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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde

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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2003, 16:29
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 210
Page: 686

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 12:55
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VTay25 wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?


Scientists have discovered a giant fungus which is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles. There are two characteristics of the fungus 1) It has been spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago. 2) It extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of Michigan.

These two characteristics have been shown in the original sentence in the form of Adjectival clauses spawned by...........ago AND extending for more............forest. The first clause is Verb-ed Modifier and the second one is Verb-ing Modifier

Since the first characteristic of Giant fungus has been described by a Adjectival Clause, The second characteristic also need to be shown in the form of a Adjectival clause, which is done in the original sentence. Hence the sentence is correct as written. Choice A is Correct

B) Extends acts as verb and can not parallel to Modifier spawned.

C) Extended also acts as verb and can not parallel to Modifier spawned. Also simple past tense extended indicates that the process of extending has been stopped, which is wrong. The fungus is still there and extending.

D) It extended is independent clause which can not be parallel to Modifier.

E) Incorrect for the same reason cited in Choice B.

Hope that helps!
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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kiranjith wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilised spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

Would "that extends" be a correct choice?
A giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms..... and that extends for more than...in Michigan forest. Can these be parallel?



The most important clue in this sentence is AND … the word AND mandates Right to Left strict parallelism. To the right of AND is ―extending‖ … to check parallelism, we have to understand the role of the word ―extending‖. It is not a verb as -ING forms alone are never verbs. So it can be a noun or an adjective. In this sentence the word ―extending‖ is describing something … we need to know what it is describing.
If we read further … ―extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest‖ can describe the largest organism (30 acres is really LARGE), which is the same as ―giant (large) fungus‖ or ―interwoven (interconnected, large) filigree‖. ―Mushrooms and root-like tentacles‖ of a single plant can‘t extend for 30 acres … their filigree (wire formed into delicate tracery such as filigree foliage) can. So the word ―extending‖ surely describes ―organism‖.
As the word ―extending‖ describes something, it is an adjective. And the word ―extending‖ is written after the word AND … so we must find another adjective (that describes the organism) to the left of AND. We have the word ―spawned‖ before AND. ―Spawn‖ (meaning: produce or generate, especially in large numbers and undesirably) cannot describe tentacles, as tentacles of a plant cannot extend for 30 acres and can‘t get generated in large numbers. Also, the fact that ―a single spore‖ was responsible for the whole 30-acre growth (happening for the last 10,000 years) makes sure that the word ―spawned‖ describes the organism …
So we have 2 adjectives: ―spawned‖ and ―extending‖, both describing the organism … perfectly parallel … option A must be correct.
Option B: ―extends‖ is a verb … but there is no verb parallel to ―extends‖ before the word AND … Incorrect.
Option C: ―extended‖ is also an adjective. But this signifies intention whereas the given action of extending is completely unintended. So this is the wrong adjective.
Imagine the two sentences:
The road extended from A to B was found to be skewed by the local authorities. Here, the word ―extended‖ means that somebody intentionally extended the road. Past participles show intention.
The smoke coming out of the building corroborated the suspicion that the building had caught fire. Here the word ―coming‖ is unintended. Present participles show no intention.
There's really no point in deciding which of these roles ―extended‖ is playing―the point is that both interpretations produce incorrect answers! In an appropriate context, ―extended‖ could be either a past participle or a past-tense verb. Most importantly, if either of these interpretations works, then the sentence is correct.
Imagine the sentence:
The new state highway, built in 2007 and extended for an additional five miles in 2009, is now the busiest road in the area. --> here, ―extended‖ is a past participle.
The state highway extended for fifty miles before it was razed in 1985. --> here, ―extended‖ is a past-tense verb.
Option D: ―it extended‖ is a verb … but there is no verb parallel to ―extended‖ before the word AND … Incorrect.
Option E: ―is extending‖ is a verb … but there is no verb parallel to ―is extending‖ before the word AND … Incorrect.

moreover do u have any option with that or do u have that before extending in the non underlined portion?no. so why r u looking for a that and that parallelism. understand the function of extending. its a modifier describing a noun. ok i think u r asking where that and that would have been grammatically possible. yes. but i think the meaning wouldn have been clear . he there r two reason why the scientist think that it is the oldest organism 1. coz its spawned and 2. extending bla bla...
Hope this helps

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus
that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some
10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending - Correct
B. extends - present tense not required, Eliminate
C. extended - verd-ed modifier is parallel to past tense, wrong parallelism
D. it extended - no referent for it
E. is extending- present continuous tense not require
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2015, 06:07
souvik101990 wrote:
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus
that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some
10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending


Hi,

IMO,the parallel items here are noun phrase an interwoven filigree of X and Y and the gerund extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
Hence,
A. extending - correct
B. extends - verb(parallelism issue)
C. extended - verb(parallelism issue)
D. it extended - verb(parallelism issue)
E. is extending - 'is' is verb(parallelism issue)

Also note that the discovered fungus still exists; Therefore, we can easily strike out options 'c' and 'd'.

