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# Scientists have recently discovered what could be the

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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2003, 16:29
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?
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17 Oct 2010, 19:51
Parallelism really is the key issue here. Any time there are two verbs that fall into the same category, those verbs need to be parallel. For example:

"The dog ran and barked." --> "Ran" and "barked" both fall into the category "things the dog did," so they both need to be in the same tense.

"Yesterday, I went to the beach and spent the day swimming and tanning." --> "Swimming" and "Tanning" both fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday," so they both need to be in the same tense. Notice that "went" is a different tense because it doesn't fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday." You could say "Yesterday, I went to the beach, spent the day swimming, and tanned" but this would change the meaning because there's no indication that the second two verbs were done while at the beach.

In the example above, there are two participles describing the fungus, so they must be parallel.
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24 Jun 2011, 02:20
i am confused between the usage of participle v/s verbs...

Can someone answer the following questions:

1) Can someone please explain how to know we need a participle...

2) Also, what is the main verb in the modifier sentence : "a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,300 years ago and extending for more than 33 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. "? Is this whole bolded part one modifier???

3)Is there a modifier within modifier in the bolder part above ?

4) How do we know a giant fungus that.... forest... that if we start witrh THAT until what part is the modifier there and we need to hide the modifier and re-read the sentence?
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08 May 2012, 00:09
nitinneha wrote:
623. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

According to me A is the correct answer.
According to the stem scientists [highlight]have[/highlight] recently discovered ........fungus that [highlight]is[/highlight] .........tentacles [highlight]spawned[/highlight] and ........forest.
Have ---> present tense
Spawned---> Simple past.This event occurred in the past as a result of which it is now in its present form.
Now let us analyse the following options:
A)extending--> read the sentence in this way,'Scientists have recently discovered .............. and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an......................and rootlike tentacles spawned by ....................and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.'Scientists have found a living organism, so that's why we have to use extending.
B)extends--> A living organism by itself cannot extend.'Scientists have found a living organism that is extending......' is true.'Scientists have foung a living organism ..........blah blah.....and extends...........'is clearly wrong.
C)extended--> This one is not correct, the reason is this if we would use extended (the past form of verb), then it would indicate that it no longer extends or it no longer holds true, which in this case is not true.
D)it extended-->The use of this in above stem as '.....and it extended....' is clearly wrong and makes no sense.
E)is extending-->'............and is extending...' is wrong .

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 06:07
souvik101990 wrote:
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus
that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some
10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

Hi,

IMO,the parallel items here are noun phrase an interwoven filigree of X and Y and the gerund extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
Hence,
A. extending - correct
B. extends - verb(parallelism issue)
C. extended - verb(parallelism issue)
D. it extended - verb(parallelism issue)
E. is extending - 'is' is verb(parallelism issue)

Also note that the discovered fungus still exists; Therefore, we can easily strike out options 'c' and 'd'.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2015, 01:58
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth,
a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles
spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended

(E) is extending

Giant fungus is mentioned as a largest and oldest living organism on earth.
It means that it is still alive now so present continuous tense is required to indicate the same.

extends(Simple present tense) indicates a fact or general truth such as Sun rises. but there is no eternal truth here as it is not going to live forever. So B is incorrect.

since it is alive even now we cannot use past tense(extended). so C and D are incorrect.
Also that and extending are modifying giant fungus and usage of it is redundant and incorrect here in D.

whole giant fungus phrase is modifying the What could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth in the form of additional information.
Main sentence is the discovery by the scientists.

Adding is spoils the parallelism structure of the description between spawned and extending. so E is incorrect choice leaving given sentence correct as is.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 15:28
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

I thought that "extending" was making reference to the "rootlike tentacles" . Look at the statement again, why would "extending" refer to the fungus or "filigre of mushrooms", rather it would make more sense if it was referring to the "rootlike tentacles" since it "extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest", that makes more sense since we are talking about something going "in the soil", which is likely the "rootlike tentacles"....am I making any sense here!?

I chose B (extends)
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2016, 12:22
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending A classic case of past participle and present participle.
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
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03 Feb 2017, 07:20
How do the two sentences differ from each other?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A giant fungus that is-
1) an interwoven filigree of mushrooms.
2) extending for more than 30 acres.

The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

A meat eating dinosaur that -
1) is a distant relative of T-Rex.
2) closely resembles South American predatory Dinosaurs.

Case 1 includes is after 'that'.
Case 2 doesn't.

Help needed to understand.
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2017, 07:35
mpetwal wrote:
How do the two sentences differ from each other?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A giant fungus that is-
1) an interwoven filigree of mushrooms.
2) extending for more than 30 acres.

The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

A meat eating dinosaur that -
1) is a distant relative of T-Rex.
2) closely resembles South American predatory Dinosaurs.

Case 1 includes is after 'that'.
Case 2 doesn't.

Help needed to understand.

The parallelism for the two cases are as follows:

Case 1:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The parallelism is between two noun modifiers:
1. spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years
2. extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest
Both refers to "tentacles".

Case 2:
The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

The parallelism is between two verbs:
1. is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex
2. closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar
Both have the same subject "that".
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2017, 04:22
mpetwal wrote:

When do we use 'comma + and' structure? Only in list parallelism?

Following are the cases when comma + and is used:

1. Before the last item in a list of three or more items:
I like apples, oranges, and grapes.... correct
However this usage is optional. Even without the comma, the sentence is correct: I like apples, oranges and grapes.... correct

2. To join two independent clauses:
She sings, and she dances.... correct.
Here the usage is mandatory. Without the comma, the sentence would be wrong: She sings and she dances.... wrong.
(Note: "She sings and dances" is alright - here two verbs are joined, and hence comma is not required.)
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2017, 02:31
smanujahrc wrote:
why is extending correct when if we follow rules of parallelism extended should be correct
spawned...extended

The first modifier ("spawned by a single fertilized spore") is in passive voice - the tentacles are spawned by a single fertilized spore.
The second modifier ("extending for more than 30 acres in the soil") is in active voice - the tentacles extend for more than 30 acres in the soil (not the tentacles are extended). Thus the parallelism is alright.

Please note that a past participle modifier (verb-ed), a present participle modifier (verb-ing) and an adjective can be used in parallel, if the the participle modifiers function as adjectives.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 06:58
yogesh610 wrote:
I completely understand that we are looking here for the parallelism and the coordinating conjunction gives the hint of it. If spawned is past participle then it should be extending because participles stands in parallel no matter they are in present or past. But i doubt that isn't that spawned seems more like a verb in simple past. I am confused?
help me

you can check whether action was done by the subject to differentiate between participle and verb. For example here tentacles didn't do action of spawning it was done by spore and in question also it is stated as tentacles spawned by....... Therefore spawned is not verb but past participle. Past participle is originated by passive construction , removing helping verb before the participles . Since we need participle after 'and' to make the construction parallel and to show that 'extension' is still happening , we need present participle.

A good explanation is here https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-ver ... 34691.html
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2017, 19:13
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 22:48
VTay25 wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?

Those who got confused between A & B:

The basic structure of the 2nd part of the sentence is "a giant fungus (part1) and (part2)."
To understand the parallelism try to fit part 1 and part 2 individually with "A giant fungus". SO-> <the organism is> : part 1) a giant fungus that is ............
part 2) a giant fungus extending for more than .......
Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the   [#permalink] 13 May 2017, 22:48

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