983 to June 25, 1984, 366 days will pass because 1984 is a leap year. 366/7 gives a remainder of 2, so if June 25, 1983 was a Saturday, June 25, 1984 will be 2 days later, or Monday. We already know that in a typical 365 day year, the remainder will be 1, so June 25, 1985 will be Tuesday, June 25, 1986 will be Wednesday and June 25, 1987 will be Thursday, which is our answer.

Takeaway: the challenge of the GMAT isn’t necessarily that questions are asking you to do difficult math, but that it can be hard to figure out what the questions are asking you to do. When you encounter something that seems unfamiliar or strange, remind yourself that virtually every problem you encounter will involve the application of a concept considerably simpler than the nebulous wording the question might suggest.

*Official Guide questions courtesy of the Graduate Management Admissions Council.

By David Goldstein, a Veritas Prep GMAT instructor based in Boston. You can find more articles by him here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors