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Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam

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Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Aug 2019, 04:39
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Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalamus, called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs), were what controlled our circadian rhythms. Those rhythms are the biological cycles that recur approximately every 24 hours in synchronization with the cycle of sunlight and darkness caused by Earth’s rotation. Studies have demonstrated that in some animals, the SCNs control daily fluctuations in blood pressure, body temperature, activity level, and alertness, as well as the nighttime release of the sleep-promoting agent melatonin. Furthermore, cells in the human retina dedicated to transmitting information about light level to the SCNs have recently been discovered.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not just the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans. In addition, when laboratory rats that usually ate at will were fed only once a day, peak activity of a clock gene in their livers shifted by 12 hours, whereas the same clock gene in the SCNs remained synchronized with light cycles. While scientists do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as the regulation of body temperature and blood pressure, scientists now believe that circadian clocks in other organs and tissues may respond to external cues other than light—including temperature changes—that recur regularly 24 hours.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
(B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate
(C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers
(D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revised
(E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon




2. The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT

(A) activity level
(B) blood pressure
(C) alertness
(D) vision
(E) temperature



3. The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs?

(A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus.
(B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
(C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body.
(D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed.
(E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues.


Originally posted by JarvisR on 16 Aug 2015, 09:06.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 04:39, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (177).
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2015, 11:56
8
JarvisR wrote:
Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalamus, called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs), were what controlled our circadian rhythms. Those rhythms are the biological cycles that recur approximately every 24 hours in synchronization with the cycle of sunlight and darkness caused by Earth’s rotation. Studies have demonstrated that in some animals, the SCNs control daily fluctuations in blood pressure, body temperature, activity level, and alertness, as well as the nighttime release of the sleep-promoting agent melatonin. Furthermore , cells in the human retina dedicated to transmitting information about light level to the SCNs have recently been discovered.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not that the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans. In addition, when laboratory rats that usually ate at will were fed only once a day, peak activity of a clock gene in their livers shifted by 12 hours, whereas the same clock gene in the SCNs remained synchronized with light cycles. While scientists do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as the regulation of body temperature and blood pressure, scientists now believe that circadian clocks in other organs and tissues may respond to external cues other than light – including temperature changes – that recur regularly 24 hours.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate
C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers
D) discuss evidence that ;has caused a longstanding belief to be revise
E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon



The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT
A) activity level
B) blood pressure
C) alertness
D) vision
E) temperature


The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs ?
A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus.
B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body.
D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed.
E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues.


Dear JarvisR,
I'm happy to respond. :-) This of course is the 3rd RC passage in the OG2016, and the questions are RC #8-10.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate
C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers
D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revise
E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon

In Par 1, he talks about the role of the SCN in regulating circadian rhythms. In Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything. The first paragraph really sets the stage of what the author wants to say. The second paragraph is really the author's main point, the juicy point he want to make--- the first paragraph just sets the stage so we have context for the second paragraph. The "SCN runs the whole thing" theory was called "long believed," so it is a longstanding theory that the new evidence calls into question, causing scientist to revise the longstanding theory. This is what (D) says.

The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT
A) activity level
B) blood pressure
C) alertness
D) vision
E) temperature

The choices (A), (B), (C), and (E) are all mentioned, in the second half of the first paragraph, as functions that the SCN controls. By contrast, vision is tricky. The SCN doesn't "control" vision. Instead, vision provides the crucial data, information about natural light, that allows the SCN to do its job. The SCN depends on vision, it doesn't control it. OA = (D).

The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs ?
A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus.

No, nonsense. The regulation of circadian rhythms occurs elsewhere in the body, but there is no SCN outside the hypothalamus.

B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
A good balanced assessment. The SCN is important, but is no longer believed to be "the only show in town." This is promising.

C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body.
There's zero evidence for this. The SCN is discussed, and then later, gene clocks with a similar role are discuss, but no connection is made back to the SCN.

D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed.
The second paragraph says: "While scientist do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as ... blood pressure." This choice directly contradicts this quote.

E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues.
No. Confuses different things. The SCNs respond to light. The gene clocks & circadian clocks in other parts of the body respond to other external cues.

OA = (B)

Here's a blog you may find useful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-rc-el ... g-answers/

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any further questions about any of these.

