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# Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer

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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2009, 00:44
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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide, and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide, therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.

which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the argument above?

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds For every crop that is currently grown commercially
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds Can be kept completely free of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 07:04
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In this kind of question you're looking for an answer choice that if is true strengthen/weakens the argument and that if is false has weakens/strengthen the argument.

Premise 1: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds
to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage

Premise 2: The seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is
likely to decline

Premise 3: farmers planting them can use far less pesticide

Premise 4: most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide

Conclusion : their use is likely to become the norm

The author provides all the evidence to support that the use of the seeds will become a norm

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds for every crop that is currently grown commercially

If this is false nothing hampers that the seeds become the norm.
If this is true more seeds will become the norm.

A is out.

B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.

if this is true with the new seeds farmers will need to put less pesticides; the amount decreases
if this is false with the new seeds farmers will need to put less pesticides; the amount decreases even in a greater proportion.
The effect is the same so B is out.

C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds can be kept completely free of insect damage.

if this is true, this strengthens the argument
if this is false, we do not whether the current seeds are completely free of damage (in principle they are not) so no effect

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds.

If this is true perhaps the farmers will want to continue use the current seeds because they produce greater crop per acre
if this is false the argument is strengthen because farmers will want to use the new seeds.

Correct. Two different effects

E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties
in the past.

This does not address the new seeds so is irrelevant.

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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2009, 01:00
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IMO D

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds For every crop that is currently grown commercially -Incorrect. Argument already saying "is likely to become the norm", that means it is still in initial phase of development.
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage. -Out of scope. The argument just says that "farmers planting them can use far less pesticide". Its "far less" then the normal amount used today, and people will prefer vegetables using less amount of pesticides than the normal amount
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds Can be kept completely free of insect damage. -Argument already saying that its "highly resistant to insect damage". That means there is still chances, though may be very little, of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds. -Correct. If the new seeds generate significantly low crop yield, then it may become difficult to become a norm.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past. -Irrelevant
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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seed [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2016, 00:35
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johnnguyen2016 wrote:
Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide, and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide. Therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.

Which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the argument above?

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds for every crop that is currently grown commercially

B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage

C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds can be kept completely free of insect damage

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds

E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past

Thanks.

Premise: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage and at present they are costly, but the costs will reduce in future:
Conclusion: These seeds will ve vastly used in the future.

We need to evaluate this conclusion. If we ask questions such as the yield of the seeds or the life of the crops etc. we can determine whether more farmers will use the seeds.
Option D asks the same question about the yield. If the new seeds produce low crops, then farmers might not use them

Does this help?
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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seed [#permalink]

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11 May 2016, 22:20
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johng2016 wrote:
Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide, and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide. Therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.

Which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the argument above?

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds for every crop that is currently grown commercially

B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage

C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds can be kept completely free of insect damage

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds

E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past

Thanks.

Responding to a pm:

Premises:
- Genetically modified vegetable seeds are highly resistant to insect damage.
- They cost more but the cost is likely to decline.
- They need far less pesticide, and most consumers prefer that.

Conclusion: for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds for every crop that is currently grown commercially

Out of scope. The argument clearly discusses only "for crops for which these seeds can be developed". Every crop is not our concern.

B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage

This doesn't matter since it will be the same in either case.
GM crops need much less pesticide than do regular crops. Say, GM crops need only 20 kg per acre while regular crops need 100 kg per acre. If farmers do use more pesticides than is necessary, they will use perhaps 110 kg in case of regular crops and 25 kg in case of GM crops. But GM crops will need much less so anyway they will use less than the amount they use in case of regular crops.
If the farmers use only that much pesticide as is necessary, then too they will use much less pesticide in case of GM crops.
So all in all, GM crops are a better deal than regular crops so evaluating this point wouldn't help us judge whether GM crops will be the norm.

C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds can be kept completely free of insect damage

They are much more resistant to insect damage. Whether they will make the crops completely insect-proof, we don't know. It doesn't matter either. Since they are far more resistant, they should become the norm.

