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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde

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New post Updated on: 15 Jan 2019, 23:23
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 210
Page: 686


https://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/02/us/twin-crowns-for-30-acre-fungus-world-s-biggest-oldest-organism.html

The organism is a giant fungus, an interwoven filagree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore 1,500 to 10,000 years ago and now extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a forest near Crystal Falls, Mich., along the Wisconsin border.

Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?

Originally posted by VTay25 on 03 Jun 2003, 15:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Jan 2019, 23:23, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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New post 31 Mar 2019, 07:19
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BunuelWannabe wrote:
Nevertheless, I still cannot see why are we eliminating b)

In your explanation you said "Choice B: extends: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier." but the verb is parallel to another verb that is placed earlier in the sentence:

"A giant fungus that is"

So, in my opinion, b) would be a correct parallelism as it is logical that the two verbs are referring back to the subject Giant Fungus

Hi BunuelWannabe, you ask a good question.

Couple of reasons that tilt the balance against B:

i) The original sentence uses extending as a modifier, deploying the following parallelism:

..an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned....and extending....

So, in the original sentence, spawned and extending modify interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles.

Since this seem to be a very reasonable meaning, we can interpret this as the intended meaning of the sentence. That being the case, option B is changing the intended meaning of the sentence.

ii) Option B depicts parallelism between extends and is. However, notice how far these two verbs are, from each other. Hence, if the intent indeed was for these two verbs to be parallel, then a better sentence construct would be:

...a giant fungus that is an interwoven....and that extends for ...

The repetition of that (second that in the above sentence) would have made it very clear that both that are referring to a giant fungus.
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New post 10 May 2019, 07:09
Could someone help to explain why B is wrong?
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New post 10 May 2019, 07:27
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Leonaann wrote:
Could someone help to explain why B is wrong?

Hi Leonaann , please re-read this answer on the first page of the thread that explains why A is correct, as well as EducationAisle 's answer immediately above that explains why B is wrong. (I am assuming that you read the topic thread.)

Although the construction is relatively rare, it is fine for a noun [the filigree] to be described with a
-- past participle [spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago]
and
-- present participle [extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest]

Both participles are adjectives.

If you are still confused (as are many people when they answer the question -- see the stats), please state why you think that B should be correct. Many issues that involve B have been discussed, so it's hard to know what you do not understand. If I know what confuses you, it's easier for me to answer.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2019, 19:35
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generis wrote:
Leonaann wrote:
Could someone help to explain why B is wrong?

Hi Leonaann , please re-read this answer on the first page of the thread that explains why A is correct, as well as EducationAisle 's answer immediately above that explains why B is wrong. (I am assuming that you read the topic thread.)

Although the construction is relatively rare, it is fine for a noun [the filigree] to be described with a
-- past participle [spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago]
and
-- present participle [extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest]

Both participles are adjectives.

If you are still confused (as are many people when they answer the question -- see the stats), please state why you think that B should be correct. Many issues that involve B have been discussed, so it's hard to know what you do not understand. If I know what confuses you, it's easier for me to answer.



Please correct if I am wrong.

'Spawned' is modifying tenacles (it is acting as an adjective) and extending modifies tenacles (acting as an adjective).

The reason why extends is wrong is because this would mean that 'giant fungus is...' is parallel to 'extends' . So, here it is trying to modify the fungus instead. This parallel structure basically changes the intended meaning of the sentence right? We are supposed to modify the tenacles. That is why 'extending' is correct. Please clarify.
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New post 10 May 2019, 21:31
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Leonaann wrote:
generis wrote:
Leonaann wrote:
Could someone help to explain why B is wrong?

Hi Leonaann , please re-read this answer on the first page of the thread that explains why A is correct, as well as EducationAisle 's answer immediately above that explains why B is wrong. (I am assuming that you read the topic thread.)

Although the construction is relatively rare, it is fine for a noun [the filigree] to be described with a
-- past participle [spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago]
and
-- present participle [extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest]

Both participles are adjectives.

