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# Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic

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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
I have marked question no 1 as D..can somebody explain why it's not correct

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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
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sumeetprakash04 wrote:
I have marked question no 1 as D..can somebody explain why it's not correct

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Explanation

1. Which one of the following most accurately states the author’s main point in the passage?

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

Your prediction as to the essence of a Global question like this one ought to include the Topic (wine), its Scope (healthful effects), and Purpose (to explain same). (E) includes all of those things, and is rendered even better because it brings in the comparison to other beverages which the author goes into periodically, as well as the important theory about grapes that’s introduced in lines 53-60.

(A) is a good summary of paragraph 1 alone, but fails miserably as a main point answer choice. It fails to give wine prominence,
and utterly ignores the promising research that is the subject of the two longest paragraph’s.

(B) deemphasizes wine even more woefully than did (A). The causes of heart disease are only mentioned in passing.

(C) blows up a detail from lines 22-25 into the main point. Good gravy, the very detail that follows it (line 25+) is introduced with “More remarkably.” If the following detail is more remarkable, how can the previous one be the main point?

(D) flies in the face of the research explored in lines 13-60, and is far too pessimistic about the effects of wine consumption on health. In essence, (D), like (B), is summing up paragraph 1 only.

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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
Please explain for question 3C why not correct?
the researchers found that
absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream occurs much
more slowly when subjects drink wine than when they
(25) drink distilled spirits

From this i deduce that absorb slowly is beneficial
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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
junii wrote:
Please explain for question 3C why not correct?
the researchers found that
absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream occurs much
more slowly when subjects drink wine than when they
(25) drink distilled spirits

From this i deduce that absorb slowly is beneficial

Remember this is an EXCEPT question we have to identify something which cannot be validated by the passage

For C read the lines 15-25. Since wine’s ability to cause slower alcohol absorption is contrasted to the dangerous effects of other alcoholic beverages, it’s eminently inferable that that slower absorption would surely be a positive factor in preventing heart problems.
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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
1
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1. Which one of the following most accurately states the author’s main point in the passage?

(A) Because of their assumption that alcohol is the only active ingredient in wine, beer, and distilled spirits, scientists have previously studied these beverages in ways that obscure their healthful effects. - Notice that passage only talks only about wine and its healthful effects and NOT the healthful effects of beer or distilled spirit so as to obscure them.
(B) A new study of moderate wine consumption calls into question the belief that premature heart disease is caused solely by the presence of high lipid levels in the bloodstream. - Not true there are other reasons. This is too specific anyways.
(C) Researchers have found that alcohol from moderate wine consumption is absorbed into the bloodstream more slowly than is alcohol from other alcoholic beverages. - Too specific.
(D) Although it has long been held that moderate wine consumption has healthful effects, scientific studies have yet to prove such effects definitively. - Author is actually trying to suggest that wine DOES have healthful effects. There may be scientific studies that havent proven such effects but thats not the point here.
(E) Wine, unlike other alcoholic beverages, appears to have a number of significant healthful effects that may be tied to certain natural compounds found in grapes. - Correct.

2. In the first paragraph, the author most likely refers to the centuries-old belief that wine has healthful effects in order to

Refer lines "Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic beverages have assumed that wine, like beer or distilled spirits, is a drink whose only active ingredient is alcohol."
"wine has for centuries been thought to have healthful effects that these scientists—who not only make no distinction (10) among wine, beer, and distilled spirits but also study only the excessive or abusive intake of these beverages—have obscured."

(A) demonstrate that discoveries in the realm of science often bear out popular beliefs - Irrelevant.
(B) provide evidence for the theory that moderate wine consumption ameliorates factors that contribute to premature heart disease - centuries old belief cannot be a valid evidence for the argument. It simply isnt the aim of the author here.
(C) argue that traditional beliefs are no less important than scientific evidence when investigating health matters - Irrelevant.
(D) suggest that a prevailing scientific assumption might be mistaken - Correct
(E) refute the argument that science should take cues from popular beliefs - Incorrect and irrelevant.