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds

The argument discusses the positives of the GM seeds and declares that they will become the norm. But it will be useful to evaluate if they have any shortcomings compared to regular seeds. If their yield is much lower, farmers are likely to not use them since they might earn less than what they earn currently. Hence, this will be useful to evaluate. This will tell us whether GM crops are likely to be the norm.

E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past.

GM crops have much higher resistance as compared with regular crops. Whether the resistance of regular crops has naturally increased over time doesn't matter. GM crops are much more resistant.

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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2010, 04:53
2
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This post was
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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds
to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although
these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is
likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide,
and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide,
therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use
is likely to become the norm.
which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the
argument above?
A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds
For every crop that is currently grown commercially
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger
Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds
Can be kept completely free of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant
crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do
currently used seeds.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have
Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties
in the past.

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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2014, 23:48
2
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dshuvendu wrote:
perfectstranger wrote:
Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds
to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although
these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is
likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide,
and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide,
therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use
is likely to become the norm.
which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the
argument above?
A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds
For every crop that is currently grown commercially
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger
Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds
Can be kept completely free of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant
crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do
currently used seeds.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have
Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties
in the past.
OA after explanations
Experts, kindly assist. My take is B because everything is revolving around B. I find the option as a weakner n strengthener. What is the OA ?

Hii mate,
let me try to clarify my understanding..
i had also selected B at first,then i figured out that option B says,whether farmers at present use more pesticides than required..this option doesnt give us enough proof that they will continue to use more than enough pesticides for genetically engineered seeds as well..so whether there usage currently is more than or less than required is not enough to strenghthen or weaken the arguement..On the other hand,as per D,if the farm is not providing atleast equal productivity than before,then it creates enough doubts whether use of G.engineered seeds will become a norm..OA- D

Hope that clears
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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seed [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2016, 23:57
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Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide, and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide. Therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.

Which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the argument above?

A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds for every crop that is currently grown commercially

B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage

C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds can be kept completely free of insect damage

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do currently used seeds

E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties in the past
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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 04:10
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I've looked that question again, however I did not understand the reasoning. Could someone explain the reasoning behind it ? Kudos will be appreciated to the good reasonings . Thanks
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10 Oct 2010, 07:39
1
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raghavs wrote:
Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds
to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although
these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is
likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide,
and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide,
therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use
is likely to become the norm.
which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the
argument above?
A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds
For every crop that is currently grown commercially
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger
Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds
Can be kept completely free of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant
crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do
currently used seeds.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have
Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties
in the past.

Conclusion: Therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use
is likely to become the norm.

We need to find out what other information would likely be a deciding factor in arriving at the conclusion above. That additional information could strengthen or weaken the conclusion, either way it should impact the conclusion stated in the stimulus.

Scanning through the options above, option C and D can be narrowed down since the impact the conclusion in some way.

Option C -- Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds
Can be kept completely free of insect damage.

We have been told in the stimulus that the plants are highly resistant and hence this option is only questioning the premise and not the conclusion.

D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant
crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do
currently used seeds.

If the crops were to become the norm then it should at least have the same about of yield. If for some reason the yield is less than what it is currently then these G.M crops could not become the norm. This is the correct option.

Option D.
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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seed [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 12:44
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Hi OptimusPrepJanielle /chetan2u ,

I am not convinced with the solution-
IMO-B

Plant scientists have been able to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. -- We call these new crops s Geneticlly engineer seeds

Positives of this crop- Highly resistant to insect damage
Grown with less pesticide.

Negatives- It is expensive but the good thing is the cost will soon decline

Conclusion- Therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use is likely to become the norm.
Or we can say that the conclusion says that the use of enetically engineer vegetable seeds will become NORM.

Why it will become norm..?? Because it uses less pesticide and people prefer this.

Suppose there are two products in the market Apple 1 (Ordinary product)
Apple2 ( New product)
Currently Apple2 is expensive but its cost will decline.
So,after sometime we can say both have same price-

I conclude that Apple2 will soon become NORM.
Why Do I conclude this..
My reasoning behind this is-- Farmers use 2 bottle of PESTICIDE while producing Apple1
On the other hand, Farmers use 1 bottle of PESTICIDE while producing Apple2.
And consumers prefer products grown with less pesticide.

