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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union

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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2007, 11:18
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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

[Reveal] Spoiler:
I see such constructions very often, but still cant crack them correctly, do you know the trick, the rule or sm else that can help in such questions? ?[/quote]

It is all about parallelism and modifiers,
C or E
that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 27 Aug 2017, 02:31, edited 2 times in total.
Formatted the question.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2009, 10:06
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Hi,
here 'that impose' is better than 'imposing' as 'that' relates to the word immediately preceding it
therefore A and B are out....

now there are 3 activities

a)impose stricter limits on medical services
b) require doctors to see more patients, and
c)spend less time with each.
in these a and b are independent and c is dependent on b....

C makes all a ,b ,c independent...... E makes b and c dependent on a..
only D makes a and b independent and c dependent on b.. therefore D is the ans...
hope i have been of some help..

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2010, 08:42
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(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Spending less time with each is a modifying clause that modifies doctors.
If we use and spend/spending above meaning is lost, and the sentence assumes the below form:-
1.Investment plans impose stricter limits on medical services
2.Investment plans require doctors to see more patients
3.Investment plans spend less time with each. completely nonsensical.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2009, 00:03
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I would go with option D

A and B are clearly rejected, we are left with C, D and E.
the second part of the sentence gives 2 the features of the insurance plan:
- Imposing stricter limits on medical services
- require doctors to see more patients.
because seeing more patients in less time indicates spending less time with each, we don't need to separate the two by 'and' because they invariably mean the same.
So, the 2 features are separated by 'and' and the following by a comma.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 03:21
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Low-end Insurance plans only impose stricter limits, however it cannot command doctor to see more patients or less. All the above tells the same except for E, which says that due to stricter limits and not due to low end insurance plans, doctors have to see more patients Similarly, it is not Insurance plans that spend less time, but its the doctor who spends less time.

Hence, IMO E.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2011, 00:09
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The question is whether this sentence flaunts two equal elements or three elements in the second part. If there are three, all the three should be equated and the use of a co-ordinate conjunction is proper. However, if there are only two functions and if the other function is indeed part of the second function, then conjugating with a coordinated conjunction and is wrong. The third factor entails a sub position or a modifying role using a participle.

In the given case, there is Plans imposing or that impose 1. Stricter limits and 2. (that) require doctors to see more patients. These are the only two stipulations that the plans impose. The act of spending is a corollary of seeing more patients, meaning that the doctors have to see more patients by spending less time with each patient. Therefore, all choices that use the ordinate conjunction and to conjugate spend or spending as if it is an independent function are wrong.

As per this norm, only D survives and is the right answer.

Plans imposing or plans that impose?. Note that there is no comma before imposing. Hence imposing is a straight-ahead, essential modification of plans and is acceptable. However, plans tht impose is more direct than imposing and hence preferable.

Overall, we can see how meaning is gaining predominance over other things. Given the newfound importance to meaning, this topic promises to be a good pitch.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2011, 05:19
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OA is D.

here's the explanation by ron.
you have to realize which verbs are supposed to be parallel and which aren't. there's no grammatical formula for this; you have to examine the meaning of the sentence to figure it out.
- 'impose' (in whatever form) should be parallel to 'require' (again, in whatever form). these are two different things, both of which are aspects of the plan (= logical parallelism).
- 'spend' should not be parallel to 'see', because it functions as a modifier of 'see' (it's a descriptive adverb modifier, detailing the way in which the doctors see the patients).
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2009, 19:16
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tejal777 wrote:
Could somebody please explain why exactly is A akward??Stuck between A and D:(

I think it is a classic case of "command subjunctive". Impose and Require are BOSSY words, which always require word "that" in the sentence. A is wrong as it lacks the word "that".

Also the use of -ing participle "imposing" wrongly suggests that union/nonunion members are imposing the stricter norms than the insurance plans. One more reason to strike out A.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 19:17
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

E is wrong because it reads as if its the stricter limits on medical services that are requiring doctors to see more patients versus D, which is correct, distinguish that its the lower end insurance plans that require doctors to see more patients. I didn't get it at first after carefully reading it I was able to see where the problem lies.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 03:03
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Here's the soluton:

A quick look at the underlined part will tell you that it should qualify 'lower-end insurance plans' that just precedes the underlined clause. Now, let's take a look at the given options.