If you are still confused (as are many people when they answer the question -- see the stats), please state why you think that B should be correct. Many issues that involve B have been discussed, so it's hard to know what you do not understand. If I know what confuses you, it's easier for me to answer.

Please correct if I am wrong.

'Spawned' is modifying tenacles (it is acting as an adjective) and extending modifies tenacles (acting as an adjective).

The reason why extends is wrong is because this would mean that 'giant fungus is...' is parallel to 'extends' . So, here it is trying to modify the fungus instead. This parallel structure basically changes the intended meaning of the sentence right? We are supposed to modify the tenacles. That is why 'extending' is correct. Please clarify.

Leonaann , you are very close! :)

• the modified noun is filigree
The sentence is in the footnote.
Both spawned and extending modify the noun filigree.

Filigree is used as a metaphor; filigree usually refers to an ornamental design in jewelry.
Here is a picture:
Attachment:
filigree.jpg
filigree.jpg [ 82.66 KiB | Viewed 947 times ]


There is a giant fungus. The fungus is composed of mushrooms and tentacles that are interwoven.
The interweaving looks like a filigree.

This organic filigree is both ancient (spawned by a single spore some 10,000 years ago)
and huge (extending for more than 30 acres).

• Why filigree and not tentacles?

We are taught that a past participle (a verbED) such as spawned modifies the noun immediately before it.

But spawned and extending do not modify tentacles (or more correctly, "mushrooms and . . . tentacles")
because those two things are not the main noun at which those modifiers are targeted.
Mushrooms and tentacles themselves are modifiers of the main noun, filigree.

The two participles can "reach back" over the phrase of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles
because that phrase is an essential modifier of filigree,
and essential modifiers can come between a noun and another modifier.

The "of mushrooms and tentacles" phrase tells us what this filigree thing is made of.

Even a past participle can be separated from its preceding noun by an essential modifier.
So spawned and extending modify filigree

• EXTENDS?

(1) No. The word extends is a present tense verb that cannot be matched with a past participle. :x

(2) No. The only other present tense verb is IS.
extends would have to be parallel to is (the verb for the subject "giant fungus"),
I think my previous sentence is what you meant. A verb (extends) can't be parallel to a noun (giant fungus).

If extends and is were paired as verbs, we would not have real parallelism.
We would also have a hot mess of a sentence.*

Nice work. +1 Your analysis is good, and the confusion about tentacles is a small error.


*We don't have the sentence on this page of the thread. Here it is:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
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New post 01 Aug 2019, 08:01
I have a doubt..where is the Verb for the subject "a giant fungus"...isn't verb missing for this subject
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New post 01 Aug 2019, 21:51
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Mona10031990 wrote:
I have a doubt..where is the Verb for the subject "a giant fungus"...isn't verb missing for this subject
You're absolutely right: there is no verb for a giant fungus. We don't want one either, as that would lead to an error (comma splice).

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that...

A giant fungus lets us know what the largest and oldest living organism mentioned in the first half is. If we give it a verb, there would be only a comma joining two subject-verb pairs (scientists have discovered and a giant fungus + its verb).
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New post 03 Nov 2019, 23:27
Hi guys,

Another way to interpret / see that 'extending' is the correct answer choice is to notice that there is a perfectly functioning sentence if we joined 'extending' directly to the subject 'an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles'.

"Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest."

We see that 'extending' perfectly explains an ongoing quality of the fungus as an interwoven system of roots, the present participle functioning as an additional elaboration of the fungus itself.

Hope this helps.
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New post 25 Jan 2020, 08:36
egmat wrote:
balajinaik wrote:
My answer is B.



I have always had an issue with this type of question. What i have found in GMAt questions is that in most cases like the one here, the question talks about many properties of a single item. In the process they mix the verb tense thereby confusing the subject.



