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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis

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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2017, 05:11
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RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalist and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth-century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticism of the absolute systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalist and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626-1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclose, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.

96. The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to

A: show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than most historians appear to realize

B: qualify the clit ht patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology

C: question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction

D: highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists

E: argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization nd women's political rights


OA:D


97. The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified

B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology

C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men

D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology

E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars


OA:E


98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause

B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism

C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation

D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power

E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control


OA:E


99. The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self

B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity

C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper

D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society

E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch


OA:D


101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

A: Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarians counterparts

B: Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas

C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works

D: The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights

E: The Royalists side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism


OA:C


The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate


OA:B



hello Ravi

I would like to point out that there are some errors in the post. They are:-

1. In the 2nd question, the choice E is not written correctly. I crosschecked from OG16. Instead of patriarchalism, it should read Parliamentarian. I got it wrong it coz of this typing error.

2. The OA for the 3rd question is wrong. The correct answer for the question is choice E. Again, i crosschecked the same from OG16.

P.s. Thanks babyokras for pointing out the page no.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2017, 21:51
Hi GMATNinja , souvik101990

Can you please provide explanation on Q6:
The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate

Below is my take on this question:
Para 1 has mentioned about the contrast between Royalist and the Parliamentarians.
Para 2 describes the view of Gallagher that opposes Royalist ideology by citing example of Cavendish. However, author says that Cavendish's views were independent of the Royalist ideology.

I am confused between B and D.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 00:04
Hey GMATNinja and souvik101990

Below is my "Map" of the passage. I couldn't answer a few questions and need your help to clear those doubts

Para 1: -
- Feminists took side of Royalists in the English Civil War
- But Royalists believed in the absolute power of a male i.e. a king ruling over the kingdom
- But there is no also significant difference with regards to female rights between Royalists and Parliamentarians
- Therefore author thinks feminists should be equally divided between the two groups

Para 2: -
- Gallagher argues that the absolute monarchy(A king ruling over the kingdom) helped feminists to believe about absolute self
- Gives an example of Cavendish
- Feminists believed in cavendish's ideology but didn't believe to isolate oneself

96. The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to

A: show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than most historians appear to realize Nothing like this is said in the passage
B: qualify the clit ht patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology The passage doesn't say that it formed the basis of the royalist ideology
C: question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction Hold
D: highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists Hold
E: argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization and women's political rights no royalists didn't have this view at all. Trap answer choice

GMATNinja and souvik101990 - Both Option C and D look close to me. Can C be eliminated because of the use of the word "most". The passage talks about all feminists as a group. Nowhere did I see that the feminists were divided amongst themselves

Let me know your thoughts on this one

Note: - please pardon me from any grammatical errors above
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 00:36
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Hey Guys,

Below is my thought process for all the remaining questions

Para 1: -
- Feminists took side of Royalists in the English Civil War
- But Royalists believed in the absolute power of a male i.e. a king ruling over the kingdom
- But there is no also significant difference with regards to female rights between Royalists and Parliamentarians
- Therefore author thinks feminists should be equally divided between the two groups

Para 2: -
- Gallagher argues that the absolute monarchy(A king ruling over the kingdom) helped feminists to believe about absolute self
- Gives an example of Cavendish
- Feminists believed in cavendish's ideology but didn't believe to isolate oneself


97. The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?
A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified The passage is not concerned with the status of feminists but rather why feminists took the royalist side even when royalists believed in absolute monarchy
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology Same reasoning as A
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men Nothing such as this option is mentioned. Also we don't know if she was the first woman to do so
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology Trap answer according to me. The feminists view did not oppose the views of royalists and parlimentarians. The passage doesn't say anything like this. If they did oppose, then feminists shouldn't have taken the side of royalists as well. The passage says otherwise
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars. bingo! yes, the last few lines of the first para says that parlimentarians and royalists had similar views in terms of woman's right etc. So feminists should be equally divided between the two groups.

