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# Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const

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Joined: 09 Sep 2004
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Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Nov 2018, 03:40
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69% (01:39) correct 31% (01:47) wrong based on 800 sessions

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Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered construction of a butterfly's wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

(A) wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling

(B) wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables

(C) wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, enabling

(D) wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enables

(E) wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enable

Originally posted by mba4me on 14 Sep 2004, 02:32.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Nov 2018, 03:40, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2010, 06:37
3
2
mba4me wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered construction of a butterfly's wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.
A.wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling
B: wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables
C: wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, enabling
D: wings the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence also enables
E: wings of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence also enable

A.wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling
Take it one clause (subject+verb) at a time: scientists (subject) have discovered (verb) that the construction (subject) are enabling (verb). "Construction" is singular, and "are enabling" is plural.

B: wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables
scientists (subject) have discovered (verb) that the construction (subject), but now where is the verb for 'construction'? You cannot complete the clause 'that construction..." with "that enables".

C: wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, enabling
scientists (subject) have discovered (verb) that the construction (subject) is (verb) the same as the one (meaning 'construction') that makes butterflies shimmer. Your clauses have now ended! The 'enabling...' after the comma modifies (adds descriptive information to) the sentence and is not part of the clauses.
There is no grammatical error here; however, you must ask yourself whether this the intended meaning! Does the sentence mean to say that scientists have discovered that the the construction of the wings is the same as the one that makes butterflies shimmer? Let's look at D....

[/b]

D: wings the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence also enables
First of all, there should be a comma after "wings", but let's assume that this is a typo.

scientists (subject) have discovered (verb) that the construction (subject)[the same construction that makes butterflies shimmer] also enables(verb) the insect to control the absorption of heat. This is more likely the intended meaning, namely, that scientists have found a second purpose for the way butterflies' wings are constructed.

E: wings of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence also enable
"the construction"... "enable"-- subject-verb agreement error.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2010, 18:26
3
raghavs wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s
wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of
iridescence, are enabling
the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its
wings and how much is reflected away.

A. wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon
of iridescence, are enabling
B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, enabling
D. wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enables
E. wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enable

Hi!

I'm not sure if you have a specific question or are just wondering about the sentence in general, but we'll look at the whole thing.

A commonly tested grammar topic on the GMAT is modification. Here's the general rule:

Quote:
When a sentence includes a modifying word or phrase, that word or phrase must be placed as closely as possible to whatever it's modifying.

This particular sentence is all about modification - and we recognize that by the parenthetical comment in the middle:

Quote:
, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence,

(I included the commas because those are our signals that we're almost certainly being tested on modification).

So, whatever that phrase is modifying should be directly before or after the phrase.

In the original sentence, the subject of the modifying phrase isn't as clear as the GMAT demands; it could be the wings or the layered construction of the wings. When there's any kind of modification ambiguity, it's extremely unlikely that the choice will be correct.

Looking at the remaining choices:

B) has the same issue as (A) (adding "which is" doesn't make it any clearer) - eliminate.

C) has the same issue as (A) - eliminate.

D) begins with 'the same construction as' - this fixes the ambiguity issue as we now know that we're talking about the layered construction - looks good!

E) "of the same construction" doesn't make sense when read into the sentence - "of" messes up the meaning and flow - eliminate.

Choose (D)!
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 16:32
3
I picked "D" as the best choice out of all; however, I think that "also" is not needed before "enables" (because only one function of wing structure is mentioned).
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Re: Advanced SC: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin  [#permalink]

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01 May 2015, 22:30
2
The original sentence wants to make a point about the construction of the butterfly's wings.

If we read the sentence from "layered construction of a butterfly’s wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.".

We can eliminate the unbolded portion to see that the subject - "layered construction" and the verb "are" do not agree in number.

Choice B

B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables

which refers to wings not the layered construction. Moreover, there is a meaning and agreement issue with this sentence. wings....is- agreement error
Meaning issue- It says that the wings is the same one- wings are compared to some other wing or what? not clear.
Moreover the sentence construction is bad... If we read it after removing the appositive, it reads as follows

Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings that also enables the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away. Upon closer examination the structure of the sentence is
Scientists have discovered the layered construction of X that also enables X to control Z . This thought is incomplete. Therefore, this choice is incorrect.

Choice C
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, enabling

This choice has a meaning error. The ques to be answered is Does the construction of the wings enable the butterfly to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away or the phenomenon of iridescence enables the butterfly to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

This choice suggests that the phenomenon is the reason for control. So the choice is incorrect.

Choice D
wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enables.

This seems to be a fair choice so far. Construction of butterfly's wings is compared to another kind of construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via some phenomenon. Moreover, construction also enables the insect to blah blah ..... the subject ultra-thin(modifier) construction (noun) agrees with the verb, enables. Also is an adverb (modifier)

Choice E has a subject verb agreement error. construction...enable. Therefore, it is incorrect.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2016, 06:28
1
raghavs wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s
wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of
iridescence, are enabling
the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its
wings and how much is reflected away.
A. wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon
of iridescence, are enabling.

B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, enabling
D. wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enables
E. wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enable

A. wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon
of iridescence, are enabling. plural verb is not required for singular 'layered construction'

B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables 'which' incorrectly refers to 'wings'
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, enabling replacing 'one' with 'construction' changes the meaning, stating two constructions to be different. However, intended meaning is that only one construction leads to control the energy and shimmer.
D. wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enables 'enables' is the right verb used for singular 'construction
E. wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence—also enable 'enable' is not right.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2016, 07:07
D is the correct answer.