Mike :-)
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2017, 15:31
2
priyanshu14 wrote:
Hi, I am finding it difficult to understand the passage starting from "Four Critical genes" till the end. So, unable to answer Q1 and Q3. Please support

Dear priyanshu14

I'm happy to respond. :-)

Part of the problem was a single word misprint that made the first sentence incomprehensible. Here's what appeared in the first post of this thread:
Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not that the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans.
That sentence made no sense, so I check in the OG: here's what it should be:
Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not just the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans.
I made the change in the passage above. I don't know whether this helps.

Apart from that, my friend, I am going to say that your question is really a non-question. All you say is that you don't understand. This is a question that provide almost no information. An excellent question would make clear: what do you understand? What questions do you have about the passage? What do you think about the things about which you feel uncertain? Say as much as you can about this passage. See this post:
Asking Excellent Questions
You see, asking excellent question is one of the habits of excellence. You cannot achieve excellence on the GMAT unless you are willing to put in the effort to be excellent in each aspect of your studying.

I am going to challenge you: write the high-quality question you can about this second paragraph, and I will answer your question.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Sep 2017, 09:47
Passage notes:
Passage 1: Scientists (long believed): 2 nerve clusters (SCNs) controlled rhythms (cycles-24 hours)
- Studies suggest something about animals : SCNs control BP, temp., activity, alertness, and melatonin.

- Furthermore (more info. on the same line): cells in retina discovered

Passage 2: 4 genes governing cycles are found in every tissue.
- However (some contrast)
-In addition- Experiment explained

Scientists (now believe): C. Clocks MAY respond to external cues other than light.

412. D
413. D
414. A



Thanks

Originally posted by Shiv2016 on 29 Jun 2017, 03:10.
Last edited by Shiv2016 on 29 Sep 2017, 09:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 11:54
4:54 sec.

Ans:
1. Scientists believe SCN controlled circadian rhythms. But later new discoveries have led to believe that other genes also regulate these cycles.
So answer is D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revise

2. Passage mentions everything except vision. Answer D

3. Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been discovered. Answer is B which says that the SCNs do not play an exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 19:22
mikemcgarry wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalamus, called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs), were what controlled our circadian rhythms. Those rhythms are the biological cycles that recur approximately every 24 hours in synchronization with the cycle of sunlight and darkness caused by Earth’s rotation. Studies have demonstrated that in some animals, the SCNs control daily fluctuations in blood pressure, body temperature, activity level, and alertness, as well as the nighttime release of the sleep-promoting agent melatonin. Furthermore , cells in the human retina dedicated to transmitting information about light level to the SCNs have recently been discovered.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not that the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans. In addition, when laboratory rats that usually ate at will were fed only once a day, peak activity of a clock gene in their livers shifted by 12 hours, whereas the same clock gene in the SCNs remained synchronized with light cycles. While scientists do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as the regulation of body temperature and blood pressure, scientists now believe that circadian clocks in other organs and tissues may respond to external cues other than light – including temperature changes – that recur regularly 24 hours.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate
C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers
D) discuss evidence that ;has caused a longstanding belief to be revise
E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon



The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT
A) activity level
B) blood pressure
C) alertness
D) vision
E) temperature


The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs ?
A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus.
B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body.
D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed.
E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues.


Dear JarvisR,
I'm happy to respond. :-) This of course is the 3rd RC passage in the OG2016, and the questions are RC #8-10.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate
C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers
D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revise
E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon

In Par 1, he talks about the role of the SCN in regulating circadian rhythms. In Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything. The first paragraph really sets the stage of what the author wants to say. The second paragraph is really the author's main point, the juicy point he want to make--- the first paragraph just sets the stage so we have context for the second paragraph. The "SCN runs the whole thing" theory was called "long believed," so it is a longstanding theory that the new evidence calls into question, causing scientist to revise the longstanding theory. This is what (D) says.

The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT
A) activity level
B) blood pressure
C) alertness
D) vision
E) temperature

The choices (A), (B), (C), and (E) are all mentioned, in the second half of the first paragraph, as functions that the SCN controls. By contrast, vision is tricky. The SCN doesn't "control" vision. Instead, vision provides the crucial data, information about natural light, that allows the SCN to do its job. The SCN depends on vision, it doesn't control it. OA = (D).