This Q is a classic example of that. The scientists discovered the Fungi, the next 2 are properties of the fungi. hence extends is correct and not extending



Balaji


Hi,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Image

It is imperative to understand the meaning of the sentence in order to get the correct answer. So let’s do that first. Scientists have recently discovered something that could be the largest and oldest organism on Earth. So what have they discovered? They have a discovered a giant fungus which has qualities that make the scientists believe that this fungus could be the largest and oldest living organism. What are these qualities? This giant fungus is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles. This fungus has been spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago. So this is why the scientists think that this fungus is the oldest living organism. The other quality that the fungus has is that it extends for more than 30 acres. This is the reason why the scientists think this fungus to be the largest living organism

Image

After we have understood the meaning, let us evaluate the errors in the sentence. Now notice “spawned” is not verb here. It is verb-ed modifier that is presenting the quality of the giant fungus. In the very same way, “extending” is a verb-ing modifier that is also presenting another quality of the fungus. Hence, verb-ed modifier “spawned” and the verb-ing modifier “extending” are parallel to each other. Hence this sentence is correct as it is.

POE:

Choice A: extending: Correct.

Choice B: extends: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Choice C: extended: Incorrect. We again have a verb in the past tense that cannot be parallel to a modifier. Also the fungus is still extending. It is still there. So use of past tense is wrong anyway.

Choice D: it extended: Incorrect. Same error as in Choice D.

Choice E: is extending: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Hope this helps to understand why choice A is the correct answer.
Thanks.
Shraddha


In C, why can't "extended" act as a -ed modifier?
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New post 22 Feb 2020, 04:25
egmat wrote:
balajinaik wrote:
My answer is B.



I have always had an issue with this type of question. What i have found in GMAt questions is that in most cases like the one here, the question talks about many properties of a single item. In the process they mix the verb tense thereby confusing the subject.



This Q is a classic example of that. The scientists discovered the Fungi, the next 2 are properties of the fungi. hence extends is correct and not extending



Balaji


Hi,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Image

It is imperative to understand the meaning of the sentence in order to get the correct answer. So let’s do that first. Scientists have recently discovered something that could be the largest and oldest organism on Earth. So what have they discovered? They have a discovered a giant fungus which has qualities that make the scientists believe that this fungus could be the largest and oldest living organism. What are these qualities? This giant fungus is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles. This fungus has been spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago. So this is why the scientists think that this fungus is the oldest living organism. The other quality that the fungus has is that it extends for more than 30 acres. This is the reason why the scientists think this fungus to be the largest living organism

Image

After we have understood the meaning, let us evaluate the errors in the sentence. Now notice “spawned” is not verb here. It is verb-ed modifier that is presenting the quality of the giant fungus. In the very same way, “extending” is a verb-ing modifier that is also presenting another quality of the fungus. Hence, verb-ed modifier “spawned” and the verb-ing modifier “extending” are parallel to each other. Hence this sentence is correct as it is.

POE:

Choice A: extending: Correct.

Choice B: extends: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Choice C: extended: Incorrect. We again have a verb in the past tense that cannot be parallel to a modifier. Also the fungus is still extending. It is still there. So use of past tense is wrong anyway.

Choice D: it extended: Incorrect. Same error as in Choice D.

Choice E: is extending: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Hope this helps to understand why choice A is the correct answer.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for the explanation. A small doubt though.
Verb-ed modifiers normally modify the preceding noun, right? So it should ideally modify the noun 'tentacles' but it seems to be modifying filigree. Is it correct to assume in cases like these that the verb-ed modifier ignores the preceding noun if it's part of a prepositional phrase and goes back referring to the actual noun(tentacles)

Please help me understand this.

Thanks,
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New post 24 Feb 2020, 22:46
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dyogendrarao That's correct. As generis discusses above, noun modifiers can sometimes jump over other modifiers to refer to a previous noun as long as the meaning is very clear.
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New post Updated on: 25 Mar 2020, 04:05
egmat wrote:
balajinaik wrote:
My answer is B.



I have always had an issue with this type of question. What i have found in GMAt questions is that in most cases like the one here, the question talks about many properties of a single item. In the process they mix the verb tense thereby confusing the subject.



