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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union

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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 06:16
Hi,
I was between "D" and "E", picked "E" and here is my reasoning. Please correct me.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

In E, "requiring doctors to see more patients" and "spending less time with each" were the cause - effect relationship of "plans that impose stricter limits on medical services"
For parallelism, I wished D would be like: "that impose stricter limits on medical services and that require doctors to see more patients, spending" but I could not find a parallel "that" structure and eliminated D.

I have two questions: First; what is wrong with my reasoning in E ?
Second; do these sentences mean the same ?
D-1: that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
D-2: that impose stricter limits on medical services and that require doctors to see more patients, spending

Thanks,
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 23:30
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

Image

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans. Now these plans do things:
a. they impose stricter limits on medical services, and
b. they require doctors to see more patients.
Now if the doctors are required to see more patients, then they will spend less time with each patient.

Image

Error Analysis:

1. The modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” correctly modify “lower-end insurance plans”, and they are parallel as well. However, “spend less time” fails to show that this action is the effect of doctors seeing more patients per the plans.
2. The only way to show this effect is by turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” to actually show the outcome.
3. This change alone however will not solve the problem because when we have comma + verb-ing modifier, it modifies the preceding clause. With the original sentence structure, the only clause we have is “union members are less likely…”. This is certainly the wrong modification.
4. Hence we need to change verb-ing modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” to “that” clauses so that maintain the parallelism as well as “spending” can correctly modify the “that” clause that talks about the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

Choice A: imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

Choice B: imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” now makes it parallel with “imposing” and “requiring”. The sentence now means that the new plans will spend less time with each patient. This is not logical.

Choice C: that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. This choice repeats the same error by making “impose”, “require”, and “spend” parallel.

Choice D: that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. The verbs "impose” and “requires” are parallel with the use of “that” clause that correctly shows what the new plans do. Verb-ing modifier “spending” now correctly modifies the preceding action "required to see", correctly showing the effect of the preceding action. The thing to note about the usage of comma + verb-ing modifier is that generally we say that this modifier modifies the preceding clause. But actually this modifier modifies the preceding action. This action may not necessarily be the verb of the preceding clause. It can be an action denoted by the "to verb" phrase. But because generally, a comma _ modifier appears after a clause, we say that it modifies the preceding clause.

In this answer choice, "spending" actually modifies the preceding action "to see" by presenting the result of this action. If doctors are required to see more patients, they will have to spend less time with each to accommodate more patients, Also, "spending" makes sense with the doer of the action denoted by "to see" that is "doctors" as the doctors will spend less time with each patient in order to see more patients.

Choice E: that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. By making “requiring” and “spending” parallel, the sentence now suggests that these two are the effects of imposing the stricter limits on medical services. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.

pavanpuneet wrote:
"So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error. "

Can some throw some light on the following concept?

-ing form goes gor adverbial clauses and not noun modifiers... I am confused at this statement, for example, working hard all the times, Joe achieved his goal, ....working...modifies noun...isnt it?

can someone explain me may in lay man terms when to use ing form and when to use that form

Thanks in advance.


Hi there,
Use of any kind of modifier is completely governed by the context of the sentence. I personally do not like to give out rules but to make it simple for you, I can suggest that use comma + verb-ing modifiers to give additional information or show the results or effects of the preceding clause.

When you need to modify a noun entity, you can either use just the verb-ing modifier or the “that” clause immediately after that noun entity.

When you have a situation like this sentence where we have two modifiers, then use “that” clause to modify the noun entity and use comma + verb-ing modifier to show the effect of the preceding clause.

In this sentence, we could only ascertain where to use which modifier only after we understood the meaning of the sentence. Hence, the key to determine the use of various modifiers is to first understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence and then decide which modifier to use depending upon the roles these modifiers play. So this means that you must have the knowledge of the roles played by various modifiers.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi!!!
In answer choice D, as per the sentence structure "Spending less time with each" is related to both "impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients".
However, as per your analysis, "Spending less time with each" should only be related to "require doctors to see more patients"
Can you please explain.
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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Apr 2019, 00:02
ggdz The problem with E is that by making "spending" parallel with "requiring," it implies that the plan is spending time with patients. Clearly, only people (in this case, doctors) can spend time with patients.


As for your two example sentences, they both work and convey more or less the same meaning. Generally, we only bother to repeat structuring words ("that," in this case) when we need to make the meaning clear. For instance, we might need to show which parts are intended to be parallel, or we might want to show that two elements are meant to be separate. Consider a few cases:


I need to eat and sleep. This seems clear to me, but if I thought someone might worry that I was eating in my sleep, I could say "and to sleep" to make it clear that these are separate activities.


She said that the position was filled and that I need to update my resume. She said two things: 1) the position is filled, 2) I need to update my resume.


She said that the position was filled and I need to update my resume. Here, I may be quoting her in the first part and expressing my own idea in the second. I learned the position was filled and now I want to update my resume. Without "that" to indicate which parts are parallel, it's not clear.
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Originally posted by DmitryFarber on 27 Apr 2019, 23:47.
Last edited by DmitryFarber on 28 Apr 2019, 00:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 23:52
sumitgoyal2727 There's no requirement that the modifier apply to both of the preceding clauses. In fact, it's not even modifying "require doctors . . . "--it's only modifying "see more patients."
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2019, 20:37
MBAhereIcome wrote:
OA is D.

here's the explanation by ron.
you have to realize which verbs are supposed to be parallel and which aren't. there's no grammatical formula for this; you have to examine the meaning of the sentence to figure it out.
- 'impose' (in whatever form) should be parallel to 'require' (again, in whatever form). these are two different things, both of which are aspects of the plan (= logical parallelism).
- 'spend' should not be parallel to 'see', because it functions as a modifier of 'see' (it's a descriptive adverb modifier, detailing the way in which the doctors see the patients).



this is great explanation from Ron. thank you for posting here.

we can eliminate choice b,c and e because "spend/spending" refers to "plan". this modification is not logic.

choice a and d are left.
using the Ron explanation above is good. this question finally come to the difference between
do 1 and do 2
do 1 , comma doing 2.

we have to solve this split, which is very popular on og and gmatprep. using meaning analysis, we have to know the two actions should be parallel or should be in adverbial relation

see more doctor, spend less time.

they can not be 2 separate action but in adverbial relation. choice d is left.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2019, 05:25
lower-end insurance plans imposing....

From this it is very clear that imposing is modifying the plan.
1 Noun, modfier ( Modifier is modifying either the subject of main clause, or complete clause.)
2. Noun modifier ( Here modifier is modifying the attached noun. )

Please tell me where I am wrong.

It is matter of comma inserted between noun and modifier.

tarek99 wrote:
The reason "imposing" is wrong is that the following contruction is considered WRONG:

1) preposition + noun + present participle

Eg: James jumped over the cat speeding at 30 km.

In this sentence, is "speeding" modifying "the cat" or "James"?? We have "the cat" right after the preposition "over", and then "the cat" is followed by the present participle "speeding."

In option A, this is what we have:

in lower-end insurance plans imposing

Is "imposing" modifying "lower-end insurance plans" or is it modifying "union members" or "non union members"????
The construction "preposition + noun + present participle" creates this confusion.

One more note: Unlike the past participle, the present participle doesn't have to be placed right next to the noun that it modifies. The present participle can be placed far away from it referent noun, which is why "imposing" here creates an issue because we have 3 different nouns behind it.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union   [#permalink] 02 Aug 2019, 05:25

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