Meaning is:

- Scientist have recently discovered something
- That something is - layered construction of butterfly enables the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away; Here, construction is the subject and is singular

- The construction is same as the construction, that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence

combining all these points, D stands tall
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2017, 21:14
I don't know why but i think this problem is itself has wrong construction -that the ultrathin, I find this sentence incomplete.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2017, 00:34
2
Top Contributor
Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

Quote:
nightmare
I don't know why but i think this problem is itself has wrong construction -that the ultrathin, I find this sentence incomplete.

I am afraid that the sentence is being parsed wrongly down here. Let's not get into thinking that the ultrathin is any kind of a proper noun or specific name. It is just an adjective meaning extremely thin. The real subject of the sentence is the "construction" that is modified by two back - to - back coordinate adjectives namely ultrathin and layered. In the light of the fact that such a construction is making the butterflys shimmer and is enabling the butterflys to control the heat mechanism, "also enables" is good enough.

Now on to the choices.

A. wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling ---are enabling is SV error.

B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables -- 1. Which is wrongly modifying wings. 2. Wings, which is an awful SV error. 3. This sentence is a fragment.
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, enabling ---- a subtle meaning issue here. This choice wrongfully makes the heat-control mechanism as an effect of the shimmering by placing the heat-controlling as a modifier of shimmering.
D. wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enables -- Correct choice.
E. wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enable --- also enable is SV error.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin,  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 11:28
In A and E, "construction" (singular) does not agree with the plural verbs "are enabling" (in A) and "enable" (in E). Eliminate A and E.

In B, "construction" (subject) lacks a verb. The result is a sentence fragment. Eliminate B.

In C, "enabling" (COMMA + VERBing) should modify the NEAREST preceding clause. But it makes no sense to say the one that makes SOME BUTTERFLIES shimmer...enabling THE INSECT to control: the implication is that THE INSECT refers to SOME BUTTERFLIES. Eliminate C.

The correct answer is D.

A- "are enabling" is incorrect

B- I think the "which" is being used incorrectly here. It is attempting to modify "the layered construction", but it is placed next to wings.

C- This one was tough. I think this is incorrect because of "enabling". In this answer choice, it changes the meaning of the sentence.

D- Correct

E- this is just awkward. The "of the same construction" after the dash seems weird and is not the best way to state that clause.
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Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2017, 21:46
daagh wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

Quote:
nightmare
I don't know why but i think this problem is itself has wrong construction -that the ultrathin, I find this sentence incomplete.

I am afraid that the sentence is being parsed wrongly down here. Let's not get into thinking that the ultrathin is any kind of a proper noun or specific name. It is just an adjective meaning extremely thin. The real subject of the sentence is the "construction" that is modified by two back - to - back coordinate adjectives namely ultrathin and layered. In the light of the fact that such a construction is making the butterflys shimmer and is enabling the butterflys to control the heat mechanism, "also enables" is good enough.

Now on to the choices.

A. wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling ---are enabling is SV error.

B. wings, which is the same one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, that also enables -- 1. Which is wrongly modifying wings. 2. Wings, which is an awful SV error. 3. This sentence is a fragment.
C. wings is the same as the one that makes some butterflies shimmer via the
phenomenon of iridescence, enabling ---- a subtle meaning issue here. This choice wrongfully makes the heat-control mechanism as an effect of the shimmering by placing the heat-controlling as a modifier of shimmering.
D. wings—the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enables -- Correct choice.
E. wings—of the same construction that makes some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence—also enable --- also enable is SV error.

mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- please englighten

1. In option A , if we change are enabling to enable , then option A will be correct ?

Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

2. Is the modifier "the same as the one making .. iridescence" an absolute phrase?

3. Though I was able to select the correct answer , i took longer than usual because of the presence of a comma in "ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings" since initially, I assumed layered construction to be a modifier .
Is the presence of this comma okay here?
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin,  [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2017, 11:45
Skywalker18 wrote:
please englighten

1. In option A , if we change are enabling to enable , then option A will be correct ?

Scientists have recently discovered that the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings, the same as the one making some butterflies shimmer via the phenomenon of iridescence, are enabling the insect to control how much heat energy is absorbed by its wings and how much is reflected away.

2. Is the modifier "the same as the one making .. iridescence" an absolute phrase?

3. Though I was able to select the correct answer , i took longer than usual because of the presence of a comma in "ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings" since initially, I assumed layered construction to be a modifier .
Is the presence of this comma okay here?

Dear Skywalker18,

I'm happy to respond.

This is a very good SC question, and very challenging, as MGMAT material often is. The adjective "ultrathin" is a very sophisticated adjective, not often seen in non-scientific writing. Thus, in the phrase "the ultrathin, layered construction of a butterfly’s wings," the adjectives "ultrathin" and "layered" are in parallel and, as is often the case in constructions in which a pair of parallel adjectives modifies a noun, the two adjectives are separated by a comma. If you didn't recognize "ultrathin" as a adjective, then I could see that this would make the sentence much more confusing. Any time we don't know the part of speech of a single word, it makes the sentence much harder to interpret.

The construction "the same as . . . " is a unmitigated disaster in this sentence. This construction is an appositive phrase and would be correct only if the target is absolutely unambiguous.
Humphrey Bogart achieve peak star status in the movie Casablanca, the same that earned him his first Oscar nomination.
There, the construction is 100% unambiguous. Even here, the construction is a bit casual, colloquial, journalistic, not typical of academic writing. It is definitely not the way a high-brow sophisticated writer would convey the information.

In (A), the phrase is a complete train wreck because we are wondering: the same as the wings? the same as the construction? Choice (D), the OA, cleans up this ambiguity. The verb at the end of (A) is the least of the problems with that choice.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2018, 03:41
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered that the ultra thin, layered const   [#permalink] 30 Nov 2018, 03:41
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