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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than

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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2007, 11:18
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Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a). imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b). imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c). that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d). that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, and spending
e). that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I see such constructions very often, but still cant crack them correctly, do you know the trick, the rule or sm else that can help in such questions? ?[/quote]

It is all about parallelism and modifiers,
C or E
that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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you can ask an expert
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2009, 10:06
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Hi,
here 'that impose' is better than 'imposing' as 'that' relates to the word immediately preceding it
therefore A and B are out....

now there are 3 activities

a)impose stricter limits on medical services
b) require doctors to see more patients, and
c)spend less time with each.
in these a and b are independent and c is dependent on b....

C makes all a ,b ,c independent...... E makes b and c dependent on a..
only D makes a and b independent and c dependent on b.. therefore D is the ans...
hope i have been of some help..

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Spending less time with each is a modifying clause that modifies doctors.
If we use and spend/spending above meaning is lost, and the sentence assumes the below form:-
1.Investment plans impose stricter limits on medical services
2.Investment plans require doctors to see more patients
3.Investment plans spend less time with each. completely nonsensical.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2009, 00:03
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I would go with option D

A and B are clearly rejected, we are left with C, D and E.
the second part of the sentence gives 2 the features of the insurance plan:
- Imposing stricter limits on medical services
- require doctors to see more patients.
because seeing more patients in less time indicates spending less time with each, we don't need to separate the two by 'and' because they invariably mean the same.
So, the 2 features are separated by 'and' and the following by a comma.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2011, 00:09
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The question is whether this sentence flaunts two equal elements or three elements in the second part. If there are three, all the three should be equated and the use of a co-ordinate conjunction is proper. However, if there are only two functions and if the other function is indeed part of the second function, then conjugating with a coordinated conjunction and is wrong. The third factor entails a sub position or a modifying role using a participle.

In the given case, there is Plans imposing or that impose 1. Stricter limits and 2. (that) require doctors to see more patients. These are the only two stipulations that the plans impose. The act of spending is a corollary of seeing more patients, meaning that the doctors have to see more patients by spending less time with each patient. Therefore, all choices that use the ordinate conjunction and to conjugate spend or spending as if it is an independent function are wrong.

As per this norm, only D survives and is the right answer.

Plans imposing or plans that impose?. Note that there is no comma before imposing. Hence imposing is a straight-ahead, essential modification of plans and is acceptable. However, plans tht impose is more direct than imposing and hence preferable.

Overall, we can see how meaning is gaining predominance over other things. Given the newfound importance to meaning, this topic promises to be a good pitch.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 03:21
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Low-end Insurance plans only impose stricter limits, however it cannot command doctor to see more patients or less. All the above tells the same except for E, which says that due to stricter limits and not due to low end insurance plans, doctors have to see more patients Similarly, it is not Insurance plans that spend less time, but its the doctor who spends less time.

Hence, IMO E.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2011, 05:19
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OA is D.

here's the explanation by ron.
you have to realize which verbs are supposed to be parallel and which aren't. there's no grammatical formula for this; you have to examine the meaning of the sentence to figure it out.
- 'impose' (in whatever form) should be parallel to 'require' (again, in whatever form). these are two different things, both of which are aspects of the plan (= logical parallelism).
- 'spend' should not be parallel to 'see', because it functions as a modifier of 'see' (it's a descriptive adverb modifier, detailing the way in which the doctors see the patients).
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2009, 19:16
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tejal777 wrote:
Could somebody please explain why exactly is A akward??Stuck between A and D:(

I think it is a classic case of "command subjunctive". Impose and Require are BOSSY words, which always require word "that" in the sentence. A is wrong as it lacks the word "that".

Also the use of -ing participle "imposing" wrongly suggests that union/nonunion members are imposing the stricter norms than the insurance plans. One more reason to strike out A.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 19:17
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

E is wrong because it reads as if its the stricter limits on medical services that are requiring doctors to see more patients versus D, which is correct, distinguish that its the lower end insurance plans that require doctors to see more patients. I didn't get it at first after carefully reading it I was able to see where the problem lies.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2012, 09:33
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Hi,

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

mohan514 wrote:
how do we make out which is // and which is not

still not clear can you make it a bit clear please????

@mohan514: In order to find out the correct parallel list in the sentence, it is very important to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

The intended logical meaning of the sentence is:
• Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than the nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans.
• These plans:
o impose stricter limits on medical services, and
o require doctors to see more patients.
• If the doctors are required to see more patients, they will spend less time with each of them.

On this understanding, the two entities that need to be parallel in the sentence are “impose” and “require”.

Error analysis:

1. The sentence here means that the plans: a) impose stricter limits on medical services and b) require doctors: i) to see more patients, and ii) spend less time with each. This is illogical. We need an answer choice that makes “impose” and “require” parallel denoting that these are the two implications of the plans and showing “spend less time” as the outcome of the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for reason discussed above.