98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause The author cites her book/work as an example that lead to belief of absolute self. its not the other way round
B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism Nothing such as this is mentined nor can be inferred
C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation same reasoning as B
D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power Same reasoning as B
E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control Bingo! The author mentions that cavendish believed in a world in which shoe could be a mistress of her own world. This can be potential reason for cavendish to write the book


99. The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self
B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity
C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper
D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society This one looks good.
E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch


101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

Prethinking :- Looking for an option which says that the views were of cavendish were wrong or feminists didn't agree with

A: Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarians counterparts we are not bothered about education
B: Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas even if filmer was critical, we don't know if feminists had the same view
C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works Coincides with the prethinking I mentioned above
D: The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights A repeat of what is already said in the passage. This is in no way hurting the arguement
E: The Royalists side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism even if they minority faction didn't believe filmer's view, were the minority factions feminists ? we don't know about this


102. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement No not at all
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon looks ok. The passage whats to find out why feminists chose royalists even though the royalists believed in absolute monarchy
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict The passage is not talking about a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer The passage doesn't want to link the ideology. Rather the passage wants to find out why feminists chose royalists who believed in absolute monarchy. This is a trap answer according to me
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate The pssage is not debating anything

P.S : - Don't forget to give kudos :thumbup: 8-)
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 22:53
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.
99. The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self

B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity

C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper

D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society

E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch
OA:D



Passage: English Women

Question: Specific Detail

The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase refers most directly to in the question stem indicates that this is a Detail question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The question stem cites a specific section of the passage. Reread that section and the text immediately surrounding it.

“Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet.”

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage describes the satellite as the opposite of a self-sufficient being…the center of her own subjective universe. In the context of the passage, the word satellite therefore refers to the 17th-century women who were unable to pursue power in the real world.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The satellite metaphor refers to the inability of women to pursue power in the real world, not their ability to pursue power in the immaterial world as a sovereign self. The passage contrasts these two concepts.

(B) The satellite is discussed in the context of Margaret Cavendish’s beliefs, while the political and social isolation of singularity is discussed only in the context of Cavendish’s successors.

(C) For Cavendish, creating an immaterial world on paper was an element of being the center of her own subjective universe. This is the opposite of being a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet.

(D) CORRECT. Cavendish saw herself as the center of her own subjective universe as an alternative to seeing herself as a satellite. Since the concept of being the center of one’s own subjective universe emerged as an alternative to the material subjugation of women, the satellite metaphor refers to this subjugation.

(E) Cavendish used the figure of the absolute monarch to evoke the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. The passage presents the satellite as the opposite of self-enclosed and autonomous.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 23:02
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.
100. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate
OA:B



Passage: English Women
Question: Primary Purpose
The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase primary purpose in the question stem indicates that this is a Primary Purpose, or main idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The support for a Purpose question is in the structure of the passage itself. The first paragraph introduces the idea that seventeenth-century feminists were, surprisingly, aligned with Royalists in the English Civil Wars. The remainder of the passage addresses why this phenomenon was surprising, then attempts to reconcile it using the concept of the ideology of the absolute self.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage accomplishes three things: introduces a surprising fact, explains why it is surprising, then attempts to provide an explanation. The correct answer will incorporate these major elements of the passage.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does not make a connection between seventeenth-century feminism and modern times. Instead, it addresses only the situation in the seventeenth century.

(B) CORRECT. The entire passage is dedicated to describing a puzzling phenomenon—the alignment between seventeenth-century feminists and Royalists—then providing an explanation for it.

(C) The political conflict described in the passage is the conflict between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The passage describes one of the factors (radical patriarchalism) involved in Royalist ideology, but it does not contrast this to another interpretation, nor does it describe the origins of the Royalist-Parliamentarian conflict.

(D) Filmer and Cavendish are both mentioned in the passage, but both of them are used as examples that assist the author in making broader points. Filmer is cited as an example of radical patriarchalism, which helps the author establish the strangeness of the phenomenon described in the first paragraph, while Cavendish is used to help the author explain that phenomenon. The passage is not primarily about these two characters, nor does the author attempt to specifically establish a link between them.

(E) The passage mentions this only briefly, towards the end of the first paragraph. It is not the main focus of that paragraph and is not mentioned in the second paragraph.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 21:19
it is harder to find the main idea.

it is odd to say thay feminism is Royalist.
but one author find that Royalist make feminism is because....

that is main idea. it takes me a long time to find out
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2017, 01:46
Hello Moderators,

Certain text in the answers of the questions is NOT typed correctly which is hampering the ease of attempting this RC. I request you to please change that text to the correct form as the following,

Q 96. Option B from : qualify the clit ht patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology
to : qualify the claim that patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology

and Option E from : argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization nd women's political rights
to : argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization and women's political rights.

