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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
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Option E looks correct for me.

(A) Many products that contain microelectronic components are now assembled completely by machine. (This will lead to more unemployment)

(B) Workers involved in the various aspects of the manufacturing processes that use microelectronic technology need extensive training. (Extensive training doesn't help much with the unemployment case or new job positions)

(C) It is difficult to evaluate numerically what impact on job security the introduction of microelectronics in the workplace had before 1979. (Numerical evaluation of the introduction of microelectronics on job security!!! Naah..)

(D) In 1990 over 90 percent of the jobs in Alameda's manufacturing companies were filled by workers who moved to Alameda because they had skills for which there was no demand in Alameda prior to the introduction of microelectronics there. (Doesn't impact much)

(E) Many workers who have retired from the manufacturing industry in Alameda since 1979 have not been replaced by younger workers. (Keep)
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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microelectronics in their manufacturing processes increased from 6 percent in 1979 to 66 percent in 1990. Many labor leaders say that the introduction of microelectronics is the principal cause of the great increase in unemployment during that period in Alameda. In actual fact, however, most of the job losses were due to organizational changes. Moreover, according to new figures released by the labor department, there were many more people employed in Alameda in the manufacturing industry in 1990 than in 1979.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the discrepancy between the increase in unemployment and the increase in jobs in the manufacturing industry of Alameda?


(A) Many products that contain microelectronic components are now assembled completely by machine.
(B) Workers involved in the various aspects of the manufacturing processes that use microelectronic technology need extensive training.
(C) It is difficult to evaluate numerically what impact on job security the introduction of microelectronics in the workplace had before 1979.
(D) In 1990 over 90 percent of the jobs in Alameda’s manufacturing companies were filled by workers who moved to Alameda because they had skills for which there was no demand in Alameda prior to the introduction of microelectronics there.
(E) Many workers who have retired from the manufacturing industry in Alameda since 1979 have not been replaced by younger workers.


CR98461.01


Official Explanation

Argument Construction

Which one of the five answer choices given best reconciles the increase in unemployment with the increase in manufacturing employment?

In Alameda, the use of microelectronics in manufacturing increased elevenfold within 11 years. Unemployment in Alameda increased during that period but—contrary to what labor leaders argue—most of the job losses were due to organizational changes. According to the latest official statistics, many more people were employed in manufacturing in Alameda at the end of that period.

One idea to consider is whether manufacturing that involves use of microelectronics in equipment requires employees with a different mix of skills from those traditionally used by employees carrying out manual tasks associated with manufacturing.

A. This choice provides an example of automated manufacturing, but the given information does not specifically mention manufactured products that contain microelectronic components.

B. The given information tells us that the increased unemployment was due to organizational changes. But the additional information here is not a sufficient basis for attributing the increase in unemployment to gaps in training.

C. This simply suggests that there may be some inaccurate data underlying claims about employment trends in manufacturing in Alameda prior to 1979. But the question concerns trends from 1979 to 1990.

D. Correct. This suggests that an influx of new workers to Alameda with the new skills needed in manufacturing may in fact have displaced other employees. These people may still live in Alameda yet be jobless.

E. This information is not sufficient to reconcile the increase in unemployment among those previously employed in manufacturing with the increase in total manufacturing jobs. Retirement of employees from certain types of occupations does not increase unemployment in those occupations.

The correct answer is D.
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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microelectronics in their manufacturing processes increased from 6 percent in 1979 to 66 percent in 1990. Many labor leaders say that the introduction of microelectronics is the principal cause of the great increase in unemployment during that period in Alameda. In actual fact, however, most of the job losses were due to organizational changes. Moreover, according to new figures released by the labor department, there were many more people employed in Alameda in the manufacturing industry in 1990 than in 1979.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the discrepancy between the increase in unemployment and the increase in jobs in the manufacturing industry of Alameda?

CR98461.01

Question Type: Resolve the Paradox | Time Taken: 1 min 56 sec

Let's consolidate the data provided in the question w.r.t manufacturing industry for the period between 1979 and 1990
1. Adoption of microelectronics: Increased from 6% to 66%
2. Labor leaders - This adoption caused increase in unemployment in the city
3. Author - It was organizational changes and not this adoption that caused the unemployment
4. Actual data cites that number of people employed in '79 > number of people employed in '90

We are asked to solve the paradox between point 2 and point 4 from the summary above. And in order to do that, we will ask the question that does this option tell us why the number of employees increase in the city?