The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs ?
A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus.

No, nonsense. The regulation of circadian rhythms occurs elsewhere in the body, but there is no SCN outside the hypothalamus.

B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms.
A good balanced assessment. The SCN is important, but is no longer believed to be "the only show in town." This is promising.

C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body.
There's zero evidence for this. The SCN is discussed, and then later, gene clocks with a similar role are discuss, but no connection is made back to the SCN.

D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed.
The second paragraph says: "While scientist do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as ... blood pressure." This choice directly contradicts this quote.

E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues.
No. Confuses different things. The SCNs respond to light. The gene clocks & circadian clocks in other parts of the body respond to other external cues.

OA = (B)

Here's a blog you may find useful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-rc-el ... g-answers/

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any further questions about any of these.

Mike :-)


Hi Mike,

in above passage what does following sentence want to convey.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles
have been found to be active in every tissue,
however, not just the SCNs, of flies, mice, and
humans.

Regards,
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 09:54
ammuseeru wrote:
Hi Mike,

in above passage what does following sentence want to convey.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles
have been found to be active in every tissue,
however, not just the SCNs, of flies, mice, and
humans.

Regards,
Ammu


I'm happy to respond. :-)

So, the passage lets us know that the "suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)" is the place that runs the circadian cycles (that is, the 24-hour cycles of sleeping & waking). Naively, we would expect everything about circadian rhythms to be run from there. Then, this sentences surprises us.

Four critical genes governing circadian cycles have been found to be active in every tissue, however, not just the SCNs, of flies, mice, and humans.

Four of the genes that play crucial role in governing sleep/wake cycles are not just in the SCN, where we'd expect--instead, they're everywhere throughout the body!

My friend, if this sentence was a challenge to you, you need to practice reading. You need to read Scientific American every week for practice. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2018, 22:03
rajatbanik wrote:
Hi Mike,

I am having confusion in Q1. in both option D and E. I chose E due to the fact that it was long standing belief on SCNs,however in the last sentence the scientist agreed the role of SCNs and provided an new piece of information for cardiac system.

So why D is correct.


Hi rajatbanik,

Carolyn from Magoosh here -- I can step in for Mike :-)

This option is definitely tempting! Choice E) here states:

E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon

Presumably, this "biological phenomenon" is the biological cycles, or circadian rhythms. Now, part of this fits, in a sense -- it seems reasonable to describe circadian rhythms as a "commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon". However, does the passage attempt to explain it? Not really -- it mostly just describes the existing theory, and the problems with the theory. It doesn't present any alternative explanation, it just says that something other than SCNs must also contribute to the phenomenon of circadian rhythms. The passage mentions a few things like temperature changes, but it definitely doesn't focus on any particular alternative explanation.

So, we can't say that attempting to explain this phenomenon is the primary purpose of this passage. Choice D fits better :-)

Hope that helps! :-)
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 07:05
P1 - SCN, how it works
P2 - a theory around this, proof.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings - no
(B) present two sides of an ongoing scientific debate - no
(C) report answers to several questions that have long puzzled researchers - could be
(D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revised - could be
(E) attempt to explain a commonly misunderstood biological phenomenon - no misunderstood

c- only one question snc alone controls or not .
d- yes, first line gave that belief, rest tried to proove it.

---------------------------

2. The passage mentions each of the following as a function regulated by SCNs in same animals EXCEPT

daily fluctuations in blood pressure, body temperature, activity level, and alertness, as well as the nighttime release of the sleep-promoting agent melatonin

(D) vision

---------------------------------------------

3. The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statement about the SCNs?

(A) The SCNs are found in other organs and tissues of the body besides the hypothalamus. - could be
(B) The SCNs play a critical but not exclusive role in regulating circadian rhythms. - could be
(C) The SCNs control clock genes in a number of tissues and organs throughout the body. - no
(D) The SCNs are a less significant factor in regulating blood pressure than scientists once believed. - no comparison defind.
(E) The SCNs are less strongly affected by changes in light levels than are by other external cues. - no comparison defind.

Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalamus, called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) - SNC not found in other parts. A can be eliminated.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2018, 20:20
Took 5 minutes in answering....Though the passage was easy got 2/3 correct
I marked C in Question 3
Can anyone please explain how answer of the question 3 is Option B?
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Could you please explain?
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 19:55
vasuca10 wrote:
Took 5 minutes in answering....Though the passage was easy got 2/3 correct
I marked C in Question 3
Can anyone please explain how answer of the question 3 is Option B?
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Could you please explain?



Hello Vasuca10,

Though I am not the expert whom you requested for, I can help you out with this question. Passage 2 states, "While scientists do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as the regulation of body temperature and blood pressure, scientists now believe that circadian clocks in other organs and tissues may respond to external cues other than light. This is essentially what option B is saying as in passage 1, we can deduce that scientists believed that SCNs had an exclusive role in the circadian rhythms. Hope this helps!
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 20:27
csaluja spot-on, vasuca10 - Sorry mate, I might have missed your request among other things. I will focus on approach. How to approach such type of questions. So
1. first thing is Para map - you have to be clear what para is saying what.
2. read the question carefully and understand what you need to answer.
3. read the choices, try to eliminate choices that you can. most cases one can eliminate 2-3 choices.
4. refer right para for remaining choices only. Para map will help you to find the correct or in correct choice. remember that if you have 2 choices left finding a right or wrong choice is going to help you. as remaining choice will be the correct one.
This approach will help you in solving these type of question faster.
This is what I did in my answer above. I left with A and B and then I referred for the passage.
Hope it is helpful.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2019, 14:57
Hi MagooshExpert, SajjadAhmad, workout,

My query is with regard to Q1. In it I eliminated option B, C, and E, for obvious reasons then left with A and D. A and D almost felt like same hence went ahead with A instead D. Could you please assist to find where I made error.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 02:48
First of all analyze the wording used in both options A and D

(A) challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings
(D) discuss evidence that has caused a longstanding belief to be revised

Below is the explanation by "mikemcgarry"

In Par 1, he talks about the role of the SCN in regulating circadian rhythms.
Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything. The first paragraph really sets the stage of what the author wants to say. The second paragraph is really the author's main point, the juicy point he want to make--- the first paragraph just sets the stage so we have context for the second paragraph. The "SCN runs the whole thing" theory was called "long believed," so it is a longstanding theory that the new evidence calls into question, causing scientist to revise the longstanding theory. This is what (D) says.


Gmatprep550 wrote:
Hi MagooshExpert, SajjadAhmad, workout,

My query is with regard to Q1. In it I eliminated option B, C, and E, for obvious reasons then left with A and D. A and D almost felt like same hence went ahead with A instead D. Could you please assist to find where I made error.

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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 03:54
Thanks SajjadAhmad for response.

I felt that A also could be answer as

"Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything" Which can be also inferred as "recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings"

Not sure if I making any mistake in understanding it.
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Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2019, 03:44
1
Gmatprep550 wrote:
Thanks SajjadAhmad for response.

I felt that A also could be answer as

"Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything" Which can be also inferred as "recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings"

Not sure if I making any mistake in understanding it.

In RC, The correct answer should be correct on ALL grounds, i.e., 100% in line with the passage.

Excerpt from the passage:
    While scientists do not dispute the role of the SCNs in controlling core functions such as the regulation of body temperature and blood pressure, scientists now believe that circadian clocks in other organs and tissues may respond to external cues other than light—including temperature changes—that recur regularly 24 hours.

The gist of the above lines:
    Scientists (now believe): Apart from SCNs, Clocks MAY respond to external cues other than light.
    The author agrees with the above-mentioned stance of the scientists. (the recent findings).

To answer your query:
Quote:
I felt that A also could be answered as

"Par. 2, he cites new evidence that is not entirely compatible with the SCN running everything" Which can be also inferred as "recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings"

True, the recent findings MAY appear contradicting to earlier findings.
However,
Reading entire Q in conjunction with Option A: challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings.
    The primary purpose of the passage is to challenge recent findings that appear to contradict earlier findings

No where in the passage the author challenges the recent findings.
The author is not in disagreement with the recent findings.

Moreover, he emphasizes to add the recent findings to the earlier findings, suggesting longstanding belief to be revised.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam   [#permalink] 17 Mar 2019, 03:44
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Scientist long believed that two nerve cluster in the human hypothalam

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