Q:97 Option E from : Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars
to : Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Parliamentarians side in the English Civil Wars

As in the existing form, option E is not making sense to be correct. Please review and correct these 2 questions.

carcass

Thanks.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2017, 09:48
hazelnut wrote:
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.
100. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate
OA:B



Passage: English Women
Question: Primary Purpose
The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase primary purpose in the question stem indicates that this is a Primary Purpose, or main idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The support for a Purpose question is in the structure of the passage itself. The first paragraph introduces the idea that seventeenth-century feminists were, surprisingly, aligned with Royalists in the English Civil Wars. The remainder of the passage addresses why this phenomenon was surprising, then attempts to reconcile it using the concept of the ideology of the absolute self.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage accomplishes three things: introduces a surprising fact, explains why it is surprising, then attempts to provide an explanation. The correct answer will incorporate these major elements of the passage.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does not make a connection between seventeenth-century feminism and modern times. Instead, it addresses only the situation in the seventeenth century.

(B) CORRECT. The entire passage is dedicated to describing a puzzling phenomenon—the alignment between seventeenth-century feminists and Royalists—then providing an explanation for it.

(C) The political conflict described in the passage is the conflict between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The passage describes one of the factors (radical patriarchalism) involved in Royalist ideology, but it does not contrast this to another interpretation, nor does it describe the origins of the Royalist-Parliamentarian conflict.

(D) Filmer and Cavendish are both mentioned in the passage, but both of them are used as examples that assist the author in making broader points. Filmer is cited as an example of radical patriarchalism, which helps the author establish the strangeness of the phenomenon described in the first paragraph, while Cavendish is used to help the author explain that phenomenon. The passage is not primarily about these two characters, nor does the author attempt to specifically establish a link between them.

(E) The passage mentions this only briefly, towards the end of the first paragraph. It is not the main focus of that paragraph and is not mentioned in the second paragraph.


Hi Hazelnut,
Can u kindly explain the answer to the first question. OA is D, which states - highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists. But there was no tension between royalists and early feminists as the latter sided with royalists. This situation was puzzling o historians. So, how option D is correct as there is no tension to highlight.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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sunny91 wrote:
hazelnut wrote:
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.
100. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate
OA:B



Passage: English Women
Question: Primary Purpose
The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase primary purpose in the question stem indicates that this is a Primary Purpose, or main idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The support for a Purpose question is in the structure of the passage itself. The first paragraph introduces the idea that seventeenth-century feminists were, surprisingly, aligned with Royalists in the English Civil Wars. The remainder of the passage addresses why this phenomenon was surprising, then attempts to reconcile it using the concept of the ideology of the absolute self.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage accomplishes three things: introduces a surprising fact, explains why it is surprising, then attempts to provide an explanation. The correct answer will incorporate these major elements of the passage.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does not make a connection between seventeenth-century feminism and modern times. Instead, it addresses only the situation in the seventeenth century.

(B) CORRECT. The entire passage is dedicated to describing a puzzling phenomenon—the alignment between seventeenth-century feminists and Royalists—then providing an explanation for it.

(C) The political conflict described in the passage is the conflict between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The passage describes one of the factors (radical patriarchalism) involved in Royalist ideology, but it does not contrast this to another interpretation, nor does it describe the origins of the Royalist-Parliamentarian conflict.

(D) Filmer and Cavendish are both mentioned in the passage, but both of them are used as examples that assist the author in making broader points. Filmer is cited as an example of radical patriarchalism, which helps the author establish the strangeness of the phenomenon described in the first paragraph, while Cavendish is used to help the author explain that phenomenon. The passage is not primarily about these two characters, nor does the author attempt to specifically establish a link between them.

(E) The passage mentions this only briefly, towards the end of the first paragraph. It is not the main focus of that paragraph and is not mentioned in the second paragraph.


Hi Hazelnut,
Can u kindly explain the answer to the first question. OA is D, which states - highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists. But there was no tension between royalists and early feminists as the latter sided with royalists. This situation was puzzling o historians. So, how option D is correct as there is no tension to highlight.


Hi sunny91,

Let me try to help. :-)

You said -- "there was no tension between royalists and early feminists as the latter sided with royalists". That's okay, as you already mentioned that (the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars.). But if you read closely the option is talking about the tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists. So, what I mean is that though these women are with the Royalists but their ideologies are different from the Royalists idea as can be inferred from the facts provided. To further support my point, let me bring the excerpts from the passage,

Royalists ideology -- supporting patriarchalism (MALE DOMINATION)
Passage says : "a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household"

Early feminists ideology -- strong supporter of women rights and equality
Passage says : "Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men."

Now coming to the question, (The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to)

The author refers to Filmer to highlight this difference between the ideologies of the two group, which supports the odd but indisputable fact, which is used by the author in the starting of the passage. So, these differences are actually troubling the historians. For which the author gives reason in the second paragraph.

