Last visit was: 23 Jul 2024, 04:16 It is currently 23 Jul 2024, 04:16
Close
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.
Close
Request Expert Reply
Confirm Cancel
SORT BY:
Date
Tags:
Difficulty: 805+ Level,   Long Passage,   Social Science,                           
Show Tags
Hide Tags
GRE Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 14064
Own Kudos [?]: 36784 [0]
Given Kudos: 5833
GPA: 3.62
Send PM
GRE Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 14064
Own Kudos [?]: 36784 [0]
Given Kudos: 5833
GPA: 3.62
Send PM
GRE Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 14064
Own Kudos [?]: 36784 [0]
Given Kudos: 5833
GPA: 3.62
Send PM
GRE Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 14064
Own Kudos [?]: 36784 [0]
Given Kudos: 5833
GPA: 3.62
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Official Explanation


Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Main idea

This question asks about the passage as a whole. The passage is mainly concerned with outlining Catherine Gallagher’s attempt to explain why, given Royalist ideology’s apparent association with radical patriarchalism, Royalist women offered feminist critiques of women’s subordination in marriage and asserted their equality with men.

A. The passage makes no connection between early feminism and its modern form.

B. Correct. The passage presents a puzzling historical phenomenon, that Royalist women critiqued patriarchalism, in the first paragraph, and then presents Catherine Gallagher’s explanation for that phenomenon in the second paragraph.

C. While the passage discusses the political conflict between the Royalists and Parliamentarians in the English Civil Wars in the first paragraph, neither this conflict, nor its ideological origins are the focus of the passage. Furthermore, the passage does not offer any interpretations of the origins of the conflict.

D. The passage attempts to unlink the ideology of political theorist Robert Filmer and the eccentric author Margaret Cavendish by suggesting that Filmer’s radical patriarchalism was not the only way of understanding Royalist ideology. Cavendish provided a different understanding entirely.

E. While both sides of the ideological debate did agree on the absolute monarchy, the passage as a whole does not focus on this agreement, but rather on the disagreement about where, theoretically, the idea of absolute monarchy leads.

The correct answer is B.
GRE Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 14064
Own Kudos [?]: 36784 [0]
Given Kudos: 5833
GPA: 3.62
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Official Explanation


The primary purpose of the passage is to:

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Inference

This question asks about how to undermine the way in which Gallagher connects Royalism and feminism. According to Gallagher, Cavendish’s work exemplifies the connection between these ideas, because Cavendish took the idea of absolute monarchy and extended that to the idea of absolute self, an idea that
should, Cavendish believed, apply to women as well as men.

A. Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism does not depend on the education level of Royalist women relative to Parliamentarian women.

B. Filmer most likely would have been critical of Cavendish’s ideas, had he encountered them, but the passage does not indicate that Gallagher’s argument had anything to do with whether Filmer read Cavendish’s writings.

C. Correct. Gallagher uses Cavendish’s work to explain how Royalism gave rise to feminism, but if Cavendish’s views were completely atypical of other Royalist women, then those views cannot explain the link as Gallagher suggests they do.

D. The passage states in the first paragraph that if the Royalists and Parliamentarians were in agreement on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, then feminists should have been divided between the two sides—but they were not. So this idea, if true, would undermine that statement, but not Gallagher’s argument about the link between Royalists and feminists.

E. If more Royalists were opposed to Filmer’s radical patriarchalism, then Cavendish’s writings would seem to be more representative of tendencies in Royalist ideology, thus making Gallagher’s case stronger, not weaker.

The correct answer is C.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 26 Dec 2022
Posts: 142
Own Kudos [?]: 52 [0]
Given Kudos: 48
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
GMATNinja KarishmaB Can you please help me with Q. 101. " which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?"

At the starting of the passage this is mentioned "Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self"
I felt like cause-effect phenomenon was in play here.
Cause: The ideology of absolute monarchy providing a transition to an ideology of the absolute self
Effect: Royalism engendered feminism

If we give the effect any alternative cause, conclusion will get weakened. And A does that by stating "Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts." [Giving Education as another cause to get the effect of feminism]
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15140
Own Kudos [?]: 66798 [2]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
2
Kudos
Expert Reply
thelastskybender wrote:
GMATNinja KarishmaB Can you please help me with Q. 101. " which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?"

At the starting of the passage this is mentioned "Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self"
I felt like cause-effect phenomenon was in play here.
Cause: The ideology of absolute monarchy providing a transition to an ideology of the absolute self
Effect: Royalism engendered feminism

If we give the effect any alternative cause, conclusion will get weakened. And A does that by stating "Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts." [Giving Education as another cause to get the effect of feminism]


It comes down to the available options. (C) is better than (A) and I will tell you why.

G says that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She proceeded by giving an example of Cavendish. Cavendish was ambitious but knew that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world (idea of absolute centerstage for the head), so she resolved to be mistress of her own world (absolute self, centre of her own being).

What will undermine this? If we can say that this is not the link. We can do that by undermining the example she gave. That other Royal women did not think the way Cavendish did. Then we undermine G's theory and that is what option (C) does.

Note that it is not said in the passage that G said that this is the ONLY reason why early feminists were Royalists . So giving an alternative isn't the best strategy. The education of Royal women could be an additional reason.

Recall that A caused B does not necessarily mean that C did not cause B until and unless the words imply it. But still, it comes down to the available options.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 17 Dec 2023
Posts: 80
Own Kudos [?]: 19 [0]
Given Kudos: 41
Location: India
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Hi MartyMurray , avigutman

Could you help me with a doubt I had regarding the following question please?

