I found out why [b]Bunuel breaks out the "-39", and have found a formula to find the maximum of a second degree polynomial. A detailed understanding and step-by-step walkthrough is included below.[/b]Disclaimer: This post is "wordy"; however, as any of us have likely determined throughout our studying, understanding the entire thought process, or logic, of how to arrive at a given answer is important.
LogicThe key to this question is to recognize exactly what it is testing, which is: "how do you find the maximum of a second degree polynomial?"
Upon recognizing this "task" that the question is testing, deciphering Bunuel's logic of breaking out the "-39" to multiple terms makes complete sense.
As background, to find the maximum of a second degree polynomial (ax^2 + bx + c), the formula is: "(c - ((b^2) / (4a)))". More on that here:
https://study.com/academy/lesson/find-the-maximum-value-of-a-function-lesson-practice-quiz.html. As a further note of background, if the 'a-coefficient' is positive, the polynomial will have a minimum, and if the 'a-coefficient' is negative, the polynomial will have a maximum. Regardless, the formula you use to find either maximum or minimum is the exact same: (c - ((b^2) / (4a))).
Upon recognizing what the test is asking/testing, and knowing the formula stated above to find the maximum of a second degree polynomial, you can see why Bunuel breaks out the "-39" to create two separate second degree polynomials; as a way to create two polynomials that you can then find the respective maximum values for.
Step-by-step1.) -3x^2 + 12x - 2y^2 - 12y - 39 --> you should be able to recognize that there is a "complete" 2nd degree polynomial in "-2y^2 - 12y - 39"; however, the "-3x^2 + 12x" is "incomplete" as there is no "c" value.
2.) At this point, you need to ask yourself, "How can I make two complete 2nd degree polynomials?" Specifically, how can you write "-3x^2 + 12x +/-
R" and "-2y^2 - 12y +/-
S"?, R and S would be derived from -39.
Note: "R" and "S" are term names that I made up to help distinguish in this post between the respective polynomials, as opposed to simply calling them both "c", which is technically their term name for a polynomial.
2a.) To find values for R and S, you need to ask yourself, "what two numbers that add up to -39 (either completely or with values left over) can I use that would 'complete' X's and Y's respective polynomials, and result in each polynomial to have the a-coefficient factored out?" For example, the "R" (or "c") value of the "-3x^2 + 12 +/- R" polynomial would have to be divisible by 3, since "-3" is the a-coefficient, in order to create ease of factoring. Similarly, the "S" (or "c") value of the "-2y^2 - 12y +/- S" polynomial would have to be divisible by 2, for the exact same reason.
2b.) If you're following up to this point, there are multiple ways to break out "-39" to be numbers that would "complete" each polynomial (e.g., (-12)+(-18)+(-9)=-39; (-3)+(-3)+(-33)=-39; etc.). Essentially, any of these numbers will work to aid you in arriving at the answer, just remember that the R and S terms should be divisible by their respective a-coefficient.
3.) For the sake of showing why/how Bunuel broke out -39 to -12, -18, and -9, we will do that here.
3a.) The new formula from the prompt is: -3x^2 + 12x - 12 - 2y^2 - 12y - 18 - 9 --> Do you see how you now have two "complete" polynomials" for X and Y with -9 left over?
3b.) Mark the polynomials with parentheses to distinguish between them... (-3x^2 + 12x - 12) + (-2y^2 - 12y - 18) - 9
Steps 4 and 5 are "new" compared to the previous posts I have seen on this question.4.) Remember how I mentioned above how to find the maximum of a polynomial (c - ((b^2) / 4a)? Use this formula to find the maximum value for each newly created "complete" polynomial
4a.) For the X-polynomial, the maximum formula becomes: (-12 - ((12^2) / 4(-3))) --> (-12 - ((144) / (-12))) --> (-12 - (-12)) --> (-12 + 12) --> 0...
the maximum value for the X-polynomial is "0"... hold on to that thought
4b.) For the Y-polynomial, the maximum formula becomes: (-18 - ((-12^2) / 4(-2))) --> (-18 - ((144) / (-8))) --> (-18 - (-18)) --> (-18 + 18) --> 0...
the maximum value for the Y-polynomial is "0"... again, hold on to that though; we aren't done!
5.) Now, combine all of the new numbers. The new equation finally breaks down to: 0 + 0 - 9... which finally results in: -9 (answer B).
As always, please feel free to share thoughts, questions, comments, and/or concerns. As you can likely understand, this question threw me for a while, and I did not understand Bunuel's logic of breaking out the "-39", thus I researched how to find the max of a second degree polynomial, did not see the affiliated logic shared throughout the thread, and felt compelled to share. Hope this helps!