Although farmers require 1 bottle of PESTICIDE while producing Apple2 but they use 2 bottle of PESTICIDE.
So, I can't say wether consumer will prefer Apple2 over Apple1.

Hence, IMO-B

Can you please assist..where is my reasoning wrong...??

Thanks
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Re: Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seed [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 01:54
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Expert's post
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi OptimusPrepJanielle / chetan2u ,

Thanks

Hi PrakharGMAT,
since you are looing at B, let me tell you Why it should not be the answer..

Quote:
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage...

Yes, you are correct that they will use excess pesticides. But if he is used to using larger amounts, it was existing earlier too and now also..
AND when you read the choice, the stress in the option should be on THAN IS NECESSARY...

this means earlier if he required 100 kgs for a specific area, he was using 120 kgs....
Now ONLY 10 kgs is necessary, he will use 12 kgs..

Still it will be lesser than previous times and people will prefer it..

Yes, if the choice said -- Whether farmers typically use same amount of agricultural pesticides to prevent crop damage irrespective of type of seeds...
This coud have been a valid answer
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10 Oct 2010, 10:42
D

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10 Oct 2010, 10:52
It's d

Posted from my mobile device

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10 Oct 2010, 23:22
good explanation ezhilkumarank..kudos to u

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11 Oct 2010, 00:09
Kudos to you for a good post. Please keep them coming. Also, how are you finding 1000 series? I did the first 16 tests and found them a bit unnecessarily challenging and sometimes pretty vague. But this one was good. Has there been any research on the 1000CR?

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11 Oct 2010, 00:40
hi hemanthp sorry this Q is not from 1000 series.was mistakenly included in 1000 series.I too find 1000 series question is bit short and only few questions matches with real gmat questions.Do u have any good source for critical resoning questions.????

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11 Oct 2010, 01:32
I am doing Veritas which has about 200 CR questions and also has good theory to go with it. The level of toughness isn't awesome but decent. IT is good practice.
I have discovered bellcurves.com recently which, for some thankful reasons, keeps on giving me free tests (i have taken 2 already) and I find their CR really good. I will continue taking as long as its free.
I am going through ARCO, KAplan, mcGrawHill and other textbooks just for questions. Each book has about 50 and we can run through each one in half a day. this is better than going through some unknown source because there are explanations and answers. Once I exhaust this, then will go through 1000.
But even browsing through the gmatclub forums is a good way to practice.
Thank you.

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12 Oct 2010, 02:05
raghavs wrote:
Plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer vegetable seeds
to produce crops that are highly resistant to insect damage. Although
these seeds currently cost more than conventional seeds, their cost is
likely to decline. Moreover, farmers planting them can use far less pesticide,
and most consumers prefer vegetables grown with less pesticide,
therefore, for crops for which these seeds can be developed, their use
is likely to become the norm.
which of the following would be most useful to know in evaluating the
argument above?
A. Whether plant scientists have developed insect-resistant seeds
For every crop that is currently grown commercially
B. Whether farmers typically use agricultural pesticides in larger
Amounts than is necessary to prevent crop damage.
C. Whether plants grown from the new genetically engineered seeds
Can be kept completely free of insect damage.
D. Whether seeds genetically engineered to produce insect-resistant
crops generate significantly lower per acre crop yields than do
currently used seeds.
E. Whether most varieties of crops currently grown commercially have
Greater natural resistance to insect damage than did similar varieties
in the past.

P1- Scientists have engineered genetic seeds with Higher resistance to Pests.
P2- This seeds will significantly reduce the Pesticides currently used.
P3- Consumers prefer vegetables grown with lesser perticides.
Conclusion - These seeds will become the norm.

Only option D clearly provides new information relevant to the argument to make a decision. One technique I find usefull in these questions is by answering hypothetically to the Answer choices and determining if the answer ( irrespective of positive or negative ) has any impact on the conclusion.
Eg. If I answer No to Option D, then it typically strengthens the argument while for all other options it neither strengthens or weakens the argument.
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12 Oct 2010, 04:43
D..

Since I am left with little time..which one gives best practice questions for CRs?
Currently I have OG12, Kaplan & PR. I have done most of them in OG12..
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Re: Plant scientists   [#permalink] 12 Oct 2010, 04:43

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