First the correct answer:
(D) In 1990 over 90 percent of the jobs in Alameda’s manufacturing companies were filled by workers who moved to Alameda because they had skills for which there was no demand in Alameda prior to the introduction of microelectronics there
This option addresses both the points i.e. 2 and 4
a. It provides insight into the increase in the number of employees by citing that these employees came from outside the city
b. It provides insight into the increase in unemployment that the lack of skills of employees within the city lead to the unemployment, requiring companies to hire from outside the city

(A) Many products that contain microelectronic components are now assembled completely by machine
Does the fact that products are now assembled by machine answer our question? No
(B) Workers involved in the various aspects of the manufacturing processes that use microelectronic technology need extensive training
Does the fact about training needs answer our question? No
(C) It is difficult to evaluate numerically what impact on job security the introduction of microelectronics in the workplace had before 1979
Does the challenge to evaluate answer our question? No
(E) Many workers who have retired from the manufacturing industry in Alameda since 1979 have not been replaced by younger workers
Does the fact about replacing retiring workers answer our question? No

Ans. D
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The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microelectronics in their manufacturing processes increased from 6 percent in 1979 to 66 percent in 1990. Many labor leaders say that the introduction of microelectronics is the principal cause of the great increase in unemployment during that period in Alameda. In actual fact, however, most of the job losses were due to organizational changes. Moreover, according to new figures released by the labor department, there were many more people employed in Alameda in the manufacturing industry in 1990 than in 1979.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the discrepancy between the increase in unemployment and the increase in jobs in the manufacturing industry of Alameda?

I was between (A) and (D) - and eventually chose (D) without fully understanding why. I could eliminate (A) because it only explains the first part of the conclusion (i.e., the increase in unemployment). After giving some thought, I now understand why (D) is undoubtedly the correct answer.

(D) says that new people filled in new jobs post-introduction of microelectronics. Now, let's put on a logical/reality hat on. When a new product is introduced, usually 2 things happen 1) new jobs open given change in production and 2) old jobs get replaced by new jobs. Therefore, you need to make an inference that these new people NOT ONLY won new job openings vs. the existing residents, BUT ALSO replaced some of the old jobs that these residents held. Therefore, this answer perfectly explains the discrepancy.


(A) Many products that contain microelectronic components are now assembled completely by machine.
(B) Workers involved in the various aspects of the manufacturing processes that use microelectronic technology need extensive training.
(C) It is difficult to evaluate numerically what impact on job security the introduction of microelectronics in the workplace had before 1979.
(D) In 1990 over 90 percent of the jobs in Alameda’s manufacturing companies were filled by workers who moved to Alameda because they had skills for which there was no demand in Alameda prior to the introduction of microelectronics there.
(E) Many workers who have retired from the manufacturing industry in Alameda since 1979 have not been replaced by younger workers.


CR98461.01
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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
souvikgmat1990 wrote:
Option E looks correct for me.

(A) Many products that contain microelectronic components are now assembled completely by machine. (This will lead to more unemployment)

(B) Workers involved in the various aspects of the manufacturing processes that use microelectronic technology need extensive training. (Extensive training doesn't help much with the unemployment case or new job positions)

(C) It is difficult to evaluate numerically what impact on job security the introduction of microelectronics in the workplace had before 1979. (Numerical evaluation of the introduction of microelectronics on job security!!! Naah..)

(D) In 1990 over 90 percent of the jobs in Alameda's manufacturing companies were filled by workers who moved to Alameda because they had skills for which there was no demand in Alameda prior to the introduction of microelectronics there. (Doesn't impact much)

(E) Many workers who have retired from the manufacturing industry in Alameda since 1979 have not been replaced by younger workers. (Keep)


E is tempting, but it doesn't explain the spike in 1990. In fact, it sort of goes against it. Hopefully, this helps.
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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
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Re: The proportion of manufacturing companies in Alameda that use microele [#permalink]
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