3. According to the passage, each of the following might help to prevent premature heart disease EXCEPT:

(A) an increase in the degree to which platelets cause blood to clot - Exact 180. Increase in blood clots will only worsen the situation.
(B) an increase in the body’s ability to remove lipids from the bloodstream - Refer "lipids (fats and other substances including cholesterol), causing dangerous increases in (20) the levels of these substances in the blood, increases that are a large contributing factor in the development of premature heart disease" So naturally removing lipids will help prevent premature heart diseases.
(C) an increase in the amount of time it takes alcohol to be absorbed into the bloodstream - Refer "absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream occurs much more slowly when subjects drink wine than when they (25) drink distilled spirits."
(D) increased activity of a natural compound that reduces blood clotting - Refer "the studies show increased activity (35) of a natural clot breaking compound used by doctors to restore blood flow through blocked vessels in victims of heart disease"
(E) increased levels of compounds that prevent damage from high lipid levels - Refer "the studies of wine drinkers indicate increased levels of certain compounds that may help to prevent damage from high lipid levels."

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the passage’s position concerning the apparently healthful effects of moderate wine consumption?

(A) Subjects who consumed large amount of grape juice exhibited decreased thickness of the innermost walls of their blood vessels. - Correct.
(B) Subjects who were habitual drinkers of wine and subjects who were habitual drinkers of beer exhibited similar lipid levels in their bloodstreams. - Comparing with beer does not help
(C) Subjects who drank grape juice exhibited greater platelet adhesiveness than did subjects who drank no grape juice. - Would weaken the position.
(D) Subjects who drank excessive amounts of wine suffered from premature heart disease at roughly the same rate as moderate wine drinkers. - Weakens.
(E) Subjects who possess a natural clot-breaking compound were discovered to have a certain gene that is absent from subjects who do not possess the compound. - Shows that genes were responsible for the effect.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely agree with which one of the following statements?

(A) Scientists should not attempt to study the possible healthful effects of moderate consumption of beer and distilled spirits. - Not mentioned.
(B) The conclusion that alcohol affects lipid processing should be questioned in light of studies of moderate wine consumption. - In fact the author agrees that alcohol affects lipid processing but calls out a compound present in grapes that ameliorates the effect on lipid levels.
(C) Moderate consumption of wine made from plums or apples rather than grapes would be unlikely to reduce the risk of premature heart disease. - Correct Refer lines "potentially healthful effects of moderate wine intake may derive from the concentration of certain natural compounds found in grapes and not present in other alcoholic (60) beverages.".
(D) Red wine consumption has a greater effect on reducing death rates from premature heart disease than does white wine consumption. - Not mentioned.
(E) Beer and distilled spirits contain active ingredients other than alcohol whose effects tend to be beneficial. - Not mentioned.
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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
Hello Sajjad1994 can you share the OE of Ques 8 if possible.
Thank you.
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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
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Akarshkhan86 wrote:
Hello Sajjad1994 can you share the OE of Ques 8 if possible.
Thank you.

Explanation

8. The author suggests each of the following in the passage EXCEPT:

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Here’s a rarity: an “all of the following EXCEPT” Inference question. Four of the five choices are inferable; therefore the right answer is either contradictory to, or outside the scope of, the text. Keep that 4/1 distinction in mind as you attack the choices. And be sure to look back to the text for support each time.

(A) is a concept we touched on during Q. 3(A), where we scanned the various references to platelets and agreed that platelet adhesiveness leads to blood clots and, hence, to more heart problems.

(B) isn’t really an inference but is more or less stated directly in lines 17-22.

(C)’s compound is explicitly alluded to in lines 34-36. It must exist because doctors are using it!

(D) is the contradiction we want. Paragraph 3 draws a sharp distinction between the effects of lipids and “several additional important contributing factors” that include endothelian cell reactivity and platelet adhesiveness. The passage does no more than deem high lipid levels to be “dangerous” without further explanation. So (D) is a jumble of different passage details that is far from inferable.

(E) Having found (D), we expect that (E) will be readily inferable, and it is, right out of lines 49-52.

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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
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Re: Most scientists who study the physiological effects of alcoholic [#permalink]
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