Q5) Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

A) Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts.
b) Filmer himself had read some of Cavendish’s early writings and was highly critical of her ideas.
c) Cavendish’s views were highly individual and were not shared by the other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works.
D) The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women’s political rights.
E) The Royalist side included a sizeable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism.



OA is c) - I have reservations about if C really weakens Gallagher's explanation. Even if Cavendish's views ( self sufficiency, political-social isolation, and use of absolute monarchy to transition into individual autonomy) were highly individual, other royalist women may still have transitioned from the concept of absolute monarchy to the concept of absolute self (as suggested by Gallagher), without incorporating Cavendish's more eccentric views of isolation & self sufficiency. Infact, this is suggested at the end of the passage - "Cavendish's successors among early feminists retained her notion of women's sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed". This shows, that Gallagher/ Author does believe that Cavendish's views were highly unique and not shared by other feminists who still might have transitioned from the idea of absolute monarch to the idea of absolute self (Gallagher's explanation).

Also, while I originally thought that options A & E offer alternate explanations as to why almost all early feminists were Royalists effectively weakening Gallagher's explanation, I now feel that the reason they may be not weakening Gallagher's explanation as they can exist simultaneously/ are compatible with her explanation. (A) Educated royal women might have transitioned from absolute monarchy to absolute self because of their education, and (E) the minority might not have included all feminists, or might have been opposed to Filmerian patriarchism due to the reasons Gallagher suggests. (Am I right in thinking this?)

Thanks!­
Tutor
Joined: 17 Jul 2019
Posts: 1304
Own Kudos [?]: 1748 [0]
Given Kudos: 66
Location: Canada
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V45
GMAT 2: 780 Q50 V47
GMAT 3: 770 Q50 V45
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Expert Reply
 
PReciSioN wrote:
Quote:
 

­MartyMurray , avigutman , Did you get a chance to go through this please? Thanks!

­I think you're overthinking this, PReciSioN

­I generally advise students to avoid getting "in the weeds" of a RC passage, because the GMAT isn't interested in our ability to quickly study and retain details of a subject matter that we're not familiar with (unlike the LSAT, which is interested in that - that's why I advise GMAT students to NOT use LSAT RC to prep for the GMAT - but that's a subject for another post).

If we just stay at the high level of the paragraph in question, we have:

Catherine Gallagher argues that Blab engendered Bloob because IDEOLOGY A provided a transition to IDEOLOGY B. She cites the example of CAVENDISH...

What would undermine Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?
Well, where was Gallagher's support to her argument?
She cites the example of CAVENDISH...

That's really all we need (and all we SHOULD need) to answer this GMAT question.
Intern
Intern
Joined: 25 Jan 2024
Posts: 36
Own Kudos [?]: 9 [0]
Given Kudos: 36
Location: Canada
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Finance
Schools: IESE INSEAD IE HEC
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Does anyone know why B for question 2 is incorrect. I was under the impression that Cavendish did not challenge the ideology of patriarchy directly, as she utilized the idea of patriarchy and transitioned it into idea of self. Please help.

Posted from my mobile device
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Status: GMAT/GRE/LSAT tutors
Posts: 6991
Own Kudos [?]: 64571 [1]
Given Kudos: 1823
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
1
Kudos
Expert Reply

Question 2


acethegmat6969 wrote:
Does anyone know why B for question 2 is incorrect. I was under the impression that Cavendish did not challenge the ideology of patriarchy directly, as she utilized the idea of patriarchy and transitioned it into idea of self. Please help.

Question 2 asks about "the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2." This includes the whole group of women "who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism," not just Cavendish. What does the passage suggest about these women?

Here's (B):

Quote:
B. They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology. 

Filmer was all about patriarchy, whether he was discussing the monarchy or the family structure. Later in the first paragraph, we learn that the "forerunners of modern feminism" DID openly challenge this line of thinking. Specifically, they "wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men."

Because these women did openly challenge Filmer, we can eliminate (B) for question 2.

I hope that helps!­
Intern
Intern
Joined: 29 May 2021
Posts: 4
Own Kudos [?]: 2 [0]
Given Kudos: 23
Send PM
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
Hi,

I would like to understand a bit more about the Question 5: "Which of the following if True, would most likely undermine Gallagher's Explanation?

My Chosen Answer: I was confused between A, C, E and eventually chose E which was incorrect.

My Thinking Process as to why I was confused on A and E:
A - Gallagher mentions that "Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to the ideology of absolute self." What if it wasn't the ideology of absolute monarch but the fact that they were just more educated. ( There is another reason for the ideology of absolute self and hence feminism and not the transition mentioned ). Hence if this reason was true, education was actually what created the rise in feminism as opposed to the ideology of absolute monarchy.

E: "The Royalist side included a sizeable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism." My thinking for this option was: If this statement was true, then the ideologies of this minority might have been the trigger for the rise of ideology of absolute self as opposed to the idealogy of absolute monarchy. ( Again there could have been another reason for the rise of the absolute self and hence feminism as opposed to the given reason.)

Could you help point me in where my thinking is wrong? In cases where we are asked which statement is likely to undermine the argument if true: Can we think along the lines of "If there is another reason for the outcome to be true then the presented reason might not be the condition for the outcome and hence the statement is undermined?"

Thanks for your time!
GMAT Club Bot
Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century Englis [#permalink]
   1   2   3 
Moderators:
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
6991 posts
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
236 posts
GRE Forum Moderator
14064 posts