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# Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy

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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Explanation:

A. Eliminate.
Which' incorrectly modifies ‘exhibit’. It should modify the infinitive ‘touch’.

B. Eliminate.
"in turn an activation" modifies "exhibit" - this is illogical.

C. Eliminate.
"it" seems to incorrectly refer to "the Leonardo Project". Causality is not expressed clearly.

This option is concise and expresses causality correctly.

E. Eliminate.
‘Which' incorrectly modifies ‘exhibit’. It should modify ‘touch’ instead. Same reason as A.
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
x2suresh wrote:
Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

(A) exhibit, which thereby activates
(B) exhibit, in turn an activation of
(C) exhibit, and it will activate
(D) exhibit and thereby activate
(E) exhibit which, as a result, activates

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of the crucial part of this sentence is that touching each exhibit activates the animated functions of the piece.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Modifiers + Pronouns + Grammatical Construction

• "who/whose/whom/which/where", when preceded by a comma, refer to the noun just before the comma.
• In a “noun + comma + phrase” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun; this is one of the most frequently tested concepts on GMAT sentence correction.
• Information vital to the core meaning cannot be placed between commas.
• “that” is used to provide the information needed to preserve the core meaning of the sentence, and the “comma + which” construction is used to provide extra information.

A: Trap. This answer choice incorrectly refers to "each exhibit" with "which thereby activates", incorrectly implying that the exhibit itself activates the animated functions of the piece; the intended meaning is that the act of touching the exhibit activates the animated functions of the piece; please remember, "who/whose/whom/which/where", when preceded by a comma, refer to the noun just before the comma.

B: This answer choice incorrectly modifies "each exhibit" with "in turn an activation", illogically implying that each exhibit is an activation of the animated functions of the piece; the intended meaning is that the act of touching the exhibit activates the animated functions of the piece; please remember, in a “noun + comma + phrase” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun.

C: This answer choice suffers from pronoun ambiguity, as the pronoun "it" lacks a clear referent.

D: Correct. This answer choice avoids the modification errors seen in Options A, B, and E, as it uses the phrase "and thereby activate", conveying the intended meaning - that the act of touching each exhibit activates the animated functions of the piece. Further, Option D avoids the pronoun error seen in Option C, as it uses no pronouns. Additionally, Option D avoids the grammatical construction error seen in Option E, as it places no information between commas. Besides, Option D avoids the modifier error seen in Option E, as it does not use "which".

E: This answer choice incorrectly modifies "each exhibit" with "which...activates", incorrectly implying that the exhibit itself activates the animated functions of the piece; the intended meaning is that the act of touching the exhibit activates the animated functions of the piece. Further, Option E incorrectly places information vital to the core meaning of the sentence - the fact that the animated functions of the piece are activated as a result of visitors touching the exhibit - between two commas; please remember, information vital to the core meaning cannot be placed between commas. Additionally, Option E incorrectly uses "which" to refer to information vital to the core meaning of the sentence; please remember, “that” is used to provide the information needed to preserve the core meaning of the sentence, and the “comma + which” construction is used to provide extra information.

Hence, D is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Phrase Comma Subject" and "Subject Comma Phrase" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1minute):

To understand the concept of "Which" vs "That" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):

To understand the concept of "Extra Information Between Commas" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Why is A wrong?
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates - 'which' refers to exhibit thereby distorting the meaning of the sentence.
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of - incorrect
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate - touching the exhibit thereby activates...CORRECT
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates
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calvinhobbes wrote:
Why is A wrong?

Hi, two quick rules to remember about the word "which:"
1. "Which" refers to the nearest noun phrase before it (basically the nearest thing).
So, in this case, "which" refers to the closest noun before it: "exhibit." But then the sentence would say that the exhibit "thereby activates the animated functions..." That's not true; the exhibit does not activate the functions, the visitor does.

2. "Which" is a pronoun, so it can only be used to replace a noun; it can not be used to replace a verb.
So, "which" can not replace "to touch" because "to touch" is a verb and can not be referred to by a pronoun. (if maybe you assumed that the act of touching activated the functions).

For both reasons, A can't be the answer.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates

The key to this question is to understand the logic. The project encourages visitors to touch the exhibit and as a result of the touch the animated functions get activated.

A: exhibit is not activating the function
B - nonsensical
c: 'it' is not clear
d: correct, the users are encouraged to touch and thereby activate the functions
e: which is not used in proper GMAT way: which vs that
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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dkverma wrote:
Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates

The problem with the original sentence is the inappropriate use of 'which'. This case it modifies exhibit (the noun touching 'which') implying the the exhibit activates the functions of the piece. This is incorrect. The activation is caused by visitors 'touching' the exhibit. the sentence that implies this is the correct one.