Hope it answers your query. Let me know if you have any further questions.

Which option did you picked?

Thanks.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2017, 05:07
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.


[b]98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to


A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause

B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism

C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation

D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power

E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control
OA:E



Hi GMATNinja,

I have a doubt with regards to question 98 as listed above. The OA for this is E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control. Can you please help with the POE for this question ? Also, isn't this option too extreme ? Although passage uses statements like "she resolved to be mistress of her own world". Does this really imply that she wanted to create a world over which she could exercise TOTAL control ?

Thanks in advance! :-)
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2018, 02:54
can anyone explain question 96
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2018, 12:32
zw504 wrote:
rmohammadi wrote:
mdsingh2013 wrote:
for 97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars




The official answer is:
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars

the official explanation rejects D saying:
The passage does not indicate what the Parliamentarian view of family organization and women's political rights was, so there is no way to determine whether the royalist forerunners of modern feminism were opposed to that view

And the official explanation for E towards the end says:
Historians would most likely have been less surprised if these women had been identified with parliamentary side, which presumably did not embrace radical patriarchalism

1) In the passage, lines 20-25 do suggest that Parliamentarians had a similar radical view, even though it says a few historians claim it.
2) If there is no way to determine the views of parliamentary side(according to official explanation for option D), how do they assume in option E that it was less radical?


I thought the correct answer to be D. Any explanations would be appreciated?


I did not see official guide. But I think that there are some errors in the words written in the question above. Do not confuse parliamentary with patriarchalism.

According to passage:

There are conflicts between Royalism and parliamentary.
There is a association between Royalism and patriarchalism.
patriarchalism = radical absolute power.

So, parliamentary = not or less radical idea.

Royal feminists ---> criticize women subordination and advocate women political power but royalism ---> absolute male power. so historians are puzzled.

If feminists had been identified with parliamentary side(less absolute male power), not royal side, then historians would have been less puzzled.



you're right.

I didn't choose E of Q97 b/c it said "E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars". While in OG, the original option uses the Parliamentarian side.


I had the same problem. The answer choice should be corrected!
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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First of all, thanks Wimpykid, aceGMAT21, and MvArrow for pointing out the typos in the original post. All questions have been updated, so please use the "Report a Problem" button if you see any other mistakes! I also apologize for missing some of the questions in this thread. To help ensure your questions are answered in a timely manner, please use the request verbal experts' reply button.

sunny91 wrote:
Can u kindly explain the answer to the first question. OA is D, which states - highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists. But there was no tension between royalists and early feminists as the latter sided with royalists. This situation was puzzling o historians. So, how option D is correct as there is no tension to highlight.

Thanks aceGMAT21 for answering that one!

priya sri wrote:
can anyone explain question 96

Priya sri, please refer to the explanation below: https://gmatclub.com/forum/it-is-an-odd ... l#p1956328

Poorvasha wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

I have a doubt with regards to question 98 as listed above. The OA for this is E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control. Can you please help with the POE for this question ? Also, isn't this option too extreme ? Although passage uses statements like "she resolved to be mistress of her own world". Does this really imply that she wanted to create a world over which she could exercise TOTAL control ?

Thanks in advance! :-)

Quote:
98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: justify her support for the Royalist cause - We are not told whether Cavendish supports the Royalist cause.

B: encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmerian patriarchalism - Cavendish may have felt restricted by Filmerian patriarchalism, but the passage does not say whether Cavendish wanted her readers to work toward eradicating Filmerian patriarchalism or, more importantly, whether that motivated her to become a writer.

C: persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation - The passage does not say whether Cavendish wanted to PERSUADE other women to break free from their political/social isolation.

D: analyze the causes for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power - We don't know whether Cavendish analyzed the CAUSES for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power.

E: create a world over which she could exercise total control - This refers to the world that Cavendish creates on paper with her writing--a world that is entirely a product of HER imagination. Thus, it is not an exaggeration to say that she is in total control of that world. She can write whatever she wants, so she is in fact in total of control of the world that she creates on paper as a writer.

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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2018, 23:42
Question number 6:

Please explain how is Catherine Gallagher's argument an explanation of the fact that early feminists were more on the royalist side?

I chose A as it seemed the best choice.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2018, 17:28
aviejay wrote:
Question number 6:

Please explain how is Catherine Gallagher's argument an explanation of the fact that early feminists were more on the royalist side?

I chose A as it seemed the best choice.

aviejay, are you referring to question 101?