Options A and B both begin with 'imposing' suggesting that likelihood of non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans is a continuing/continous action. However, here, the 'likelihood' suggests tha the action is something that is desired i.e. it should be in the future tense. Hence, we can straight away rule out these options as incorrect as they have a tense mismatch.

Options C, D and E all begin with 'that'. Hence we need to check the rest of the clause to determine the correct answer choice. As the clause qualifies 'lower-end insurance plans', the various elements in the underlined clause should be parallel and in sync with this.
Let's look at the three elements in the clause -
- impose stricter limits
- require doctors to see more patients
- spend less time with each other

From these elements, it's clear that the 'lower-end insurance plans' can 'impose stricter limits' and 'require doctors to see more patients'. However 'lower-end insurance plans' cannot 'spend less time with each other'. Clearly, 'spending less time with each other' qualifies the doctor and patients. Using the gerund (ing form) of the verb 'spend' will make this refer to doctor and patients correctly.
Hence option D is the correct option which has the first two parts (impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients) parallel and the third part qualifying 'doctors' and 'patients' correctly.

Hope this helps!

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2012, 09:33
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Hi,

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

mohan514 wrote:
how do we make out which is // and which is not

still not clear can you make it a bit clear please????

@mohan514: In order to find out the correct parallel list in the sentence, it is very important to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

The intended logical meaning of the sentence is:
• Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than the nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans.
• These plans:
o impose stricter limits on medical services, and
o require doctors to see more patients.
• If the doctors are required to see more patients, they will spend less time with each of them.

On this understanding, the two entities that need to be parallel in the sentence are “impose” and “require”.

Error analysis:

1. The sentence here means that the plans: a) impose stricter limits on medical services and b) require doctors: i) to see more patients, and ii) spend less time with each. This is illogical. We need an answer choice that makes “impose” and “require” parallel denoting that these are the two implications of the plans and showing “spend less time” as the outcome of the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for reason discussed above.

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Same error as in A. It’s just that now “spending” is also grammatically parallel to other entities in the list. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in A. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. Verb-ing “spending” after comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence communicates the intended meaning of the sentence.

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. Here the verb-ing modifiers “requiring” and “spending” illogically modifies the preceding clause.

devinawilliam83 wrote:
Couple of questions on the structure of the sentence
- since there is no comma between plans and imposing - imposing here is modifying plans and not the whole clause?
- how do we chose between imposing and that impose (essential modifier) is there a rule of thumb
- since spending is set off by a comma is it safe to say that it is modifying the action of the doctor?

Need specific suggestions on how to decide when to use THAT and when to use -ING

In this sentence we see the use of multiple modifiers. The first two modifiers are modifying “plans” in the form of “that” clause and the verb-ing modifier “spending” is again modifying one of the modifiers in “that” clause. Since the verb-ing modifiers can either refer to the preceding clause or the preceding noun, depending upon the placement of the comma, there is no other way to write this sentence.
If the sentence did not have the “spending” portion then using two verb-ing modifiers would have been easier. So when the verb-ing modifiers are independent of each other in a parallel list then it is alright to use them one after the other. But in a case like this question, we need to be judicious in the use of modifiers to convey the intended meaning.

1. Understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence.
2. In a parallel list, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.
3. Be vary of choices that distort the original meaning of the sentence.
4. When separated with a comma, the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding clause, when not then it modifies the preceding noun.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:

1. Level 1 - Modifiers - Verb-ing (This concept features in "Level 1 Preview Concepts" that features in free trial concepts. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify & Correct
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

Hope this helps.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 17:32
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goalsnr wrote:
iamcartic wrote:
I think D is perfect - "that" is required and D corrects the modifier issue.

How do we know "that" is required or not?

in this situation you have to use "that" because if you use "imposing" then you'd be modifying the whole sentence instead of the low-end insurance plan.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 13:49
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The reason "imposing" is wrong is that the following contruction is considered WRONG:

1) preposition + noun + present participle

Eg: James jumped over the cat speeding at 30 km.