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2015, 01:58
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth,
a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles
    spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and
    extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended

(E) is extending

Giant fungus is mentioned as a largest and oldest living organism on earth.
It means that it is still alive now so present continuous tense is required to indicate the same.

extends(Simple present tense) indicates a fact or general truth such as Sun rises. but there is no eternal truth here as it is not going to live forever. So B is incorrect.

since it is alive even now we cannot use past tense(extended). so C and D are incorrect.
Also that and extending are modifying giant fungus and usage of it is redundant and incorrect here in D.

whole giant fungus phrase is modifying the What could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth in the form of additional information.
Main sentence is the discovery by the scientists.

Adding is spoils the parallelism structure of the description between spawned and extending. so E is incorrect choice leaving given sentence correct as is. :)
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2016, 15:28
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending


I thought that "extending" was making reference to the "rootlike tentacles" . Look at the statement again, why would "extending" refer to the fungus or "filigre of mushrooms", rather it would make more sense if it was referring to the "rootlike tentacles" since it "extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest", that makes more sense since we are talking about something going "in the soil", which is likely the "rootlike tentacles"....am I making any sense here!?

I chose B (extends)

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2016, 12:22
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending A classic case of past participle and present participle.
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 07:20
How do the two sentences differ from each other?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A giant fungus that is-
1) an interwoven filigree of mushrooms.
2) extending for more than 30 acres.


The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

A meat eating dinosaur that -
1) is a distant relative of T-Rex.
2) closely resembles South American predatory Dinosaurs.

Case 1 includes is after 'that'.
Case 2 doesn't.

Help needed to understand.

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2017, 07:35
mpetwal wrote:
How do the two sentences differ from each other?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A giant fungus that is-
1) an interwoven filigree of mushrooms.
2) extending for more than 30 acres.


The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

A meat eating dinosaur that -
1) is a distant relative of T-Rex.
2) closely resembles South American predatory Dinosaurs.

Case 1 includes is after 'that'.
Case 2 doesn't.

Help needed to understand.


The parallelism for the two cases are as follows:

Case 1:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The parallelism is between two noun modifiers:
1. spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years
2. extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest
Both refers to "tentacles".

Case 2:
The bones of Majungatholus atopus, a meat-eating dinosaur that is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex and closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar.

The parallelism is between two verbs:
1. is a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex
2. closely resembles South American predatory dinosaurs, have been discovered in Madagascar
Both have the same subject "that".

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2017, 04:22
mpetwal wrote:
Thank you for Replying.

When do we use 'comma + and' structure? Only in list parallelism?


Following are the cases when comma + and is used:

1. Before the last item in a list of three or more items:
I like apples, oranges, and grapes.... correct
However this usage is optional. Even without the comma, the sentence is correct: I like apples, oranges and grapes.... correct

2. To join two independent clauses:
She sings, and she dances.... correct.
Here the usage is mandatory. Without the comma, the sentence would be wrong: She sings and she dances.... wrong.
(Note: "She sings and dances" is alright - here two verbs are joined, and hence comma is not required.)

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2017, 02:31
smanujahrc wrote:
why is extending correct when if we follow rules of parallelism extended should be correct
spawned...extended


The first modifier ("spawned by a single fertilized spore") is in passive voice - the tentacles are spawned by a single fertilized spore.
The second modifier ("extending for more than 30 acres in the soil") is in active voice - the tentacles extend for more than 30 acres in the soil (not the tentacles are extended). Thus the parallelism is alright.

Please note that a past participle modifier (verb-ed), a present participle modifier (verb-ing) and an adjective can be used in parallel, if the the participle modifiers function as adjectives.

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 06:58
yogesh610 wrote:
I completely understand that we are looking here for the parallelism and the coordinating conjunction gives the hint of it. If spawned is past participle then it should be extending because participles stands in parallel no matter they are in present or past. But i doubt that isn't that spawned seems more like a verb in simple past. I am confused?
help me


you can check whether action was done by the subject to differentiate between participle and verb. For example here tentacles didn't do action of spawning it was done by spore and in question also it is stated as tentacles spawned by....... Therefore spawned is not verb but past participle. Past participle is originated by passive construction , removing helping verb before the participles . Since we need participle after 'and' to make the construction parallel and to show that 'extension' is still happening , we need present participle.


A good explanation is here https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-ver ... 34691.html
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2017, 19:13
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2017, 22:48
VTay25 wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?


Those who got confused between A & B:

The basic structure of the 2nd part of the sentence is "a giant fungus (part1) and (part2)."
To understand the parallelism try to fit part 1 and part 2 individually with "A giant fungus". SO-> <the organism is> : part 1) a giant fungus that is ............
part 2) a giant fungus extending for more than .......

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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and olde   [#permalink] 13 May 2017, 22:48

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