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# Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the

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Senior Manager
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Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2008, 16:58
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Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the deliberate and even brutal aggression integral to some forms of competitive athletics increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts among crowds of spectators dominated by young adult males.
A
increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts
B
increase the likelihood that there will be an eruption of imitative violence
C
increase the likelihood of imitative violence erupting
D
increases the likelihood for imitative violence to erupt
E
increases the likelihood that imitative violence will erupt
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19 Feb 2008, 17:42
Is it (E).

the Brutal aggression (singular) requires increases that.
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19 Feb 2008, 21:23
I prefer "likelihood that" to "likelyhood for".

GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
vscid wrote:
Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the deliberate and even brutal aggression integral to some forms of competitive athletics increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts among crowds of spectators dominated by young adult males.
A
increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts
B
increase the likelihood that there will be an eruption of imitative violence
C
increase the likelihood of imitative violence erupting
D
increases the likelihood for imitative violence to erupt
E
increases the likelihood that imitative violence will erupt

What is wrong with D?

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19 Feb 2008, 22:20
It should be E.

The trouble with D is that it is not idiomatic to say "likelihood for", rather "likelihood of" or in this case "likelihood that..." sound much better.

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20 Feb 2008, 00:47
Subject of underline clause: brutal aggression – singular and requires singular verb – eliminate A, B and C
Idiom usage: likelihood of not likelihood for – eliminate D

A increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts
B increase the likelihood that there will be an eruption of imitative violence
C increase the likelihood of imitative violence erupting
D increases the likelihood for imitative violence to erupt
E increases the likelihood that imitative violence will erupt

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20 Feb 2008, 01:11
I believe it is C.

The usage is "likelihood of ". SO, only A and C remain.

It's the likelihood of an event that the author is trying to mention. So, C is the answer.

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20 Feb 2008, 16:43
hanumayamma wrote:
Subject of underline clause: brutal aggression – singular and requires singular verb – eliminate A, B and C
Idiom usage: likelihood of not likelihood for – eliminate D

A increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts
B increase the likelihood that there will be an eruption of imitative violence
C increase the likelihood of imitative violence erupting
D increases the likelihood for imitative violence to erupt
E increases the likelihood that imitative violence will erupt

OA E.
Is there a source where the usage of 'likelihood' is explained? (that 'likelihood for' is incorrect and 'likelihood that' is correct)

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20 Feb 2008, 18:43
I thought it was C...can anyone explain why I am wrong...

I thought the verb should be "increase" as we are dealing with a compound plural noun "deliberate and even brutal aggression". I thought "and" forms a plural noun...

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20 Feb 2008, 19:25
'deliberate' and 'brutal' are adjectives modifying the noun aggresion.
There is only 1 aggression.Hence singular.

The choice boils down to D and E.
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20 Feb 2008, 19:46
jay02 wrote:
I thought it was C...can anyone explain why I am wrong...

I thought the verb should be "increase" as we are dealing with a compound plural noun "deliberate and even brutal aggression". I thought "and" forms a plural noun...

'Deliberate and even brutal aggression' is singular. The noun is 'agression'. Deliberate and Brutal are adjectives. So it's noy plural.
e.g. In 'Pretty and small bird' , BIRD is singular.

Hope it helps.

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20 Feb 2008, 19:53
The proper idiomatic expression is "likelihood of." So you can scratch D since "likelihood for" or "likelihood" + anything else is totally wrong. Several members have pointed out the trouble with A, B and C.

We're only left with E now. The "that" in "...the likelihood that...." introduces a complementary clause that tells us a bit more about the noun "likelihood" - - and this is grammatically correct with there being no need for "of" of "for" etc., so E is the most appealing option.

vscid wrote:

OA E.
Is there a source where the usage of 'likelihood' is explained? (that 'likelihood for' is incorrect and 'likelihood that' is correct)
[/quote]

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21 Feb 2008, 04:17
Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the deliberate and even brutal aggression integral to some forms of competitive athletics increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts among crowds of spectators dominated by young adult males.

aggression is singular, calls for a plural verb thus A,B,C are gone

now left with D & E

D -"for" improper

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
English is very fluid and you can shift words between parts of speech quite easily.

-hood is probably the most general suffix for turning another word into a noun meaning, basically, "the condition of being _____"

The condition of being likely (adverb)=likelihood
the condition of being a child (noun) = childhood
the condition of being false (adjective) = falsehood

The suffix -ship also denotes 'the condition of being ____' but only attached to nouns: friendship, partnership, lordship.

The suffix -ness does the same for adjectives and past participles: redness, datedness.

This is English so there are probably a thousand variables but that's the general principle at work.

---------------------------------------------------------

regards,
Pras
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21 Feb 2008, 15:14
E

A-C are wrong because of "increase"
D is wrong because of "likelihood for"

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21 Feb 2008, 18:03
prasannar wrote:
Many psychologists and sociologists now contend that the deliberate and even brutal aggression integral to some forms of competitive athletics increase the likelihood of imitative violence that erupts among crowds of spectators dominated by young adult males.

aggression is singular, calls for a plural verb thus A,B,C are gone

now left with D & E

D -"for" improper

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
English is very fluid and you can shift words between parts of speech quite easily.

-hood is probably the most general suffix for turning another word into a noun meaning, basically, "the condition of being _____"

The condition of being likely (adverb)=likelihood
the condition of being a child (noun) = childhood
the condition of being false (adjective) = falsehood

The suffix -ship also denotes 'the condition of being ____' but only attached to nouns: friendship, partnership, lordship.

The suffix -ness does the same for adjectives and past participles: redness, datedness.

This is English so there are probably a thousand variables but that's the general principle at work.

---------------------------------------------------------

regards,
Pras

thanks for that source pras, but that still doesnt indicate the correct usage of 'likelihood for/likelihood of/likelihood that.
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Re: SC-VIOLENCE   [#permalink] 21 Feb 2008, 18:03
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