In this sentence, is "speeding" modifying "the cat" or "James"?? We have "the cat" right after the preposition "over", and then "the cat" is followed by the present participle "speeding."

In option A, this is what we have:

in lower-end insurance plans imposing

Is "imposing" modifying "lower-end insurance plans" or is it modifying "union members" or "non union members"????
The construction "preposition + noun + present participle" creates this confusion.

One more note: Unlike the past participle, the present participle doesn't have to be placed right next to the noun that it modifies. The present participle can be placed far away from it referent noun, which is why "imposing" here creates an issue because we have 3 different nouns behind it.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 19:58
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tarek99 wrote:
yeah me too. I try to find as many rules as I can. Also, when you narrow your choices to 2 answer choices and believe that you tackled the grammar issues, this is when conciseness and proper logic should be applied. Sometimes, you might get too caught up with the grammar rules that you wouldn't even read the given sentence to understand it properly. you'll be surprised how that can also help you a lot.

would someone eliminate answer choice E for me? I also chose D as my answer, but I would like a more solid explanation for eliminating answer choice E. The reason I eliminated answer choice E is that I felt that it's not logical that "medical sevices" can actually do the "spending time." Is this correct?
thanks

In D : "requiring " and " spending " modifies plans
1. It would read somethink like this - "plan requiring doctors to ...." - this makes sense
2. It would read somethink like this - "plan spending time with each...." - this makes no sense. It has a logical error because of a misplaced modifier

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2010, 09:54
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Option C - Incorrect...lower-end insurance plans that impose..., require.... and spend....you see insurance plans do not spend less time ...so this is an incorrect modification.

Option D - Best IMHO

Option E - Incorrect because....lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spend ('spending' is incorrect)... less time with ...

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2010, 18:10
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suchoudh wrote:
Ok, lets compare choices D and E.

lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
or
lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each.

How do you decide whether the participial modifier in E modifies "insurance plans" (i.e. illogical conclusion that insurance plans are spending less time) but D does not do so.

because in D the "spending less time with each" can be a result of the "require doctors to see more patients" ie the doctors are the ones who spend less time with each pationes since they are the ones next to the "spe4nding less time" clause.....

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 02:22
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If you look at the question quickly, you may notice the parallelism in answer choice C with impose, require, and spend. This is a trap answer.

If you look more closely you will notice that the lower-end insurance plans do impose and require but they do not spend. It's actually the doctors that are spending. So the parallelism is as follows:

...lower-end insurance plans that impose...and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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19 May 2008, 15:44
UMB wrote:
D

how doctors can see more patients ,of course, by spending less time with each of this patients.
C is distraction .HOw can Insurance plan or medical service can "spend" less time (B,C,E out). "Spend" in choice A seems to be parallel with "be enrolled", if so it is not what the sentence intends to say.

I can see what is wrong with each answer choice, but I am still confused as to how the last portion in D) is clearly referring to doctors:

'..lower- end insurance plans[that impose stricter limits on medical services], [requiring doctors to see more patients], and spending less time with each'

'that impose...' is referring to 'insurance plans'
'requiring doctors..' is referring to the action in the previous clause

so, how is, ',and spending less time with each' referring to doctors?
the comma is used to isolate the modifier 'requiring..' and therefore also isolate 'doctors'?
and now, the last portion now seems to refer back to 'insurance plans'???

thanks!

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 10:17
goalsnr wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a. imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b. imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c. that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
e. that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I'd go with d.

insurance plans that impose...and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

a. the list should be the first two items, because insurance plans don't spend time with patients; incorrect usage of the verbs in the list -- you need "that" + infinitives
b. list is now parallel but includes spending less time with each; incorrect usage of the verbs in the list
c. list is now parallel but includes spending less time with each
d. correct
e. list isn't parallel, among other problems

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 17:35
goalsnr wrote:
iamcartic wrote:
I think D is perfect - "that" is required and D corrects the modifier issue.

How do we know "that" is required or not?

If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union   [#permalink] 14 Jul 2008, 17:35

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