A. Incorrect for reason mentioned above.
B. Incorrect parallelism
C. 'it' is an ambiguous pronoun. 'It' can refer to nouns only, so there is no chance it is referring to the 'touching' action.
D. 'and thereby' correctly implies that we are talking about the action that activates the exhibit. CORRECT
E. 'which' modifies exhibit - incorrect meaning
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to "touch" each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates

The solution is pretty simple i.e D.
But what confused me is the explanation in OG for choice A.
According to me 'which ' refers to exhibit and exhibit cannot activate the .... Hence wrong.
But explanation says that 'which' has no antecedent .Hence wrong.

As far as i know , WHICH modifies the immediate preceding noun. Here its "exhibit".

Please let me know where i am going wrong?
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Yes true, the relative pronoun’ which’ is wrongly placed after ‘exhibit, because exhibit cannot activate; It is the act of touching that activates. So we don’t know what that word which is trying to refer to; Hence it simply dangling. The OG says that there is no antecedent for ‘which
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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rajgurinder wrote:
Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to "touch" each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates

The solution is pretty simple i.e D.
But what confused me is the explanation in OG for choice A.
According to me 'which ' refers to exhibit and exhibit cannot activate the .... Hence wrong.
But explanation says that 'which' has no antecedent .Hence wrong.

As far as i know , WHICH modifies the immediate preceding noun. Here its "exhibit".

Please let me know where i am going wrong?

Hi there,

What the explanation seems to mean is that there's no logical antecedent for "which". As you've pointed out, "exhibit" can't be the antecedent of "which" in any logical sense. According to the intended meaning of the sentence, it's clearly the action "to touch" that is responsible for activating the functions. Since there's no noun in the sentence that "which" can logically refer to, we can conclude that this pronoun shouldn't actually be in the underlined portion. So, in this sense, there's no antecedent for "which" in the sentence. It seems to refer to the preceding noun, but logically, it can't.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubt.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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When the sentence says encourages visitors to "touch". Isn't it logical to say that the touch activates the functions whereas in D when the sentence says "and thereby activate" it means users activate the animated function. Doesn't using a plural verb activate distorts the meaning to a small extent?

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farhanc85 wrote:
When the sentence says encourages visitors to "touch". Isn't it logical to say that the touch activates the functions whereas in D when the sentence says "and thereby activate" it means users activate the animated function. Doesn't using a plural verb activate distorts the meaning to a small extent?

There is no plural verb used here. D uses the following parallel structure:

to “touch” each exhibit and thereby (to) activate...

Since we have an infinitive here (to activate), we cannot use to activates.
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of
C. exhibit, and it will activate
D. exhibit and thereby activate
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates

in option A) which is referring to exhibit because there is no other noun preceding it.which should refer to "touch".
I understand that "to touch" is an infinitive,an action and not a noun.
I want to know that if we use infinitives as subject can we refer to them with "which" or "it"(pronouns)
eg. 1)To err is human. can we now use any pronoun to refer to "to err".
2)to swim is good for health.

Also want to know that if infinitives can be verbs or nouns or play some other role.
eg In the official question "to touch" refers to an action. so can i call it a verb ?
In the 2nd sentence "To err" is the subject. can i call it a noun ??

i think that both the questions are interrelated.

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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
Hi SJ,

Can you please help me understand why is 2nd option wrong? I marked it out thinking its too wordy but I'm not sure of the exact reason because on a second thought it doesn't look that bad either.
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
sk5002 wrote:
Hi SJ,

Can you please help me understand why is 2nd option wrong? I marked it out thinking its too wordy but I'm not sure of the exact reason because on a second thought it doesn't look that bad either.

Hi sk5002,

Choice B completely fails to communicate the intended meaning. The intended meaning of the sentence is that in the virtual museum, the visitors are allowed to touch the exhibits and their touch activates the animated function of the touched pieces.

But Choice B fails to convey this. That the "activation of the animated functions" happens because of the visitors touching the exhibit is not conveyed in an effective manner. The correct answer Choice D corrects this error as it maintains perfect parallelism by saying that visitors are encouraged "to touch" the exhibit" and thus "(to) activate" the animated functions.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece.

A. exhibit, which thereby activates (Which is referring to exhibit but it is not exhibit that is activating, it is the touch)
B. exhibit, in turn an activation of (Activation is a noun construction but we already have verb "activate" construction so according to drive the VAN we will go with Verb construction)
C. exhibit, and it will activate (antecedent of it is not clear also it can not refer to touch)
D. exhibit and thereby activate (Correct one, also touch and activate are parallel)
E. exhibit which, as a result, activates (Again same as A use of which is not correct, also which cannot be used without preceding Comma or preposition)
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Re: Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy [#permalink]
In the independent clause 'The VLP, an online version....', VLP encourages visitors To Touch. This Touching results into activation of the animated functions of the piece. If it were present [, + present participle] it would be correct too.

But, I made mistake and didn't select option D. I thought Activate was in plural. Generally, after Thereby in an SC Question we see [, + present participle], so here I got confused and thought that activate is in plural form.

Can you explain the structure of Thereby Activate?
If we are to show Result of the clause, is [Thereby + Plural Verb] correct?
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