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In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic

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In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2015, 06:04
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In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument‘?

(A) In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil.

(B) The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure.

(C) Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-efficient than they would be without those devices.

(D) The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica.

(E) Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-efficient tend to do more driving than before.
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2017, 22:16
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Can you explain why option C is incorrect? If some devices are less efficient, then the cars with such devices would cause more pollution. The option suggests that cause will take place ----> Effect won't

This hurts the argument. Doesn't it?

The key is "some" here, which can be as low as one in a sample space of 100.

So, if 1 or 2 car/cars is less efficient in a sample space of 10,000 cars - then does it hurt the conclusion ?

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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2015, 07:41
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Ans E
If total driven miles increase, then pollution will increase.
So this weakens the author's argument.

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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2016, 20:57
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the above poster's reasoning is incorrect since the argument here is not reduce pollution but to reduce the country's dependence on imported oil. My reasoning is that lets say previously

So from the image file we can say that even though more fuel efficient cars came into existence they compensate for the amount of fuel used by driving more miles hence the level of dependence on imported oil remains the same. so this weakens the author's argument.

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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2017, 05:24
Hi
I am Stuck up B & E.

My analysis as follows

B: As Govt didnt intend it as pollution reduction measure, Wont it make the conclusion less believable ?

E : More driving than earlier after getting equipped with fuel efficient;
More driving than earlier --> More KM--> Pollution will not likely to decrease.
Shatters the Conclusion.

Kindly let me know where i am faltered?
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2017, 08:39
gvvsnraju@1 wrote:
Hi
I am Stuck up B & E.

My analysis as follows

B: As Govt didnt intend it as pollution reduction measure, Wont it make the conclusion less believable ?

E : More driving than earlier after getting equipped with fuel efficient;
More driving than earlier --> More KM--> Pollution will not likely to decrease.
Shatters the Conclusion.

Kindly let me know where i am faltered?

B is already stated in the passage the intent of govt was to reduce the oil dependency .....
whatever the intent may be , we are more concern about the outcome ....and in this answer choice nothing is mentioned about outcome ...just intent of govt is outlined ...
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2017, 05:23
gvvsnraju@1 wrote:
Hi
I am Stuck up B & E.

My analysis as follows

B: As Govt didnt intend it as pollution reduction measure, Wont it make the conclusion less believable ?

E : More driving than earlier after getting equipped with fuel efficient;
More driving than earlier --> More KM--> Pollution will not likely to decrease.
Shatters the Conclusion.

Kindly let me know where i am faltered?

Your query is correctly explained by sobby in the above post - closing this request.
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 06:06
Although the correct answer choice is 'E' - The statement implies, if the new fuel-efficient cars are driven more miles per year than older cars are, they may produce as much or more pollution per year than older cars do even though they produce less pollution per mile driven.

Can anyone suggest the reasoning why choices A and C are incorrect? Thanks.
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 12:36
In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

Type - weaken
Boil it down - As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars with new fuel - efficiency standards, fuel consumption will decrease and thus annual pollution from car traffic will decrease
- The argument assumes the fuel consumption will not increase - either the people drive more now or the number of people who drive cars increase substantially

A. In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil. - Irrelevant - we are not concerned about the costs

B. The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure. - Irrelevant - although pollution reduction was not a goal, it happened to be a by-product of new fuel efficiency requirement

C. Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-eﬁicient than they would be without those devices. - The argument does not discuss pollution control devices

D. The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica. - Irrelevant

E. Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-eﬂicient tend to do more driving than before. - Correct - if people tend to drive more now , then fuel consumption will increase

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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2017, 12:32
1
Hi Experts,

Can you explain why option C is incorrect? If some devices are less efficient, then the cars with such devices would cause more pollution. The option suggests that cause will take place ----> Effect won't

This hurts the argument. Doesn't it?
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 20:03
1
Hi Skywalker

I understand how you might argue answer B to be irrelevant. But does this point not make the argument irrelevant and, thus, weaker? Weakest?

I would have happily gone in the direction of something to do with pollution control, etc, etc for my answer. But the subject of the Government statement is not about reduction of pollution, rather the reduction of dependence on imported oil.

I feel like the question, "which of the following... MOST seriously weakens the argument?" is subjective and if the subject of the government statement is dependence on imported oil, I feel like answer (B) makes the entire argument irrelevant is the most correct (my subjective experience) and all the other answers only weaken the argument.

Due to the fact that the government went from reduction of dependence to pollution reduction would suggest to the trained eye that either the statement maker is unreliable or lying, thus, not credible > irrelevant. Again, the subject of this argument is reduction of dependence on oil, not pollution control.

I also feel like answer E could be correct but your explanation ("Correct - if people tend to drive more now , then fuel consumption will increase ") does nothing to address reduction of independence on imported oil which is the subject of the argument.

And the books justification to the correct answer does little to shed light, "a government policy may have consequences that the government did not intent it to have." What consequences? And how does this justify that answer B is less correct than E? If the "consequences" are more driving (more dependence on imported oil), is this not weakening the argument?

Maybe I'm missing something.

Is E the correct answer because more driving creates more pollution and increases a dependency on imported oil?

I'd like to suss out what GMAC is looking for most in an answer.

Thanks in advance to anyone that can help.