This Q is a classic example of that. The scientists discovered the Fungi, the next 2 are properties of the fungi. hence extends is correct and not extending



Balaji


Hi,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Image

It is imperative to understand the meaning of the sentence in order to get the correct answer. So let’s do that first. Scientists have recently discovered something that could be the largest and oldest organism on Earth. So what have they discovered? They have a discovered a giant fungus which has qualities that make the scientists believe that this fungus could be the largest and oldest living organism. What are these qualities? This giant fungus is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles. This fungus has been spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago. So this is why the scientists think that this fungus is the oldest living organism. The other quality that the fungus has is that it extends for more than 30 acres. This is the reason why the scientists think this fungus to be the largest living organism

Image

After we have understood the meaning, let us evaluate the errors in the sentence. Now notice “spawned” is not verb here. It is verb-ed modifier that is presenting the quality of the giant fungus. In the very same way, “extending” is a verb-ing modifier that is also presenting another quality of the fungus. Hence, verb-ed modifier “spawned” and the verb-ing modifier “extending” are parallel to each other. Hence this sentence is correct as it is.

POE:

Choice A: extending: Correct.

Choice B: extends: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Choice C: extended: Incorrect. We again have a verb in the past tense that cannot be parallel to a modifier. Also the fungus is still extending. It is still there. So use of past tense is wrong anyway.

Choice D: it extended: Incorrect. Same error as in Choice D.

Choice E: is extending: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Hope this helps to understand why choice A is the correct answer.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi @egmat/ VeritasKarishma,

little confusion about option C. We can't assume 'extended' as a verb-ed modifier just because it is far away from the modified entity it modifies.
if not, then why it is not considered as a modifier but a verb?

Originally posted by gaurav2m on 25 Mar 2020, 02:01.
Last edited by gaurav2m on 25 Mar 2020, 04:05, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2020, 03:15
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gaurav2m wrote:
egmat wrote:
balajinaik wrote:
My answer is B.



I have always had an issue with this type of question. What i have found in GMAt questions is that in most cases like the one here, the question talks about many properties of a single item. In the process they mix the verb tense thereby confusing the subject.



This Q is a classic example of that. The scientists discovered the Fungi, the next 2 are properties of the fungi. hence extends is correct and not extending



Balaji


Hi,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Image

It is imperative to understand the meaning of the sentence in order to get the correct answer. So let’s do that first. Scientists have recently discovered something that could be the largest and oldest organism on Earth. So what have they discovered? They have a discovered a giant fungus which has qualities that make the scientists believe that this fungus could be the largest and oldest living organism. What are these qualities? This giant fungus is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles. This fungus has been spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago. So this is why the scientists think that this fungus is the oldest living organism. The other quality that the fungus has is that it extends for more than 30 acres. This is the reason why the scientists think this fungus to be the largest living organism

Image

After we have understood the meaning, let us evaluate the errors in the sentence. Now notice “spawned” is not verb here. It is verb-ed modifier that is presenting the quality of the giant fungus. In the very same way, “extending” is a verb-ing modifier that is also presenting another quality of the fungus. Hence, verb-ed modifier “spawned” and the verb-ing modifier “extending” are parallel to each other. Hence this sentence is correct as it is.

POE:

Choice A: extending: Correct.

Choice B: extends: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Choice C: extended: Incorrect. We again have a verb in the past tense that cannot be parallel to a modifier. Also the fungus is still extending. It is still there. So use of past tense is wrong anyway.

Choice D: it extended: Incorrect. Same error as in Choice D.

Choice E: is extending: Incorrect. This is a verb and a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

Hope this helps to understand why choice A is the correct answer.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi @egmat/ VeritasKarishma,

little confusion about option C. We can't assume 'extended' as a verb-ed modifier just because it is far away from the modified entity it modifies.
if not, then why it is considered as a modifier but a verb?


Understand the structure of the sentence:


Scientists have recently discovered ... a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles...