In any case, we are told that Gallagher argued that Royalism engendered (i.e. "brought about") feminism. How? Because "the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self."

So what the heck does that mean? Well, consider the example of Cavendish, who "insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire." An absolute monarch (i.e. a king) rules his kingdom. Similarly, Cavendish ruled her own mental empire. Within her "immaterial world", Cavendish was in charge.

In other words, Cavendish could model her own autonomy (governing her own mental world) after an absolute monarch. So Royalism planted a seed of self-sufficiency and autonomy that would grow into feminism. Thus, according to Gallagher, feminist ideas would have been more readily developed among Royalist women.

I hope that helps!
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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2018, 22:17
GMATNinja wrote:
aviejay wrote:
Question number 6:

Please explain how is Catherine Gallagher's argument an explanation of the fact that early feminists were more on the royalist side?

I chose A as it seemed the best choice.

aviejay, are you referring to question 101?

In any case, we are told that Gallagher argued that Royalism engendered (i.e. "brought about") feminism. How? Because "the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self."

So what the heck does that mean? Well, consider the example of Cavendish, who "insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire." An absolute monarch (i.e. a king) rules his kingdom. Similarly, Cavendish ruled her own mental empire. Within her "immaterial world", Cavendish was in charge.

In other words, Cavendish could model her own autonomy (governing her own mental world) after an absolute monarch. So Royalism planted a seed of self-sufficiency and autonomy that would grow into feminism. Thus, according to Gallagher, feminist ideas would have been more readily developed among Royalist women.

I hope that helps!



Hi GMAT NINJA,
I was refering to question number 100, the "primary purpose" question. Could you please explain my doubt with refernce to question number 100? I have attached the question below:
100. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of a modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2018, 15:55
pikolo2510 wrote:
Hey Guys,

Below is my thought process for all the remaining questions

Para 1: -
- Feminists took side of Royalists in the English Civil War
- But Royalists believed in the absolute power of a male i.e. a king ruling over the kingdom
- But there is no also significant difference with regards to female rights between Royalists and Parliamentarians
- Therefore author thinks feminists should be equally divided between the two groups

Para 2: -
- Gallagher argues that the absolute monarchy(A king ruling over the kingdom) helped feminists to believe about absolute self
- Gives an example of Cavendish
- Feminists believed in cavendish's ideology but didn't believe to isolate oneself


97. The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?
A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified The passage is not concerned with the status of feminists but rather why feminists took the royalist side even when royalists believed in absolute monarchy
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology Same reasoning as A
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men Nothing such as this option is mentioned. Also we don't know if she was the first woman to do so
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology Trap answer according to me. The feminists view did not oppose the views of royalists and parlimentarians. The passage doesn't say anything like this. If they did oppose, then feminists shouldn't have taken the side of royalists as well. The passage says otherwise
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars. bingo! yes, the last few lines of the first para says that parlimentarians and royalists had similar views in terms of woman's right etc. So feminists should be equally divided between the two groups.

98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause The author cites her book/work as an example that lead to belief of absolute self. its not the other way round
B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism Nothing such as this is mentined nor can be inferred
C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation same reasoning as B
D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power Same reasoning as B
E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control Bingo! The author mentions that cavendish believed in a world in which shoe could be a mistress of her own world. This can be potential reason for cavendish to write the book


99. The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self
B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity
C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper
D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society This one looks good.
E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch


101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

Prethinking :- Looking for an option which says that the views were of cavendish were wrong or feminists didn't agree with

A: Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarians counterparts we are not bothered about education
B: Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas even if filmer was critical, we don't know if feminists had the same view
C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works Coincides with the prethinking I mentioned above
D: The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights A repeat of what is already said in the passage. This is in no way hurting the arguement
E: The Royalists side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism even if they minority faction didn't believe filmer's view, were the minority factions feminists ? we don't know about this


102. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement No not at all
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon looks ok. The passage whats to find out why feminists chose royalists even though the royalists believed in absolute monarchy
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict The passage is not talking about a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer The passage doesn't want to link the ideology. Rather the passage wants to find out why feminists chose royalists who believed in absolute monarchy. This is a trap answer according to me
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate The pssage is not debating anything

P.S : - Don't forget to give kudos :thumbup: 8-)


Hi,

For 101, if Royalist and Parliamentarian are the same doesn't that mean the link between Royalism and feminism is spurious?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]

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Tough Passage, managed to get 5 correct and 1 wrong
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis   [#permalink] 24 Apr 2018, 12:07

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