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# Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is

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Senior SC Moderator
Joined: 22 May 2016
Posts: 3681
Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 23:05
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Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

73% (01:12) correct 27% (01:18) wrong based on 208 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 204: Sentence Correction (SC2)

Defining a medical practitioner as “any individual whose occupation is basically concerned with the care of the sick,” the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers.

A) the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers

B) the women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated to be 60 in 1560 according to the researchers

C) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in in the city of London at 60 in 1560

D) in 1560, the number of women medical practitioners was estimated to be 60 in the city of London by the researchers

E) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London to be 60 in 1560

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Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 23:06
5
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 204: Sentence Correction (SC2)

Quote:
Defining a medical practitioner as “any individual whose occupation is basically concerned with the care of the sick,” the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers.

A) the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers

B) the women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated to be 60 in 1560 according to the researchers

C) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London at 60 in 1560

D) in 1560, the number of women medical practitioners was estimated to be 60 in the city of London by the researchers

E) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London to be 60 in 1560

• Split #1: the introductory phrase modifies researchers

Whenever you see a participial phrase (a verbING phrase) begin a sentence, start looking for modifier errors.

The "touch" rule states that a noun modifier such as this intro phrase should be as close as possible to its noun.
In addition, introductory phrases anchored by participles must modify the subject of the immediately following clause.
GMAC is notorious for testing this concept.

Who or what was defining a "medical practitioner" in a certain way?
The researchers were.
Eliminate options A ("the number of women"), B ("the women medical practitioners), and D ("in 1560, the number of women").
None of those nouns were defining medical practitioners in 16th century London.

I discuss six kinds of introductory phrases and what they must modify in this post, here.

• Split #2: idiom

I posted this question because a recent official question tested this idiom.
Usually when a question tests an idiom, answers can be eliminated on other bases.
Not always.
Worse, with respect to this idiom in particular, OE writers and OG question writers have contradicted one another.
Rather than slog through that hell (which I am not going to recite), you might just use this mnemonic to remember:
-- estimate to be sounds like a guess whose accuracy will be determined in the future ("to be"), and an estimate is indeed a guess
-- estimate at sounds as though the estimate is located somewhere (at a place)

Correct answers to official questions indicate GMAC's postion:
Estimate to be is correct.
Estimate at is not correct.

Eliminate option C

Well, looking at the good stats, maybe GMAC ought to toss idioms altogether.
GMAC can't do so. Part of good writing includes effective use of idiom.

I wanted you to know this one because many people are not sure where GMAC stands on the issue.
Although the scenario is unlikely, if the last two answers that remain turn on whether estimate to be or estimate at is correct, choose "to be."

Mac3921 , welcome to SC Butler.

Others, I am happy to see you all again, too.

Answers range from very good to excellent.
Happy kudos to all.
##### General Discussion
Intern
Joined: 30 Dec 2019
Posts: 13
Re: Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 23:39
2
To find correct answer we need to understand modifier phrase with which sentence started.
Who is defining? Number of women or Researchers. Answer is Researchers.
So A,B & D can not be the Answer.

Now Between C & E

Estimated to be is correct compared to Estimateted at

A) the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers

B) the women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated to be 60 in 1560 according to the researchers

C) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in in the city of London at 60 in 1560

D) in 1560, the number of women medical practitioners was estimated to be 60 in the city of London by the researchers

E) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London to be 60 in 1560

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Location: United States (WA)
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
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Re: Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2020, 01:05
2
I chose (E). Basically I have to decide between (C) and (E), and the difference is
> Estimate the number at 60 (in C)
OR
> Estimate the number to be 60 (in E)

Well, this tests the idiomatic use of estimate, but I could not recall if there is anything special in GMAT. Failing that, I have to rely on my own instinct. I would always use "estimate the number to be 60", and that is why my answer is E.

For (A), (B), and (D), the subject of the sentence (the number) cannot serve as logical subject for the modifier ("Defining a medical ... ). They can be ruled out rather easily.
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Joined: 14 Dec 2019
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Location: Poland
GMAT 1: 570 Q41 V27
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Re: Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2020, 03:27
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 204: Sentence Correction (SC2)

Defining a medical practitioner as “any individual whose occupation is basically concerned with the care of the sick,” the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers.

A) the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated at 60 in 1560 by the researchers

B) the women medical practitioners in the city of London was estimated to be 60 in 1560 according to the researchers

C) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London at 60 in 1560

D) in 1560, the number of women medical practitioners was estimated to be 60 in the city of London by the researchers

E) the researchers estimated the number of women medical practitioners in the city of London to be 60 in 1560

"Defining a medical practitioner" modifies "the researchers" and thus "the researchers" should act as a subject of the following clause. - A, B and D out

"Estimated to be" vs "Estimated at" -> Estimated to be is the first preference hence correct. Even though Estimated at has been correct int he Official question, Estimated at is usually used when used for a location.

IMO
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Re: Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2020, 11:31
1
Defining a medical practitioner as ...
This V+ing modifier modified the subject of the main sentence.
Subject who defines a medical practitioner is researcher. Either women or the number cannot be the subject, so A, B and D are wrong.

Between C and E, there is tiny difference, diffence that tests correct idiom usage.
Estimate to is correct idiom, hence E is our answer

Posted from my mobile device
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Posts: 3681
Re: Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2020, 03:26
I have posted the official explanation here
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Joined: 31 Jan 2020
Posts: 175
Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2020, 20:36
No worries, people, this one isn't so bad.

This SC tests the dangling modifier rule. The first thing you should ask yourself is what the first clause is referring to. Is it the number of women practitioners? The women practitioners? The researchers? The answer is clearly the researchers. A, B, and D immediately get freebie eliminated.

Between (C) and (E), it's simply a question about idioms. The correct idiom is estimated to be.
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Defining a medical practitioner as any individual whose occupation is   [#permalink] 25 Feb 2020, 20:36
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