"an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles" is further modified with 2 modifiers:
- spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and
- extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest

Note what was spawned by a single spore - the interwoven filigree
Note what is extending for more than 30 acres - the interwoven filigree

It is logical that the filigree extends over 30 acres. So both elements need to modify "filigree"
Past participle "spawned" is used because it was spawned in the past.
Present participle "extending" is used because it is currently extending for more than 30 acres.

Hence we cannot use a verb here.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2020, 01:08
"Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest."

Can I compare "a giant fungus that is an....and is extending..." ?? Experts, please guide.
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New post 01 Jun 2020, 04:55
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B and E - a verb cannot be parallel to a modifier.

C and D - unnecessary past tense

Hence A.
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New post 01 Jun 2020, 05:38
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Debayandc wrote:
"Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest."

Can I compare "a giant fungus that is an....and is extending..." ?? Experts, please guide.

Hello, Debayandc. I see what you are getting at, and I admit that I was initially considering an option, before I had looked at the answers, that would have a parallel to that is. The problem, as others have pointed out above, is that the two elements would not be parallel: an interwoven filigree is a noun, while is extending is a verb. In the correct sentence, it is clear that spawned by and extending are the parallel elements instead:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

To make a sentence that did create a parallel element to a giant fungus that is, in which is is the verb of that, we would need a second instance of that to avoid any confusion, and the verb would have to be conjugated differently, as in the following sentence:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and that extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we are saying that a giant fungus is [something] and extends for more than 30 acres. It might seem intuitive to use the form is extending, but again, because the earlier use of is is followed by a noun, we would expect a noun instead of a verb to follow the second is. You will note that among the answer choices on offer, there are none that correspond to our above sentence, thereby eliminating such an interpretation on grammatical grounds.

I hope that helps. If you have further questions, feel free to ask.

- Andrew
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2020, 06:59
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MentorTutoring wrote:
Debayandc wrote:
"Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest."

Can I compare "a giant fungus that is an....and is extending..." ?? Experts, please guide.

Hello, Debayandc. I see what you are getting at, and I admit that I was initially considering an option, before I had looked at the answers, that would have a parallel to that is. The problem, as others have pointed out above, is that the two elements would not be parallel: an interwoven filigree is a noun, while is extending is a verb. In the correct sentence, it is clear that spawned by and extending are the parallel elements instead:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

To make a sentence that did create a parallel element to a giant fungus that is, in which is is the verb of that, we would need a second instance of that to avoid any confusion, and the verb would have to be conjugated differently, as in the following sentence:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and that extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we are saying that a giant fungus is [something] and extends for more than 30 acres. It might seem intuitive to use the form is extending, but again, because the earlier use of is is followed by a noun, we would expect a noun instead of a verb to follow the second is. You will note that among the answer choices on offer, there are none that correspond to our above sentence, thereby eliminating such an interpretation on grammatical grounds.

I hope that helps. If you have further questions, feel free to ask.

- Andrew



Wow!! Really great explanation. Thanks!
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2020, 05:59
mpetwal wrote:
How do the two sentences differ from each other?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A giant fungus that is-
1) an interwoven filigree of mushrooms.
2) extending for more than 30 acres.


The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

A meat eating dinosaur that -
1) is a distant relative of T-Rex.
2) closely resembles South American predatory Dinosaurs.

Case 1 includes is after 'that'.
Case 2 doesn't.

Help needed to understand.


Here if 'extends' was to be parallel to 'is an interwoven ..' then a comma would have been used after 10000 years ago, to signify end of modifier. In that case the sentence would be:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago, and extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
Notice the comma just before 'and'
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2020, 15:02
Hi,

If we go by A, the subject a giant fungus has no verb
Modifier, a giant fungus that .... modifier and modifier

a giant fungus would need a verb right?

Thanks
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2020, 17:03
DwightSchrute wrote:
Hi,

If we go by A, the subject a giant fungus has no verb
Modifier, a giant fungus that .... modifier and modifier

a giant fungus would need a verb right?

Thanks

mikescarn, would you like to handle this one? I feel your insights might be better appreciated.

(I could not resist.)

- Andrew
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde   [#permalink] 24 Jun 2020, 17:03

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