Eric

In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

Type - weaken
Boil it down - As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars with new fuel - efficiency standards, fuel consumption will decrease and thus annual pollution from car traffic will decrease
- The argument assumes the fuel consumption will not increase - either the people drive more now or the number of people who drive cars increase substantially

A. In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil. - Irrelevant - we are not concerned about the costs

B. The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure. - Irrelevant - although pollution reduction was not a goal, it happened to be a by-product of new fuel efficiency requirement

C. Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-eﬁicient than they would be without those devices. - The argument does not discuss pollution control devices

D. The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica. - Irrelevant

E. Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-eﬂicient tend to do more driving than before. - Correct - if people tend to drive more now , then fuel consumption will increase

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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2018, 06:32
Skywalker18 wrote:
In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

Type - weaken
Boil it down - As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars with new fuel - efficiency standards, fuel consumption will decrease and thus annual pollution from car traffic will decrease
- The argument assumes the fuel consumption will not increase - either the people drive more now or the number of people who drive cars increase substantially

A. In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil. - Irrelevant - we are not concerned about the costs

B. The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure. - Irrelevant - although pollution reduction was not a goal, it happened to be a by-product of new fuel efficiency requirement

C. Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-eﬁicient than they would be without those devices. - The argument does not discuss pollution control devices

D. The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica. - Irrelevant

E. Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-eﬂicient tend to do more driving than before. - Correct - if people tend to drive more now , then fuel consumption will increase

Sir,
Why is the A irrelevant? the first line clearly states that the purpose of the government's new policy implementation is to reduce the dependence of the country on Imported oil. The cost of imported oil being more than the domestic oil has a direct role to play here.

Secondly, since the new cars made are more fuel efficient, shouldn't the extra miles driven get balanced with the previous outcome?
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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24 May 2018, 11:17
1
I have not understood the question correctly . In order to reduce the dependence on foreign oil , why does the government have to minimise fuel efficiency . It has to maximize fuel efficiency
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2018, 19:00
rohanc8790 wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

Type - weaken
Boil it down - As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars with new fuel - efficiency standards, fuel consumption will decrease and thus annual pollution from car traffic will decrease
- The argument assumes the fuel consumption will not increase - either the people drive more now or the number of people who drive cars increases substantially

A. In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil. - Irrelevant - we are not concerned about the costs

B. The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure. - Irrelevant - although pollution reduction was not a goal, it happened to be a by-product of new fuel efficiency requirement

C. Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-eﬁicient than they would be without those devices. - The argument does not discuss pollution control devices

D. The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica. - Irrelevant

E. Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-eﬂicient tend to do more driving than before. - Correct - if people tend to drive more now, then fuel consumption will increase

Sir,
Why is the A irrelevant? the first line clearly states that the purpose of the government's new policy implementation is to reduce the dependence of the country on Imported oil. The cost of imported oil is more than the domestic oil has a direct role to play here.

Secondly, since the new cars made are more fuel efficient, shouldn't the extra miles driven get balanced with the previous outcome?

I totally agree with you. The sole aim of the argument (for the government to reduce dependency on imported oil) guided me to B. For those who are claiming E as the correct answer, what would their thought process be like, if the argument stated another by-product of the plan, along with the one already stated?

What should I focus on to arrive at a reasoning: the plan indicated in the argument OR solely the conclusion of the argument?
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2018, 19:06
Talayva wrote:
I have not understood the question correctly . In order to reduce the dependence on foreign oil , why does the government have to minimise fuel efficiency . It has to maximize fuel efficiency

Because the minimum standard of something won't allow the efficiency of the cars to go down below an acceptable limit. If there is no lower limit on the efficiency, maybe someone will start using the worst fuel-efficient car ever and therefore start pumping unacceptable kind of black smoke into the air.

Another way of thinking: For a satisfactory/acceptable result in a college/school exam, your Mom will set a minimum acceptable score for you to achieve in that test, say 70/100. She won't have a problem if you score 90/100 or 100/100, though.
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2018, 19:08
1
shailendrasaiwal wrote:
Talayva wrote:
I have not understood the question correctly . In order to reduce the dependence on foreign oil , why does the government have to minimise fuel efficiency . It has to maximize fuel efficiency

Because the minimum standard of something won't allow the efficiency of the cars to go down below an acceptable limit. If there is no lower limit on the efficiency, maybe someone will start using the worst fuel-efficient car ever and therefore start pumping unacceptable kind of black smoke into the air.

Another way of thinking: For a satisfactory/acceptable result in a college/school exam, your Mom will set a minimum acceptable score for you to achieve in that test, say 70/100. She won't have a problem if you score 90/100 or 100/100, though.

I just explained the reason why the fuel efficiency should be minimum.

How the argument has related the dependency on imported oil to the fuel efficiency of the cars has not been understood by me either.
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Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2018, 23:01
In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalica has imposed minimum fuel-efficiency requirements on all new cars, beginning this year. The more fuel-efficient a car, the less pollution it produces per mile driven. As Jalicans replace their old cars with cars that meet the new requirements, annual pollution from car traffic is likely to decrease in Jalica.

replacing old cars with fuel efficient cars will not reduce annual pollution from car
given a) more fuel eff -> less pollution

pre-think:
driving min fuel efficient cars
driving less distance

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument‘?

(A) In Jalica, domestically produced oil is more expensive than imported oil.
oil price is not a concern. gimmick: irrelevant

(B) The Jalican government did not intend the new fuel-eﬁiciency requirement to be a pollution- reduction measure.
even if the intention is not there, it actually causes reduction. here intention is not a deciding factor. gimmick: relevant but not accurate as per argument.

(C) Some pollution-control devices mandated in Jalica make cars less fuel-efficient than they would be without those devices.
there is 50% chance PCD will make car less fuel efficient. open to doubt the other half. gimmick: relevant but not conclusive

(D) The new regulation requires no change in the chemical formulation of ﬁmel for cars in Jalica.
our of scope discussion

(E) Jalicans who get cars that are more fuel-efficient tend to do more driving than before.
even if fuel efficient car produce less pollution, but driving it more KMs will produce equivalent amt of pollution that is produced by driving less km in less fuel efficient cars. hence correct
Re: In order to reduce dependence on imported oil, the government of Jalic   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 23:01
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