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Same error as in A. It’s just that now “spending” is also grammatically parallel to other entities in the list. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in A. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. Verb-ing “spending” after comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence communicates the intended meaning of the sentence.

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. Here the verb-ing modifiers “requiring” and “spending” illogically modifies the preceding clause.

devinawilliam83 wrote:
Couple of questions on the structure of the sentence
- since there is no comma between plans and imposing - imposing here is modifying plans and not the whole clause?
- how do we chose between imposing and that impose (essential modifier) is there a rule of thumb
- since spending is set off by a comma is it safe to say that it is modifying the action of the doctor?

Need specific suggestions on how to decide when to use THAT and when to use -ING

@devinawilliam83: The answer to your first question is "yes".
In this sentence we see the use of multiple modifiers. The first two modifiers are modifying “plans” in the form of “that” clause and the verb-ing modifier “spending” is again modifying one of the modifiers in “that” clause. Since the verb-ing modifiers can either refer to the preceding clause or the preceding noun, depending upon the placement of the comma, there is no other way to write this sentence.
If the sentence did not have the “spending” portion then using two verb-ing modifiers would have been easier. So when the verb-ing modifiers are independent of each other in a parallel list then it is alright to use them one after the other. But in a case like this question, we need to be judicious in the use of modifiers to convey the intended meaning.

1. Understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence.
2. In a parallel list, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.
3. Be vary of choices that distort the original meaning of the sentence.
4. When separated with a comma, the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding clause, when not then it modifies the preceding noun.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:

1. Level 1 - Modifiers - Verb-ing (This concept features in "Level 1 Preview Concepts" that features in free trial concepts. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify & Correct
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

Hope this helps.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2010, 09:54
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Option C - Incorrect...lower-end insurance plans that impose..., require.... and spend....you see insurance plans do not spend less time ...so this is an incorrect modification.

Option D - Best IMHO

Option E - Incorrect because....lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spend ('spending' is incorrect)... less time with ...

Cheers,
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2010, 18:10
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suchoudh wrote:
Ok, lets compare choices D and E.

lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
or
lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each.

How do you decide whether the participial modifier in E modifies "insurance plans" (i.e. illogical conclusion that insurance plans are spending less time) but D does not do so.

because in D the "spending less time with each" can be a result of the "require doctors to see more patients" ie the doctors are the ones who spend less time with each pationes since they are the ones next to the "spe4nding less time" clause.....
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2012, 12:24
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This is a bad question. You have modified D to no longer be correct. You have included a "and" after the comma which creates a clause with no noun.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2007, 11:37
Only E is the best choice.
Rest all choices illogically suggest that plans spend less time with each instead of the doctor spending less time with patients.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2007, 11:13
OlgaN wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a). imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b). imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c). that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d). that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, and spending
e). that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I see such constructions very often, but still cant crack them correctly, do you know the trick, the rule or sm else that can help in such questions? ?

pls change the (D) choice.................and should not be there

D. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

In this case............(D) is the best
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2009, 22:38
Can someone explain whats the correct usage?

OA according to the Brutal SC post is D. which I feel is wrong?

Does anyone has a better explanation ??
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2009, 12:03
IMO E

to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans THAT impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each.

THAT refers to lower-end insurance plans
pariticiple phrase - requiring.....and spending...... modifies the verb phrase impose stricter limits.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2009, 08:34
got stucked between C and D.

on one side C. parallels impose, require and spend.

On the other side, D. implies a diferent meaning for the setence. Ie the lower end insurance plan that i) impose stricter limits on medical services and ii) require doctors to see more patiants, and spending ....
Spending is modifying doctor, which seems correct but for me the problem is with "and".
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2010, 02:57
option E is clearly out....because though it seems to be parallel it is actually not.

it would be correct, if it were: requiring doctors to see more patients and to spend less time with each.

"requiring doctors to see....and spending less....." is not parallel in any way.

So D is correct.

The download available for brutal70 has incorrect question. The question discussed here and the one in the download have differing option D. I got it wrong because of that...i just realized
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2010, 03:06
calvinhobbes wrote:
aknine wrote:
I would go with option D

A and B are clearly rejected, we are left with C, D and E.
the second part of the sentence gives 2 the features of the insurance plan:
- Imposing stricter limits on medical services
- require doctors to see more patients.
because seeing more patients in less time indicates spending less time with each, we don't need to separate the two by 'and' because they invariably mean the same.
So, the 2 features are separated by 'and' and the following by a comma.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

Nice explanation.

Would A be correct if the comma in "requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend" is removed?

I don't see why "that" is required here.

Hi,

'That' is required because we are talking about the plan and its effects.
that/which should modify plan here and not the ongoing action or the subject

Therefore,
union member enroll in plans that/which impose

And not

union members enroll in plans imposing...... ==> union members are imposing
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2010, 03:06

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